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Encyclopedia > Ottomans
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu
Devlet-i Aliye-i Osmaniye
Ottoman Coat of Arms Small File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 19:22, 16 Mar 2004 . . The Phoenix (5113... Ottoman Coat of Arms
Ottoman Coat of Arms
Map of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power
A motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of a sociological grouping or organization. Many countries, universities, and other institutions have mottos, as do families with coats of arms. These mottos are traditionally in Latin or Romance languages, as well as in... Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra)
An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nations legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other languages as well. Officially recognized minority... Official language Ottoman Turkish
In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. It is almost always the city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting... Capital This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Suleymaniye Mosque seen from Tepebaşı (January 2005) Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is the largest city in Turkey, located in the northwest of the country where the Bosporus joins the Sea of... İstanbul ( Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye )
This article treats the generic title monarch. For the origins of the word king and its English use, see Germanic king. For other meanings of the word, see Monarch (disambiguation) A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. The word derives from Greek monos archein, meaning one... Sovereigns A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. The sultan however was not a religious teacher himself. In the Byzantine Empire and... Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty
In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. Population is studied in a wide variety of ways and disciplines. In population dynamics, size, age and sex structure, mortality, reproductive... Population ca 40 million
This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. The article area (geometry) is more mathematical. Area is a quantity expressing the size of a region of space. Surface area refers to the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object. Units Units for measuring... Area 12+ million km²
This article details the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as its days of glory in the 16th century. For the decline and fall of the empire see the Fall of the Ottoman Empire. Rise In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire... Establishment Events First emperor of the Ottoman Empire is Osman I (1299-1326) The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. Births Alfonso IV of Aragon Deaths... 1299
This article details the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire in the 17th to 20th centuries. For the rise of the empire see the Rise of the Ottoman Empire. Decline The Ottoman Empire failed to keep up technologically with its European rivals, especially Russia. It suffered a huge naval... Dissolution October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople. This unifies the two branches of the House of... October 29, 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 1 - Grouping of all UK railway companies into four larger companies January 10 - Lithuania seizes and annexes Memel January 11 - Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany... 1923
A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. It is a form of money, where money is defined as a medium of exchange rather than e.g. a store of value. A currency zone is a country or region in which a specific currency... Currency Akçe
Flag
The flag of the later Ottoman period
Part of the This article is primarily about the history of the Republic of Turkey. For other periods in history, see the links to main articles about those subjects under the heading Pre-Republic History. Main articles are written in bold. Pre-Republic History The history of Anatolia and Thrace before the Republic... History of Turkey series

The Ottoman Empire was a multi-ethnic state that existed from Events First emperor of the Ottoman Empire is Osman I (1299-1326) The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. Births Alfonso IV of Aragon Deaths... 1299 to 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 1 - Grouping of all UK railway companies into four larger companies January 10 - Lithuania seizes and annexes Memel January 11 - Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany... 1923 (624 years), one of the largest For alternative meanings, see Empire (disambiguation) An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as imperium) comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor. By extension, one could classify as... empires to rule the borders of the -1... Mediterranean Sea. At the height of its power, it included Anatolia ( Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia... Anatolia, the A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The Middle East is a... Middle East, part of Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... North Africa, and south-eastern World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europe. It was established by a tribe of For all the Turkic groups & Turkic history, see Turkic peoples The Oghuz Turks, or Oguz Turks (Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz) are regarded as one of the major branches of the Turks in history. The Oguz Turks are the ancestors of todays western Turks whose numbers are more than... Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia ( Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia... Anatolia and ruled by the Osmanli dynasty. In diplomatic circles it was often referred to as the Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. The Sublime Porte is the open court of the sultan, lead by the Grand Vizier. It got its name after the gate to the headquarters to the Grand Vizier. Later it became the... Sublime Porte or simply as the Porte, from the French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. In 1999 French was the 11th most spoken language in the world being spoken by about 77 million people (called Francophones) as a mother tongue, and... French translation of the Ottoman name Bâb-i-âlî "high gate", due to the greeting ceremony the sultan held for foreign ambassadors at the Palace Gate. This has also been interpreted as referring to the Empire's position as gateway between Europe and Asia. In its day, the Ottoman Empire was also commonly referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, though it should not be confused with the modern -1... nation-state of that name.


The Empire was founded by Osman I (in Arabic ʿUthmān, hence the name Ottoman Empire). In the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age a cooling period that resulted in lower crop yields across the world, and harsher... 16th and (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power... 17th centuries, the Ottoman Empire was among the world's most powerful political entities and the countries of Europe felt threatened by its steady advance through the The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). The region has a combined area of 550,000 km and a population of around 53 million. The countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, mainland Greece, the (Former... Balkans. At its height, it comprised an area of To help compare sizes of different areas, here is a list of areas between 10 million km² and 100 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. Areas smaller than 10 million square kilometers 10 million km² = 3,860,000 square miles. A square of... 11,955,000 km². From Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. February 3 - Capture of Cairo by the Turks. First contact of organized western merchants with China. August 15 - Portuguese merchant Fernao Pires de Andrade met Chinese officials through... 1517 onwards, the Ottoman Sultan was also the An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. It means successor, that is, successor to the prophet Muhammad. Some Orientalists wrote the... Caliph of Islam, and the Ottoman Empire was from 1517 until 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922 (or 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 7 - Great fire in London harbour January 8 - Heavy blizzards in England January 10 - British submarine L-34 sinks in the English Channel - 43 dead. January 21 - Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin... 1924) synonymous with the An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. It means successor, that is, successor to the prophet Muhammad. Some Orientalists wrote the... Caliphate, the Islamic State. In Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). July 17 - Battle of Castillon. The French under Jean Bureau utterly defeat the English under the Earl of Shrewsbury, who is killed October 19 - The French recapture... 1453, after the Ottomans The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453. This marked not only the final destruction of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the death of... captured Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople (modern This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Suleymaniye Mosque seen from Tepebaşı (January 2005) Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is the largest city in Turkey, located in the northwest of the country where the Bosporus joins the Sea of... İstanbul) from the The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. In certain specific contexts, usually referring to the centuries that marked the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it is also often referred to as the Eastern... Byzantine Empire, it became the Ottoman capital. Following Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I, during which most of its territories were captured by the In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. In general English usage, those who share a common goal and whose work toward that goal is complementary may be viewed as allies for various purposes even when no... Allies, Ottoman elites established modern The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. Until 1922, the country was the center of the Ottoman Empire. The Anatolian peninsula, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, forms the core of the country... Turkey during the The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. Part of this war which was fought against Greece... Turkish War of Independence.

