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Encyclopedia > Ottoman wars in Europe
Sipahi - Akinci - Timariot - Janissary
- Nizam-ı Cedid
Navy - Air Force
Conflicts: Europe - Russian - Near East - Sieges and Landings
See also: Reform - Naval treaties - Kaptan Pashas

The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Akıncı was the light cavalry division of the Ottoman Army. ... A timariot (or timar holder; timarlu in Turkish) was an irregular cavalryman that served the Ottoman sultan and in return was granted a fief called a timar. ... The Janissaries (derives from Ottoman Turkish: يكيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The Nizam-ı Cedid (from Arabic Niẓām jadīd via Persian Nizām-e jadīd - New Order) was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire sultan Selim III during the late eighteenth century in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. ... This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Graphical timeline Ottoman wars in Near East covers the Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Cacuses. ... The following is an List of Ottoman sieges and landings from the 14th century to World War I. // Main article: Rise of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Growth of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire Barbary pirates Ottoman wars... When Selim III came to the throne in 1789 an ambitious effort of military reform was launched, geared towards securing the Ottoman Empire. ... There were 21 naval collaboration treaties of the Ottoman Empire. ... Below is the list of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas between 1401 and 1867. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Rise (1299–1453)

See also: Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Military &
Political History
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Time Span 154 years
# Sultans 8
Soc-Econ Enlargement
See also
Graphical timeline

After striking a blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire in 1356 (it is disputed that the year may have been 1358 due to a change in the Byzantine calendar), (see Suleyman Pasha) which provided it a basis for operations in Europe, The Ottoman Empire started its westward expansion into the European continent in the middle of the 14th century. Its first significant opponent was the young Serbian Empire, which was worn down by a series of campaigns, notably in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which the leaders of both armies were killed, and which gained a central role in Serbian folklore as an epic battle and beginning of bad luck for Serbia. The Ottoman Empire proceeded to conquer the lands of the Second Bulgarian Empire - the Southern half (Thrace) in 1371 (Battle of Maritsa), Sofia in 1382, the then capital Tarnovgrad in 1393, the northern rest after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, except Vidin, which fell in 1422; Albania in 1385 (Battle of Savra) and again in 1480; Constantinople in 1453 after the Battle of Varna and Second Battle of Kosovo; Greece in 1460; Serbia by 1459 and (after partial Hungarian reconquest in 1480) again by 1499; Bosnia in 1463 (the Northwestern part only by 1527) and Herzegovina in 1482.[1][2] In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article covers the sociopolical structure of Ottoman Empire. ... Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Suleyman Pasha was the eldest son of Orhan I. Assault on Byzantia Suleyman Pasha struck a bold blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire on behalf of his race, which gave the Turks a permanent establishment on the European side of the Hellespont. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Extremely high; Sultan Murad I killed Extremely high; most of Serbian nobility including Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic killed... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... The Battle of Maritsa was a battle that took place at the Maritsa River on September 26, 1371 between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Murad Is lieutenant LalaÅŸahin and a coalition of Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian forces numbering 70,000 men under the command of the Serbian... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Veliko Turnovo(Cyrillic: Велико Търново, Great Turnovo) is a city of approximately 65,000 people in North-central Bulgaria, 240km north-east of Sofia. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, France, Wallachia, Poland, England, Kingdom of Scotland, Old Swiss Confederacy, Republic of Venice, Republic of Genoa, Knights of St. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Year 1385 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Ottoman Turks Albania Commanders Hayreddin Pasha Balsha II † The Battle of Savra (Savra field, Albania) was fought in 1385 between Ottoman and Albanian forces. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Poland † Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength ~ 20,000 ~ 60,000[1][2] Casualties ~ 11,000 ~ 8,000 The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ... In the second Battle of Kosovo in 1448, the Hungarian Catholic coalition under John Hunyadi was defeated by the Ottoman Turkish-led coalition under Murad II. The battle was fought between October 7th and 10th in the Kosovo Field (Kosovo Polje). ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... This article is about the geographic area of Herzegovina. ... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ...


Growth (1453–1683)

See also: Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Military &
Political History
Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Time Span 230 years
# Sultans 11
Soc-Econ Enlargement
See also
Graphical timeline

The defeat in 1456 at the Siege of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year (1480-1481) the Italian port of Otranto was taken, and in 1493 the Ottoman army successfully raided Croatia and Styria.[3] This article is in need of attention. ... Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article covers the sociopolical structure of Ottoman Empire. ... Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman sultan Mehmed II was rallying his resources in order to subjugate Hungary. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Aragon Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Gedik Ahmed Pasha Francesco Largo † Alphonso II of Naples Strength Between 18,000 and 100,000 men. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian Å tajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. ...


