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Encyclopedia > Ottoman language

Ottoman Turkish is the variant of the Turkish language which was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire, containing extensive borrowings from Arabic and Persian and written in Arabic script. The Ottoman Turkish spoken in the capital differed markedly from the Turkish spoken by farmers and villagers in the countryside, almost to such an extent that they did not understand each other. Turkish (Türkçe or Türk dili) is a Turkic language, spoken natively by over 100 million speakers in Turkey, Cyprus, and worldwide. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...


In 1928, following the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, a more popular Turkish emerged, with influences from European languages rather than from Arabic and Persian and using the Latin alphabet. The reason of the changes were because people who lived in farms and small towns could not understand the people who lived in the big towns. The Ottoman Turkish is held by many to be a completely different language than the Turkish of today. This seems to be politically motivated and does not hold up linguistically. However, few in modern-day Turkey can understand spoken Ottoman Turkish, let alone written. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Pasha, named Atatürk ( 1881– November 10, 1938), Turkish reformist, soldier, and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Most of the many indigenous languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ...


Examples

English Ottoman Modern Turkish
yes evet evet
no la hayır
hello merhaba merhaba

Alphabet

Character Name Modern Turkish
elif a, e
ء hemze ', a, e, i, u, ü
be b
پ pe p
te t
se s
cim c
çim ç
he, ha h
h
dal d
zel z
re r
ze z
je j
sin s
şın ş
sat, sad s
dad, dat,
zad, zat,
d, z
t
z
ayın ', h
gayın g, ğ
fe f
kaf k
kef k, g, ğ, n
گ1 gef g, ğ
ڭ nef,
kaf-ı nuni,
sağır kef
n
lam l
mim m
nun n
vav v
he h, e, a
lamelif la
ye y, ı, i

1A correct Ottoman variant of gef will have the "mini-kaf" of ﻙ and the doubled upper stroke of گ. This feature is surely rare in current fonts.


External link

  • Omniglot: Turkish (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/turkish.htm) (does also include information on Ottoman Turkish)

 
 

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