Contents

History

Main article: The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I (in Arabic Uthmān, hence the name Ottoman Empire). As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire. The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched... History of the Ottoman Empire

Public domain image from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/photodraw/portraits/mohammed2.jpg Smaller version at image:mehmedii_smaller.jpg. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this...
Public domain image from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/photodraw/portraits/mohammed2.jpg Smaller version at image:mehmedii_smaller.jpg. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this... Enlarge
Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. He was also the first Ottoman ruler to claim the titles of caliph... Mehmed II (the Conqueror)

The Ottoman State originated as Categories: Stub | Ottoman Empire | Titles ... Beylik within the The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Seljuk Empire in the (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages. Events Fourth through eighth crusades... 13th century. In Events First emperor of the Ottoman Empire is Osman I (1299-1326) The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. Births Alfonso IV of Aragon Deaths... 1299, Osman I declared independence of the Ottoman Principality. Sultan Murat I Murad I (1319 (or 1326) – 1389; nick-named Hüdavendiğar, the God-like one) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. He was the son of Orhan I and the Byzantine princess Helen (Nilofer) and became the ruler following his... Murad I was the first Ottoman to claim the title of A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. The sultan however was not a religious teacher himself. In the Byzantine Empire and... sultan (king). With the capture of Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople in Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). July 17 - Battle of Castillon. The French under Jean Bureau utterly defeat the English under the Earl of Shrewsbury, who is killed October 19 - The French recapture... 1453, the state became a mighty For alternative meanings, see Empire (disambiguation) An empire (also known technically, abstractly or disparagingly as an imperium, and with powers known among Romans as imperium) comprises a set of regions locally ruled by governors, viceroys or client kings in the name of an emperor. By extension, one could classify as... empire with Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. He was also the first Ottoman ruler to claim the titles of caliph... Mehmed II as its Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). An emperor is a monarch and sovereign ruler of an empire or any other imperial realm. Emperors are generally recognised to be above kings in honour. They may obtain their position hereditarily, or by force, such as a coup... emperor. The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... Suleiman I in the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age a cooling period that resulted in lower crop yields across the world, and harsher... 16th century, when it stretched from the A satellite image showing the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf (Persian: خلیج فارس, Arabic: الخليج الفارسي) is an extension of the Gulf of Oman in between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. It is... Persian Gulf in the east to The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. It is known locally as the Country of the Magyars. National motto: (none current) historical: Regnum... Hungary in the northwest, and from The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Mişr or Maşr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in northeastern Africa. Covering an area of about 1,020,000 km², it includes the Sinai Peninsula (considered part of... Egypt in the south to the The Caucasus is a region in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. The highest peak is Elbrus (5642m). Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Modern Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan The independent nations that comprise... Caucasus in the north. The Empire was situated in the middle of East and West and interacted throughout its six century history with both the In the West, the term Eastern culture refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). Contents // Categories: Eastern culture | Stub ... East and the For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture Western Culture refers to the culture that has developed in the Western world. This culture is arguably the dominant cultural form in the modern world; it can also be said that elements of this culture have come to play... West.


During this period, the Empire vied with the emerging European Colonialism is a system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. The term also refers to a set of beliefs used to legitimize or promote this system, especially the belief that... colonial powers in the The Indian Ocean is the third-largest body of water in the world, covering about 20% of the Earths water surface. It is bounded on the north by southern Asia (the Indian subcontinent); on the west by the Arabian Peninsula and Africa; on the east by the Malay Peninsula... Indian Ocean. Fleets with soldiers and arms were sent to support A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. The word Muslim means one who submits and implies complete submission to the will of God ( Allah). Muslims believe that nature is itself Islamic, since it follows natural laws placed by God. Thus, a Muslim strives to surrender to God... Muslim rulers in Kenya (pronounced either as KEN-ya or as KEEN-ya, the former being more common and thought to be correct) is a country of eastern Africa, bordering Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and the Indian Ocean. Nairobi is its capital and largest city. National motto: Harambee (Swahili: Lets work... Kenya and Aceh (pronounced Ah-chay) is a special territory (daerah istimewa, or special autonomy) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Dutch colonists and the current Indonesian government. Since 2003, it has been the site of renewed conflict between the Indonesian military and Acehnese separatists. Relative to... Aceh and to defend the Ottoman The word slave has at least two meanings: People who are owned by others, and live to serve them without pay. See slavery. Slavey (pronounced as SLAY-vi) is a First Nations people around the Great Slave Lake. The name of the people was slaves but was changed due to... slave and External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything)...Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties... May 22... spice trade. In Aceh, the Ottomans built a fortress and supplied huge cannon. The Netherlands (disambiguation). The Netherlands ( Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands ( Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). The Netherlands is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch, located in northwestern Europe. It borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany... Dutch Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Catholic Church in the Reformation, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity, along with Catholicism and Eastern... Protestants were helped by the Ottomans against Catholic means universal or whole. Early Christians used the term to refer to the whole undivided Church. Accordingly, all Christians lay claim to the term, including Protestants, who often do not capitalize it. The Church fathers and the historic creeds used it to distinguish the mainstream body of orthodox Christian... Catholic The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino da España) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra. To the... Spain.