Albanian Resistance

The Ottomans faced fierce resistance from Albanian highlanders who gathered around their leader, Skanderbeg (Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg), the offspring of a feudal nobleman, and managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 30 years. The Albanian struggle was one of the two remaining bastions of anti-Ottoman resistance in Eastern Europe after the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. It has been argued that their resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. Sultan Mehmet II died in 1481, merely two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance and one year after he launched the Italian campaign. Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... Scanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Kruje, Albania Gjergj Kastrioti (George Kastrioti) (1405, Kruja - January 17, 1468, Lezha), better known as Skanderbeg, is the most prominent figure in the history of Albania. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Extremely high; Sultan Murad I killed Extremely high; most of Serbian nobility including Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic killed... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


Occupation of Hungary

The Kingdom of Hungary, which at the time spanned the area from Croatia in the west to Transylvania in the east, was also gravely impacted by Ottoman conquest. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either occupied or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish Occupation, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 1600s but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were occupied from 1421 and until 1718.) This article is about the region in Romania. ... The Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) were a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Suleiman I Louis II of Hungary † Pál Tomori † György Zápolya Strength ~ 100,000 supported by 10,000 to 20,000 irregulars 160 to 300 cannons ~ 25,000 to 28,000 53 cannons (85 initial) John Zápolyas 8,000... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


1423-1503: Wars with Venice

The Ottoman Empire started sea campaigns as early as 1423, when it waged a seven year war with the Venetian Republic over maritime control of the Aegean Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The wars with Venice resumed in 1463 until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479. In 1480 (now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet) the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto.[4] War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500 a Spanish-Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... The Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Events January 5 - Poet Francois Villon is banned from Paris Births January 17 - Frederick III, Elector of Saxony (died 1525) February 24 - Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Italian philosopher (died 1494) October 20 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher (died 1512) Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, Italian patron of the arts (died 1503... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Rhodes is the easternmost island of Greece, located 11 miles west of Turkey. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Aragon Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Gedik Ahmed Pasha Francesco Largo † Alphonso II of Naples Strength Between 18,000 and 100,000 men. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Spanish military leader of the 17th century, see Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (1585-1635). ... The island of Kefalonia, also known as Cephallenia, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia (Ancient Greek: Κεφαλληνία; Modern Greek: Κεφαλλονιά or Κεφαλονιά; Italian: Cefalonia), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece, with an area of 350 sq. ...


1462-1483: European campaigns

In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at the Night Attack; but the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad's success in battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. He defeated Ottoman Forces and he gained the first victory against the Ottoman Empire. Upon this victory, Ottoman Forces entered Bogdan in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II. During the war, Vlad was killed and according to some sources his head was sent to Constantinople to discourage the other rebellions. Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ... Combatants Wallachia Ottoman Empire Commanders Vlad III Dracula Mehmed II Strength up to 30,000 Up to 90,000 Casualties 5,000 15,000 The Night Attack (Romanian: Atacul de noapte) was a skirmish fought between Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia and Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás in Hungarian), (February 23, 1443 (?) - April 6, 1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling between 1458 and 1490. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... Events March 2 - Battle of Grandson. ...


In 1482, Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman Lands. Bosnians did not complain about being under Ottoman Sovereignty because there was already a sect conflict going in Bosnia and also Mehmed II did not force Bosnians to convert to Islam. Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


1526-1566: Attack on Habsburg Empire

After the Mohács, only the southwestern part of the Hungarian Kingdom was actually conquered,[5] but the Ottoman campaign continued with small campaigns and major summer invasions (troops returned south of the Balkan Mountains before winter) through the land between 1526 and 1556. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (with up to 300,000 troops in earlier accounts, 100,000 according to newer research[attribution needed]), attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (Siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle.[6] The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian Å tajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. ...


In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital (Székesfehérvár) and the ex-seat of the cardinal (Esztergom). However, the army of 35-40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs. For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ...