In the (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power... 17th century, the Ottomans were weakened both internally as well as externally by costly wars especially against Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. The name was used in the West due to... Persia, The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia and Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k.u.k. monarchy), was a dualistic state (1867–1918) in which the Kingdom of Hungary enjoyed self-government and representation in joint affairs (principally foreign relations and defence) with the western and northern lands of the Austrian Empire... Austria-Hungary. Eventually, after a defeat at the Battle of Vienna Conflict Austro-Ottoman War of 1683-1697 Date September 12, 1683 Place Vienna, Austria Result Decisive Christian victory The Battle of Vienna (as distinct from the Siege of Vienna some hundred-fifty years earlier), marked the final turning point in a 250-year struggle between the forces... Battle of Vienna, in Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. June 12 - The Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II of England is discovered September 7 - Polish-German troops arrive in Vienna to help the besieged November 1 - The British crown colony of New York is... 1683, it was clear that the Ottoman Empire was no longer the sole A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. In modern terms, this may imply an entity with a strong economy, a large population, and strong armed forces, including air power and satellite capabilities, and a huge arsenal of weapons of... superpower in Europe. Through a series of reforms, the empire continued to be one of the major political powers of Europe, eventually joining the Central Powers is a term used to refer to the Dual Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria during World War I. They are so called because they all lay between Russia in the east and France and the United Kingdom in the west. Germany and... Central Powers in Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I. The Ottoman Empire was defeated by the In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. In general English usage, those who share a common goal and whose work toward that goal is complementary may be viewed as allies for various purposes even when no... Allies during the war and its territories were colonized by the victors. After the The Turkish War of Independence is a part of the History of Turkey that spans from the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies in World War I to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. Part of this war which was fought against Greece... Turkish War of Independence ( 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 1 - Grouping of all UK railway companies into four larger companies January 10 - Lithuania seizes and annexes Memel January 11 - Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany... 1923), the The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. Until 1922, the country was the center of the Ottoman Empire. The Anatolian peninsula, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, forms the core of the country... Republic of Turkey was founded on October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor in Constantinople. This unifies the two branches of the House of... October 29, 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 1 - Grouping of all UK railway companies into four larger companies January 10 - Lithuania seizes and annexes Memel January 11 - Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany... 1923 from the remnants of the fallen empire.


State organization

Main article: The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. Even though it had a very centralized government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler, it had an effective control of its provinces and citizens, as well as its officials. The structure of power The Ottoman society... State organization of the Ottoman Empire


Ottoman state organization was based on a hierarchy with the sultan in the top and below him his A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. During the days of the Ottoman Empire the Grand Vizier played the role of a pseudo-prime minister in the Sultans... viziers, other court officials, and military commanders.


Culture

Main article: Early on as the Ottoman Turks drew out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. But, as the Ottomans moved further west and... Culture of the Ottoman Empire


During the medieval age, the Ottoman Turks had an incredibly high tolerance of alien cultures and religions, especially if compared to the Christian West. Early on the Turks drew out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe. But, as the Ottomans moved further west the Turkic leaders themselves absorbed some of the culture of the conquered people. The alien culture was gradually added to the Turks' own, creating the characteristic Ottoman culture. After the capture of Constantinopole (later dubbed Istanbul) in Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). July 17 - Battle of Castillon. The French under Jean Bureau utterly defeat the English under the Earl of Shrewsbury, who is killed October 19 - The French recapture... 1453, most churches were left intact and only Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey, June 1994 The Church of the Holy Wisdom, variously known as Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία) in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is a former Christian church, now a museum, in Istanbul, formerly Constantinople. It is... Hagia Sophia was turned into a A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. Masjid ( Arabic: مسجد - pronounced: mŭsjĭd) is the Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Malay, Hindi, Gujarati, and Marathi term for a mosque. This term is used widely throughout the Islamic world, and... mosque. The Ottoman court life in many aspects resembled ancient traditions of the Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist. Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. The name was used in the West due to... Persian Shah (in Persian: شاه), from the Old Persian word khshathra king, is the Persian term for a monarch and used by the former rulers of Persia (present-day Iran) as well as the rulers of the Persian Empire. The title roughly translates as Emperor in English as the... Shahs, but had many The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. In certain specific contexts, usually referring to the centuries that marked the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it is also often referred to as the Eastern... Byzantine and European influences. For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews of Europe, who did not have the freedom of religion in Europe that the citizens of the Ottoman Empire did.


Military

Main article: Origins The first military of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 13th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were... Military of the Ottoman Empire


The Ottoman military was a complex system of recruiting and fief-holding. In the Ottoman army, light cavalry long formed the core and they were given fiefs called timars. Cavalry used bows and short swords and made use of nomad tactics similar to those of the The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. At its height, it was arguably the largest contiguous empire in human history, stretching from southeast Asia to eastern Europe, covering more than 35 million square kilometers (13.8 million square miles). According to some sources, the empire encompassed almost... Mongol Empire. The Ottoman army was once among the most advanced fighting forces in the world, being one of the first to employ muskets. The famous The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. The force originated in the 14th century; it was abolished (and massacred) by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826. Janissary Soldiers Origin of the janissaries Bey Murad... Janissary corps provided élite troops and bodyguards for the sultan. After the 17th century, however, the Ottomans could no longer produce a modern fighting force because of a lack of reforms, mainly because of the corrupted Janissaries. The abolition of the Janissary corps in Events February 11 - University College London is founded, under the name University of London. April 1 - Samuel Morey patents the internal combustion engine. June 14-15 – The Auspicious Incident: Mahmud II, sultan of Ottoman Empire, crushes the last mutiny of janissaries in Istanbul July 26 - Last auto de fe... 1826 was not enough, and in the war against Russia, the Ottoman Empire severely lacked modern weapons and technologies.


Provinces

Main article: This article details the subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire. Provinces The Ottoman Empire was divided into provinces (vilayets, beylerbeyilik eyalets or pashaluks). As time progressed the number of provinces would vary from thirty-six a little over twenty, until many of the provinces were lost during World War I. At... Provinces of the Ottoman Empire


At the height of its power, the Ottoman Empire had 29 provinces plus three tributary principalities and Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. Geography Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania comprises the regions of Maramureş, Banat... Transsylvania, a kingdom which swore allegiance to the Porte.


Sultans

Main article: Osmanli Dynasty


The A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. The title carries moral weight and religious authority, as the rulers role was defined in the Quran. The sultan however was not a religious teacher himself. In the Byzantine Empire and... sultan, also known as the Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a title sometimes applied to to a several historic monarchs, notably the rulers of Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and the Moghul Empire. It is derived from the Persian word Padshah, which is based on the better-known title Shah. Categories: Stub | Titles ... Padishah, in Europe sometimes the Grand Turk, was the sole regent and government of the empire, at least officially. The dynasty is most often called the Osmanli or the House of Osman. The sultan enjoyed many titles such as Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. For a list of people named Khan, see List of people by name: Kh#Khan-Khay. Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. A khan controls a khanate. Whenever appropriate, it is also... Khan of Khans, and from Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. February 3 - Capture of Cairo by the Turks. First contact of organized western merchants with China. August 15 - Portuguese merchant Fernao Pires de Andrade met Chinese officials through... 1517 onwards, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the In numerous religions, including Abrahamic religions, Jah religions, Sikhism, and many forms of Paganism, a prophet is an intermediary with a deity, particularly someone who speaks for the deity or interprets the deitys will or mind. A prophet usually operates through some means of divination, channeling, or extra-sensory... Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, i.e. An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. It means successor, that is, successor to the prophet Muhammad. Some Orientalists wrote the... Caliph, which theoretically also gave him overlordship over other Muslim rulers around the world. For example, among the The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. It is a list of emperors of the Mughal empire. See also List of Indian Monarchs. The actual title of the Mughal emperor was Badshah (or, in Persian, Padshah). See Padishah. Timurid Dynasty The dynasty called... Mughal Emperors of The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... India, only Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (November 3, 1618 - March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. He is commonly considered the last of the great Mughal emperors. Aurangzeb (from Persian اورنگ‌زی... Aurangzeb had the Khutba is an Islamic sermon delivered after or before Salah. External link Lectures : Light Upon Light Categories: Islam ... Khutba read in his own name. Note that the first rulers never called themselves sultan, but rather Categories: Stub | Ottoman Empire | Titles ... bey. The sultan title was established by Sultan Murat I Murad I (1319 (or 1326) – 1389; nick-named Hüdavendiğar, the God-like one) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. He was the son of Orhan I and the Byzantine princess Helen (Nilofer) and became the ruler following his... Murad I in Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. 1334) June 15 - Former Byzantine emperor John VI Cantacuzenus October 22 - King Fernando of Portugal, with... 1383. See the article on The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. Even though it had a very centralized government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler, it had an effective control of its provinces and citizens, as well as its officials. The structure of power The Ottoman society... State organisation of the Ottoman Empire for further information on the sultan and the structure of power.