In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles) which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion — hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore - most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men[7]), and the Siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, but in poor shape and without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies (150,000 troops by earlier accounts, 60-75,000 men according to newer research[attribution needed]), which were unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596). Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western font, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár. Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Hungarian defenders Commanders Ahmed Pasha and Ali Pasha István Dobó Strength Between 150,000 and 200,000[1] Approx 2,100, including civilians[2] The 1552 Siege of Eger occurred during the 16th Century Ottoman Wars in Europe It was a major Austrian victory after a... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Szigetvár (Croatian: , Serbian: or Sigetvar) is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary. ...


The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 Battle of Szigetvar, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year's push for Vienna. The Battle of Szigetvar was a monumental battle in the small fort of Szigetvár in Hungary in 1566 between the defending forces of the Kingdom of Hungary under the leadership of Croatian ban Miklós Zrinyi, and the invading army of the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. ...


1522-1573: Rhodes and Holy League

Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522 (see Siege of Rhodes).[8] The Knights of Rhodes were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565. The Ottomans failed to conquer it though and were repulsed. Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος Rhódhos; Italian Rodi; [[Ladino language| ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, situated in eastern Aegean Sea. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Commanders Suleiman the Magnificent Mustafa Pasha Philippe Villiers de LIsle-Adam Strength 110,000 soldiers 10,000 janissaries 60,000 slaves 400 ships 600 knights 4,500 soldiers citizens Casualties 50,000 Unknown The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ...


Ottoman naval victories; Battle of Preveza (1538), Battle of Djerba (1560). The naval Battle of Preveza took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwest Greece and was an important victory for an Ottoman fleet commanded by Khair ad Din (Barbarossa) over a Spanish-Venetian fleet commanded by the great Genoese admiral Andrea Doria fleet despite the allies having a... // Combatants Christian Alliance: Spain Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Giovanni Andrea Doria Piyale Pasha Turgut Reis Strength 50-60 galleys 40 other vessels 12,000-14,000 soldiers 90 galleys 30 galliots 20,000 soldiers Casualties 30 galleys...


The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570-1573, ended with the Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Lepanto (1571), but occupation of Cyprus from 1570. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain and initially Portugal opposed the Ottoman Empire during this period. // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... The Holy League was formed between several Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean in 1571 in attempt to break Ottoman Turks control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ...


1593-1669: Austria and Venice

Turkish Empire, drawn by Hondius, just at the end of the Long War, 1606

Long War (15-Year War with Austria, 1593-1606) ends with status quo. War with Venice 1645-1669 and the conquest of Crete (see Siege of Candia). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 777 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1962 × 1515 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 777 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1962 × 1515 pixel, file size: 1. ... Jodocus Hondius on an engraving of the year 1619 Jodocus Hondius (1563-1611), sometimes called Jodocus Hondius the Elder to distinguish him from his son) was a Flemish artist, engraver, and cartographer. ... The Long War or Fifteen Years War (July 29, 1593 - 1604/November 11, 1606) was one of the numerous wars between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire that took place after the Battle of Mohács. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Siege of Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete) (1647-1669) was possibly the longest siege in history. ...


1657-1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs

In 1657, Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom that after 1526 gained semi-independence while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, felt strong enough to attack the Tatars (then the Empire's vassals) to the East, and later the Ottoman Empire that came to the Tatar's defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control (marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom). At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria 1663-1664. However, the Turks were defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on August 1, 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli. forcing them to enter the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, which held until 1683.[9] Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... // Combatants Austria, Holy Roman Empire, League of the Rhine, France Ottoman Empire Commanders Raimondo Montecuccoli, Leopold Wilhelm of Baden-Baden, Count Coligny Ahmed Köprülü Strength ~ 40,000 including Imperial and French troops [1] ~ 60,000 Casualties Minimal 10,000 The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Hungarian: ) was fought on... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Raimondo, Count of Montecuccoli or Montecucculi (born February 21, 1608 or 1609 at the castle of Montecucculo in Modena; died October 16, 1680 at Linz) was prince of the holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan duke of Melfi, Austrian general. ... The Peace of Vasvár was a treaty between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire which followed the Battle of Saint Gotthard of August 1, 1664. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...


1672-1676: Poland

See: Polish-Ottoman War (1672-1676).

A year after Poland beat back a Tatar invasion, war with Poland 1672-1676, Jan Sobieski distinguishes himself and becomes the King of Poland. Polish-Ottoman War (1672–1676) was a war between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. ... The Tatars invade; details from the Képes Krónika (Chronicon Pictum) The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period. ... Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696) (also known in English literature as John Sobieski) was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death. ...