  • Osman I ( Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire was founded as an autonomous state (Beylik) in present day Bilecik, Turkey, by Osman Bey. Births Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Leicester, English nobleman (d. 1345... 1281 Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. Known as La Bella... 1326; bey)
  • Orhan I Orhan or Orkhan was the bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. Orhan conquered most of eastern Anatolia and took part of the political upheaval of the decaying Byzantine Empire by marrying Helen, the daughter of... Orhan I ( Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. Known as La Bella... 1326 Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, and her husband Louis of Bavaria are absolved from excommunication. Births October 12 - Dmitry Donskoy, Grand Prince of Moscovia and Prince of... 1359; bey)
  • Sultan Murat I Murad I (1319 (or 1326) – 1389; nick-named Hüdavendiğar, the God-like one) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. He was the son of Orhan I and the Byzantine princess Helen (Nilofer) and became the ruler following his... Murad I ( Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. Margarete Maultasch, Countess of Tyrol, and her husband Louis of Bavaria are absolved from excommunication. Births October 12 - Dmitry Donskoy, Grand Prince of Moscovia and Prince of... 1359 Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 15 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. Both the Serbian Prince Lazar and Murad I were killed in battle. Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Murad I (1359-1389) to Beyazid... 1389; Sultan from Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. 1334) June 15 - Former Byzantine emperor John VI Cantacuzenus October 22 - King Fernando of Portugal, with... 1383)
  • Beyazid I Beyazid I (ca 1354–1403; Bayezıt, nicknamed Yıldırım, the Thunderbolt) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. He ascended to the throne following the assassination of his father Murad I and immediately had his younger... Beyazid I ( Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 15 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. Both the Serbian Prince Lazar and Murad I were killed in battle. Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Murad I (1359-1389) to Beyazid... 1389 Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. Northern English nobles led by Sir Henry Hotspur Percy, defeat a Scottish raiding army under the Earl of Douglas Battle of Angora - Tamerlane defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, who is captured. Mehmed I succeeds Bayezid as Sultan. Births Deaths 1 August - Edmund... 1402)
  • Interregnum ( Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. Northern English nobles led by Sir Henry Hotspur Percy, defeat a Scottish raiding army under the Earl of Douglas Battle of Angora - Tamerlane defeats the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, who is captured. Mehmed I succeeds Bayezid as Sultan. Births Deaths 1 August - Edmund... 1402 Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. The University of St Andrews is founded. Year in topics 1413 in art Births Deaths March 20 - King Henry-IV-of-England Leader of the Lollards, Sir John Oldcastle. Hanged and burned for heresy... 1413)
  • Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioneer) (died May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was one of the sons of Beyazid I. When Timur Lenk defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara and captured Beyazid, a civil war broke out in... Mehmed I ( Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. The University of St Andrews is founded. Year in topics 1413 in art Births Deaths March 20 - King Henry-IV-of-England Leader of the Lollards, Sir John Oldcastle. Hanged and burned for heresy... 1413 Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. May 26 - Mehmed I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Murad II. November 17... 1421)
  • Murad II Murad II (1404–February 3, 1451) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). Murads reign was marked by the long war he fought against the Christians of the Balkans and the Turkish emirates in... Murad II ( Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. May 26 - Mehmed I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Murad II. November 17... 1421 Events March 1 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. Five Year Truce between England and France August 26 - Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs in the Old Zürich War. Charles VII of France, seeking to send away troublesome troops made... 1444) ( Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (d. 1510) Philippe Desportes Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg Johann von Dalberg Albert Brudzewski Giuloano di Sangallo Comines Hayne van Ghizeghem, Flemish-Burgundian composer Gaspar van... 1445 Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... 1451)
  • Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. He was also the first Ottoman ruler to claim the titles of caliph... Mehmed II (the Conqueror) ( Events March 1 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. Five Year Truce between England and France August 26 - Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs in the Old Zürich War. Charles VII of France, seeking to send away troublesome troops made... 1444 Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (d. 1510) Philippe Desportes Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg Johann von Dalberg Albert Brudzewski Giuloano di Sangallo Comines Hayne van Ghizeghem, Flemish-Burgundian composer Gaspar van... 1445, Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... 1451 Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... 1481)
  • Sultan Beyazid II Beyazid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. Bayezid was born in Demotika in Thrace. The son of Mehmed II the Conqueror, Bayezid ascended the Ottoman throne in 1481. Like his father, Bayezid was a patron... Beyazid II ( Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... 1481 Events April 11 - Battle of Ravenna. French forces under Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours defeat the Spanish under Raymond of Cardona, but Gaston is killed in the pursuit. November 1 - The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti, is exhibited to the public for the first time... 1512)
  • Selim I Selim I (1465 – September 22, 1520; also known as the Grim, nicknamed Yavuz, the Brave in Turkish) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. He succeeded in 1512 his father Beyazid II, whom he dethroned, and whose death followed immediately afterwards. He signalled... Selim I ( Events April 11 - Battle of Ravenna. French forces under Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours defeat the Spanish under Raymond of Cardona, but Gaston is killed in the pursuit. November 1 - The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo Buonarroti, is exhibited to the public for the first time... 1512 Events January 18 - King Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde. June - Moctezuma II, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan is declared deposed due to his captivity by conquistador Hernán Cortés. His brother Cuitláhuac rises to the throne. June 7 - Field of Cloth of Gold. Famous meeting between King... 1520; Caliph from 1517)
  • Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... Suleiman I (the Magnificent) ( Events January 18 - King Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde. June - Moctezuma II, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan is declared deposed due to his captivity by conquistador Hernán Cortés. His brother Cuitláhuac rises to the throne. June 7 - Field of Cloth of Gold. Famous meeting between King... 1520 Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. The first bridge crossing the Neretva river at Mostar (in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina) is... 1566)
  • Selim II Selim II (May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. He was a son of Suleiman the Magnificent and his favourite Aleksandra Lisowska (also Hurrem or Roxelana). He was the first sultan entirely devoid of military virtues... Selim II ( Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. The first bridge crossing the Neretva river at Mostar (in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina) is... 1566 Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. Spanish forces under Sancho de Avila defeat the rebel forces of Louis of Nassau. Louis is killed. May 30 - On the death of King Charles IX of France, he is succeeded by his brother King Henry of Poland, who becomes King Henry III. His... 1574)
  • Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. He was the eldest son of Selim II, and succeeded his father. His accession marks the definite beginning of the decline of the Ottoman power, which had... Murad III ( Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. Spanish forces under Sancho de Avila defeat the rebel forces of Louis of Nassau. Louis is killed. May 30 - On the death of King Charles IX of France, he is succeeded by his brother King Henry of Poland, who becomes King Henry III. His... 1574 Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time June 9 - Battle of Fontaine-Française. Henry IV of France defeats the Spanish, but is nearly killed due to his rashness. October 28 - Battle of Guirgevo. Transylvanian forces under Sigismund Bathory, allied to the... 1595)
  • Mehmed III Mehmed III (May 26, 1566 – December 22, 1603) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death. He remains notorious even in Ottoman history for having his sixteen brothers strangled upon his succession. Mehmed was an idle ruler, leaving government to his mother (the... Mehmed III ( Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time June 9 - Battle of Fontaine-Française. Henry IV of France defeats the Spanish, but is nearly killed due to his rashness. October 28 - Battle of Guirgevo. Transylvanian forces under Sigismund Bathory, allied to the... 1595 Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. July... 1603)
  • Sultan Ahmed I Ahmed I (April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death. He succeeded his father Mehmed III in Hungary and in Persia terminated unfavourably for the Empire, and her prestige received its first check in the Treaty... Ahmed I ( Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. July... 1603 Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). Francesco Andreinis The Penitent Magdalene is published. February 27 - Peace is reached between Sweden with the Treaty of Stolbovo, ending the Ingrian War. Sweden gains Ingermanland and Karelia. Births January 6... 1617)
  • Mustafa I Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. The brother of Ahmed I, Mustafa was reported to be mentally retarded or at least neurotic and was never more than a tool of court... Mustafa I ( Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). Francesco Andreinis The Penitent Magdalene is published. February 27 - Peace is reached between Sweden with the Treaty of Stolbovo, ending the Ingrian War. Sweden gains Ingermanland and Karelia. Births January 6... 1617 Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). The margraves of Brandenburg is granted Polish approval to inherit Ducal Prussia. The Synod of Dort is convened. Change of... 1618)
  • Osman II ( Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). The margraves of Brandenburg is granted Polish approval to inherit Ducal Prussia. The Synod of Dort is convened. Change of... 1618 Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. February 8 - King James I of England disbands the English Parliament. March 22 - In the Jamestown massacre, Algonquian Indians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia (1/3... 1622)
  • Mustafa I Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. The brother of Ahmed I, Mustafa was reported to be mentally retarded or at least neurotic and was never more than a tool of court... Mustafa I ( Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. February 8 - King James I of England disbands the English Parliament. March 22 - In the Jamestown massacre, Algonquian Indians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia (1/3... 1622 Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman II (1618-1622) to Murat IV (1623-1640). The Safavids recapture Baghdad. England first colonizes Saint Kitts and Nevis. Wilhelm Schickard invents his Calculating Clock, and early mechanical calculator. Procopius... 1623)
  • Sultan Murad IV Murad IV (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, Murad was... Murad IV ( Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman II (1618-1622) to Murat IV (1623-1640). The Safavids recapture Baghdad. England first colonizes Saint Kitts and Nevis. Wilhelm Schickard invents his Calculating Clock, and early mechanical calculator. Procopius... 1623 Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. Spain does not recognize the indepedence before 1668 Charles I summons and rapidly dismisses the Short Parliament in an attempt to fund the second of the Bishops Wars. November: The English Long Parliament... 1640)
  • Sultan Ibrahim I Ibrahim I (November 5, 1615 – August 12, 1648) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640–1648. One of the most famous Ottoman Sultans as Ibrahim the Mad. He succeeded his brother Murad IV in 1640. Inheriting all the cruelty and none of the... Ibrahim I ( Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. Spain does not recognize the indepedence before 1668 Charles I summons and rapidly dismisses the Short Parliament in an attempt to fund the second of the Bishops Wars. November: The English Long Parliament... 1640 Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. The Dutch and the Spanish sign the Treaty of Munster, ending the Eighty Years War. The Spanish Empire recognizes the Dutch Republic of United Netherlands as a sovereign state, (governed by the House of Orange-Nassau and the Estates... 1648)
  • Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (January 2, 1642—1693), also known as Dördüncü(fourth) and Avci(hunter), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. He was the son of Ibrahim I. Known as Avci, the hunter, outdoor exercise took up much of the... Mehmed IV ( Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. The Dutch and the Spanish sign the Treaty of Munster, ending the Eighty Years War. The Spanish Empire recognizes the Dutch Republic of United Netherlands as a sovereign state, (governed by the House of Orange-Nassau and the Estates... 1648 Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. July 5 - Isaac Newtons Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published. December 31 - The first France to the Cape of Good Hope. King James II of England... 1687)
  • Suleiman II (April 15, 1642 – 1691) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. The younger brother of Mehmed IV, Suleiman had spent most of his life in the kafes (cage), a kind of luxurious prison for princes of the blood within the Topkapi Palace (it... Suleiman II ( Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. July 5 - Isaac Newtons Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published. December 31 - The first France to the Cape of Good Hope. King James II of England... 1687 Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender Treaty of Limerick penalizes public worship of catholics and Presbyterians Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Suleiman II... 1691)
  • Sultan Ahmed II Ahmed II (February 25, 1643 – 1695) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Ahmed was the son of Sultan Ibrahim I and succeeded his brother Suleiman II in 1691. His best known act was to confirm Mustafa Köprülü as grand vizier. Only a few... Ahmed II ( Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender Treaty of Limerick penalizes public worship of catholics and Presbyterians Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Suleiman II... 1691 Events July 17- The Bank of Scotland is founded by an Act of Parliament of the old Scottish Parliament. December 31 - A window tax is imposed in England causing many shopkeepers to brick up their windows to avoid the tax. Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed II... 1695)
  • Sultan Mustafa II Mustafa II (February 6, 1664 – December 28, 1703) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703. He was a son of sultan Mehmed IV and abdicated in favor of his brother Ahmed III in 1703. Mustafa sought to turn back the Austrian advance... Mustafa II ( Events July 17- The Bank of Scotland is founded by an Act of Parliament of the old Scottish Parliament. December 31 - A window tax is imposed in England causing many shopkeepers to brick up their windows to avoid the tax. Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed II... 1695 Events February 2 – Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Italy May 27 – Founding of St Petersburg May 26 – Portugal joins Great Alliance July 29-31 - Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the... 1703)
  • Sultan Ahmed III Ahmed III (December 30, 1637 – 1736) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of sultan Mehmed IV. He succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II. Ahmed cultivated good relations with England, in view doubtless of Russia... Ahmed III ( Events February 2 – Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Italy May 27 – Founding of St Petersburg May 26 – Portugal joins Great Alliance July 29-31 - Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the... 1703 Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births July 12 - Josiah Wedgwood, potter (died 1795) July 26 - Charles Messier, astronomer (died 1817) November 23 - William... 1730)