1683-1699: Great Turkish War–re-conquest of Hungary

The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force (140,000)[10] marching on Vienna, supported by Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, a coalition, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire. After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand, and conducted the re-conquest of Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam.) This war ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Prince Eugene of Savoy first distinguished himself in 1683 and remained the most important Austrian commander until 1718.[11][12] The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... During the course of the Ottoman wars in Europe, the War of the Holy League (1682 - 1699) was marked by the rise of a new Holy League initiated by Pope Innocent XI and composed of the Holy Roman Empire (headed by Habsburg Austria), the Venetian Republic and Poland in 1684... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Pest (in Slovak Pe&#353;&#357;, pron. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...


During the Venetian attack on the city of Athens (1687) (occupied by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored in it and partially destroying it. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ...


Stagnation (1699–1827)

See also: Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
Military &
Political History
Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
Time Span 133 years
# Sultans 11
Soc-Econ
See also
Graphical timeline

The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ...

1700s

Second war with the Russians 1710-1711 near Prut. The Russians were severely beaten but not annihilated. The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Gala&#355;i. ...


Another war with Austria and Venice started in 1714. Austria conquers the remaining areas of the former Hungarian Kingdom, ending with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718. The Treaty of Passarowitz was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac, Serbia (German: Passarowitz, Turkish Pasarofça, Hungarian: Pozsarevác) on July 21, 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice on the other. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Another war with Russia started in 1735. Austrians join in 1737; the war ends in 1739 with the Treaty of Belgrade (with Austria) and the Treaty of Nissa (with Russia). // About the number 1739 1739 is the smallest integer that can be written as sum of three perfect cubes, in two ways. ... The Treaty of Belgrade was the peace treaty signed on September 18, 1739 in Belgrade, Serbia by the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Austria on the other. ... The Treaty of Nissa is a peace treaty signed on October 3, 1739 in Nissa by the Ottoman Empire on one side and Russia on the other. ...


The fourth Russo-Turkish started in 1768, ends in 1774 with the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji. The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji (Küçük Kaynarca) was signed on July 21, 1774, between Russia (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ...


Yet another war with Russia and Austria started in 1787, ended by Austria with the 1791 Treaty of Sistova, and with the 1792 Treaty of Jassy with Russia. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Invasion of Egypt and Syria by Napoleon I of France in 1798-9, ended due to English intervention.


Napoleon's capture of Malta on his way to Egypt resulted in the unusual alliance of Russia and the Ottomans resulting in a joint naval expedition to the Ionian Islands. Their successful capture of these islands led to the setting up of the Septinsular Republic. The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi Nēsoi) are a group of islands in Greece. ... A republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under joined Russian-Turkish sovereignity in the Ionian Islands. ...


1800s

The sixth Russo-Turkish War began in 1806, ended in 1812 due to Napoleon's invasion of Russia. The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... The Russo–Turkish War (1568–1570) a war between the Russian and Ottoman Empires. ... In 1570 the Crimean army terribly devastated the Ryazan borderland of Muscovy, not meeting strong resistance. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, caused by the spreading Turkish aggression in the second half of the 17th century. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1686–1700 was part of the joint European effort to stop the continuing aggression of the Tsarist Russia. ... Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 (&#1050;&#1088;&#1099;&#1084;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1077; &#1087;&#1086;&#1093;&#1086;&#1076;&#1099; in Russian), military campaigns of the Russian army against the Crimean Khanate. ... Azov campaigns of 1695-1696 (&#1040;&#1079;&#1086;&#1074;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1077; &#1087;&#1086;&#1093;&#1086;&#1076;&#1099; in Russian), two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686-1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000... The Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711 was the southernmost theatre of the Great Northern War. ... Russo–Turkish War of 1735–1739, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, caused by intensified contradictions over the results of the War of the Polish Succession of 1733–1735 and endless raids by the Crimean Tatars. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was a decisive conflict that brought Southern Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, and Crimea within the orbit of the Russian Empire. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the previous Russo–Turkish War, 1768–1774. ... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806–1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... The Russo–Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greeks struggle for independence. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Combatants  Russian Empire Romania Serbia Bulgaria Montenegro  Ottoman Empire Commanders Mikhail Skobelev Mikhail Loris-Melikov Ivan Lazarev Carol I of Romania Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Russia preparing to release the Balkan dogs of war, while Britain warns him to take care. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... The Soviet-Turkish War, a conflict in Russian Civil War between of the Turkish interventions army and the Soviets. ... The Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


First Serbian Uprising in 1804, Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, fully liberated by 1877. // Flag of the First Serbian Uprising The First Serbian Uprising was a Serbian national revolution which lasted one decade (1804-1813), during which Serbia perceived itself as an independent state for the first time after 300 years of Ottoman and short-lasting Austrian occupations. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Moldavian-Wallachian (Romanian) Uprising (starting simultaneously with the Greek Revolution 1821-1824. Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ...