  • Sultan Mahmud I Mahmud I (August 2, 1696 – December 13, 1754) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1730 to 1754. Brought to the throne by the revolt of Halil Pasha, Mahmud swiftly asserted himself by winning over the Janissaries and having Halil Pasha murdered. The rest of... Mahmud I ( Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births July 12 - Josiah Wedgwood, potter (died 1795) July 26 - Charles Messier, astronomer (died 1817) November 23 - William... 1730 Events June 19 - The Albany Convention of New England Colonies proposes an American Union Duke of Saxony takes the Colditz Castle to his own use Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Mahmud I (1730-1754) to Osman III (1754-1757) Beginning of the French and Indian War in... 1754)
  • Osman III ( Events June 19 - The Albany Convention of New England Colonies proposes an American Union Duke of Saxony takes the Colditz Castle to his own use Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Mahmud I (1730-1754) to Osman III (1754-1757) Beginning of the French and Indian War in... 1754 Events March 14 - On-board the HMS Monarch, Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for neglecting his duty. June 23 - Indian Mutiny: Battle of Plassey - 3000 British troops under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000 strong Indian army under Siraj-ud-Dawlah at Plassey. Change of emperor of... 1757)
  • Sultan Mustafa III Mustafa III (January 28, 1717 – January 21, 1774) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1757 to 1774. He was a son of sultan Ahmed III and was succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid I in 1774. An energetic and perceptive ruler, Mustafa sought... Mustafa III ( Events March 14 - On-board the HMS Monarch, Admiral John Byng is executed by firing squad for neglecting his duty. June 23 - Indian Mutiny: Battle of Plassey - 3000 British troops under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000 strong Indian army under Siraj-ud-Dawlah at Plassey. Change of emperor of... 1757 Events January 21 - Mustafa III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid I. May 10 - Louis XVI becomes King of France. June 2 - Intolerable Acts: The Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to let British soldiers into their homes, is reenacted. July 21... 1774)
  • Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was a son of sultan Ahmed III and succeeded his brother Mustafa III on January 21, 1774. His... Abd-ul-Hamid I ( Events January 21 - Mustafa III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid I. May 10 - Louis XVI becomes King of France. June 2 - Intolerable Acts: The Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to let British soldiers into their homes, is reenacted. July 21... 1774 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - First nationwide United States election January 21 - The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth, is printed in Boston, Massachusetts January 23 - Georgetown College becomes the first... 1789)
  • Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). He was a son of Mustafa III and succeeded his uncle Abd-ul-Hamid I. The talents and energy with which he was endowed had endeared him... Selim III ( 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - First nationwide United States election January 21 - The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth, is printed in Boston, Massachusetts January 23 - Georgetown College becomes the first... 1789 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events February - Napoleon attacks Russia February 6 - Naval Engagement February 8 - Battle of Eylau - Napoleon defeats Russians under General Benigssen February 19 - In Alabama, Former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is arrested for treason. March... 1807)
  • Sultan Mustafa IV Mustafa IV (September 8, 1779 – November 15, 1808) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808. His father was Abd-ul-Hamid I. During the reign of the reformist Selim III, Mustafa was looked upon favorably by the sultan. However, when a janissary... Mustafa IV ( 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events February - Napoleon attacks Russia February 6 - Naval Engagement February 8 - Battle of Eylau - Napoleon defeats Russians under General Benigssen February 19 - In Alabama, Former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is arrested for treason. March... 1807 Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. March 26 - Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII April 6 - John Jacob Astor incorporates the American Fur Company. May 2 - Peninsular War: The... 1808)
  • Sultan Mahmud II Mahmud II (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death. In 1808, Mahmuds brother and predecessor, Mustafa IV ordered his execution along with that of his brother, the deposed Sultan Selim III, in order to... Mahmud II ( Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. March 26 - Charles IV of Spain abdicates in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII April 6 - John Jacob Astor incorporates the American Fur Company. May 2 - Peninsular War: The... 1808 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January 9 - The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process. January 19 - British East India Company captures Aden January 20 - In the Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats a Peruvian and Bolivian alliance. February 24 - William... 1839)
  • Sultan Abdul Mejid I Abd-ul-Mejid (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. Mahmud appears to have been unable to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating his children... Abd-ul-Mejid ( 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January 9 - The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process. January 19 - British East India Company captures Aden January 20 - In the Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats a Peruvian and Bolivian alliance. February 24 - William... 1839 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. Events January January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by Wilhelm I January 3 - American Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States January 9 - Mississippi... 1861)
  • Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abd_ul_Mejid in 1861. His personal interference in government affairs was not very marked... Abd-ul-Aziz ( 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. Events January January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by Wilhelm I January 3 - American Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States January 9 - Mississippi... 1861 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. Events January January 31 United States orders all Native Americans to move into reservations. February February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. February 14 - Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone... 1876)
  • Sultan Murad V Sultan Mehmed Murad V (September 21, 1840 – August 29, 1904) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from May 30, 1876 to August 31 of the same year. Son of Sultan Abdul Mejid, he was placed in power after his uncle Sultan Abdul Aziz... Murad V ( 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. Events January January 31 United States orders all Native Americans to move into reservations. February February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. February 14 - Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone... 1876)
  • Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd_ul_Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid, Abd al_Hamid II, or Abdul_Hamid (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. He was the son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, and succeeded to the... Abd-ul-Hamid II ( 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. Events January January 31 United States orders all Native Americans to move into reservations. February February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. February 14 - Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone... 1876 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events January – March January 16 - Ernest Shackletons expedition finds the magnetic South Pole. January 28 - United States troops leave Cuba after being there since the Spanish-American War. February 12 - The National Association for the Advancement... 1909)
  • Categories: People stubs | Sultans of the Ottoman Empire | 1844 births | 1918 deaths ... Mehmed V (Reşad) ( 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events January – March January 16 - Ernest Shackletons expedition finds the magnetic South Pole. January 28 - United States troops leave Cuba after being there since the Spanish-American War. February 12 - The National Association for the Advancement... 1909 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918)
  • Sultan Mehmed VI Mehmed VI, original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. The brother of Mehmed V Resad, he succeeded to the throne due to the suicide of Yusuf Izzetin... Mehmed VI (Vahideddin) ( 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922)

Note: Although Abd-ul-Mejid II (lived May 29, 1868 – August 23, 1944, reigned November 19, 1922 – March 3, 1924). He was the last Caliph of the Ottoman Empire and nominally the 37th and last Head of the Imperial House of Osman I. On May 29, 1868 he was born... Abdul Mejid II was chosen as An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. It means successor, that is, successor to the prophet Muhammad. Some Orientalists wrote the... caliph in 1922, he was not a sultan, as the National Assembly had abolished the sultanate. The caliphate was abolished in turn in 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 7 - Great fire in London harbour January 8 - Heavy blizzards in England January 10 - British submarine L-34 sinks in the English Channel - 43 dead. January 21 - Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin... 1924.


External links

  • Ottoman Web Site (http://www.osmanli700.gen.tr/english/engindex.html) - Site with a lot of information on the Ottomans
  • Everything About Ottoman Empire (http://www.osmanlimedeniyeti.com) - Everything about the history and culture of Ottoman Empire (in Turkish)
  • Royal Ark: Turkey (http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Turkey/turkey.htm) - Extensive site with a lot of detailed information
  • World Civilizations: The Ottomans (http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/OTTOMAN/OTTOMAN1.HTM) - Comprehensible site that covers much about the state and government
  • The Ottomans (http://www.theottomans.org) - Good site that covers various aspects of the Ottoman Empire in detail

See also

  • Current political map of the Balkans. Countries firmly considered part of the region are in green. Countries sometimes associated with the Balkans are in blue. The Balkans is an area of southeastern Europe situated at a major crossroads between mainland Europe and the Near East. The distinct identity and fragmentation... History of the Balkans

References

  • Barbara Jelavich, History of the The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and a population of around 53 million. The countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, mainland Greece, the (Former Yugoslav) Republic of... Balkans, (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. Historians will sometimes specifically refer to the 18th century as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death... Eighteenth and Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... Nineteenth Centuries, Cambridge University Press, 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 1 - Beat Raaflaub became Basel Boys Choirs new conductor January 1 - the ARPANET officially changes to use the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet. January 1 - compulsory wearing... 1983. ISBN 0521252490. See "Balkan Christians under Ottoman Rule", pages 39-126.
  • Colin Imber, The Ottoman Empire, Events Beginning of the Renaissance. Abacus first used in China. Money from Florence, Italy becomes the first International Currency. Philip IV of France begins attempt to annex Flanders. Wenceslas II of Bohemia becomes King of Poland. Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. The Tuareg establish a state centered on Agadez. Births... 1300 Events June 23 - Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler. August 23 - Colonel George Monck forms Moncks Regiment of Foot, forerunner of Coldstream Guards November 4 - William III of Orange becomes Prince... 1650: The Structure of Power, 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated: International Year of Ecotourism and Mountains National Science Year in the United Kingdom Autism Awareness Year in the United Kingdom Events January Euro banknotes in circulation throughout the twelve countries of the European Union that... 2002. ISBN 0333613864.
  • Gülru Necipo Architecture, Ceremonial, and Power: The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish), located in Istanbul (Constantinople), was the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1465 to 1853. The construction of the Topkapi Palace was ordered by Sultan Mehmed II in 1459. It was completed in 1465. The palace is located on the... Topkapi Palace in the (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. Events Renaissance affects philosophy, science and art. The New Monarchs come to power in France, England, Portugal and Spain. Rise of... Fifteenth and (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age a cooling period that resulted in lower crop yields across the world, and harsher... Sixteenth Centuries, 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991. ISBN 0262140500.
  • Ottomans - Turkish dynasty. (http://www.islamicarchitecture.org/dynasties/ottomans.html)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5800 words)
The Ottoman Empire was established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks, or the remains of Seljuk Turks, in western Anatolia and was ruled by the Osmanlı dynasty, the descendants of those Turks.
Ottomans claimed that the source of the inter-ethnic conflicts should be sought within their dynamics and the sources that were supporting the conflicts with hidden goals, more than the policies of the state.
The Ottomans were eventually defeated at the end of the war by the Allies, due to key attacks by British General Edmund Allenby, assistance from the Arab Revolt, and assistance from Republic of Armenia.
The Ottoman state and government - All About Turkey (2014 words)
The central function of the ruler or Sultan in Ottoman political theory was to guarantee justice (adalet) in the land.
The Ottomans claimed this title for several reasons: the two major holy sites, Mecca and Medina, were part of the Empire, and the primary goal of the government was the security of Muslims around the world, particularly the security of the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Ottomans believed that simple succession proved that the Sultan was worthy of the crown; however, the Sultan may grow old, feeble, or corrupt and thus lose his worthiness to serve as Sultan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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