Decline (1828–1908)

See also: Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Military &
Political History
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Time Span 82 years
# Sultans 5
Soc-Econ Reformation
See also
Graphical timeline

Greek War of Independence 1821-1832, in which Great Powers intervene from 1827, including Russia (Seventh Russo-Turkish war, 1828-1829) achieves independence for Greece, Treaty of Adrianople ends the war. Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. ... Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... The 1829 peace treaty of Adrianople (called also Treaty of Edirne), was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. ...


Wars with Bosnia 1831-1836, 1836-1837, 1841. 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


War with Montenegro 1852-1853.


Eighth Russo-Turkish war 1853-1856, Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France joined the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire. Ended with the Treaty of Paris (1856). Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and Ottoman Empire and its allies France and Britain. ...


Second war with Montenegro 1858-1859.


War with Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia 1862. This article is about 1862 . ...


Crete Uprising 1866. For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Bulgarian Rebellion in 1876. Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The ninth and final Russo-Turkish war started in 1877, the same year the Ottomans withdrew from the Conference of Constantinople. Romania declares independence and war on Turkey, joined by Serbians and Bulgarians and finally the Russians (see also Russian Foreign Affairs after the Crimean War). Bosnia was occupied by Austria in 1878. The Russians and the Ottomans sign the Treaty of San Stefano in early 1878. After deliberations at the Congress of Berlin which was attended by all the Great Powers of the time, the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 recognized several territorial changes. Economic development The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty...


Eastern Rumelia was granted some autonomy in 1878, rebelled in 1885 and joined Bulgaria in 1886. Thessalia ceded to Greece in 1881, but after Greece attacks the Ottoman Empire to help the Second Crete Uprising in 1897, Greece is defeated in Thessalia. Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thessaly (&#920;&#949;&#963;&#963;&#945;&#955;&#953;&#945;; modern Greek Thessalía) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Dissolution (1908–1922)

See also: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Military &
Political History
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Time Span 14 years
# Sultans 2
Soc-Econ Reformation
See also
Graphical timeline
Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908

This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. ... Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... Image File history File links Ottoman-Empire-Public-Demo. ... Image File history File links Ottoman-Empire-Public-Demo. ...

Macedonia

Macedonian insurrection from 1903. 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


1912-1913: Balkan Wars

Two Balkan Wars, in 1912 and 1913, involved further action against the Ottoman Empire in Europe. The Balkan League first conquered Macedonia and most of Thrace from the Ottoman Empire, and then fell out over the division of the spoils. This reduced Turkey's possessions in Europe (Rumelia) to their present borders in Eastern Thrace. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia...


World War I

The Ottoman Empire suffered a defeat in World War I. Turkey temporarily lost most of the rest of what it had left in Europe. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


References

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ottoman Empire - Printer-friendly - ninemsn Encarta (1627 words)
Thirty six sultans from the house of Osman ruled the Ottoman empire during its history, and loyalty to the Ottoman dynasty was a powerful factor in the endurance of the empire.
Ottoman administration was shaped primarily by the needs of the army, by far the largest item of state expenditure.
The administration employed a language (the Ottoman Turkish language) which was Turkish in grammar and largely Arabic or Persian in vocabulary, and written in the Arabic script; (iii) the Muslim religious institution which consisted of Muslim functionaries concerned with education and law grouped under the overlordship of the Shaykh al-Islam.
Ottoman Empire - MSN Encarta (6098 words)
Ottoman Empire, dynastic state centered in what is now Turkey, founded in the late 13th century and dismantled in the early 20th century.
This led to a period in Ottoman history known as “the Sultanate of the Women.” During this period the political impact of the harem was felt and the mothers of young sultans exercised power in the name of their sons.
To be an Ottoman one had to serve the state and the religion and know the “Ottoman way.” Serving the state meant having a position within the military, the bureaucracy, or the religious establishment that carried with it the coveted askeri status and tax exemption.
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