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Encyclopedia > Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Osmanlı İmparatorluğu
دولت عالیه عثمانیه
Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye
Sublime Ottoman State

1299 – 1922
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
دولت ابد مدت
Devlet-i Ebed-müddet
("The Eternal State")
Anthem
Ottoman imperial anthem
Borders in 1683, see: list of territories
Capital Söğüt (1299–1326)
Bursa (1326–1365)
Edirne (1365–1453)
İstanbul (1453–1922)
Government Monarchy
Sultans
 - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I
 - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI
Grand Viziers
 - 1320–31 (first) Alaeddin Pasha
 - 1920–22 (last) Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
History
 - Foundation 1299
 - Interregnum 1402–1413
 - 1. Constitutional 1876-1878
 - 2. Constitutional 1908-1918
 - Partition November 17, 1922
Area
 - 1680 5,500,000 km² (2,123,562 sq mi)
Population
 - 1856 est. 35,350,000 
 - 1906 est. 20,884,000 
 - 1914 est. 18,520,000 
 - 1919 est. 14,629,000 
Currency Akçe, Kuruş, Lira
Timeline of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (1299–1922) (Old Ottoman Turkish: دولت عالیه عثمانیه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish: Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu), was a multi-ethnic and multi-religious Turkish-ruled state. The state was known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey by its contemporaries. (See the other names of the Ottoman State.) It was succeeded by the Republic of Turkey, which was officially proclaimed in 1923. Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuq Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... The late Ottoman flag with an eight-pointed star and crescent was first used in 1793 by the Ottoman Navy. ... Ottoman Coat of Arms. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Ottoman Empire, since its beginning in 13th century predates the use of anthems, did not use a specific royal or national anthem until late in its history. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1684x1347, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Eastern Question Turkish people History of the Turkish people List of Ottoman... 1680 The Ottoman Empire threatened the powers of Europe with its steady advance through the Balkans up until 1683. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Adrianople redirects here. ... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... Grand viziers Chief ministers Grand viziers Jun 1882 - November 1882 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) (s. ... Ahmed Tevfik Pasha was the last Ottoman grand vizier, who had also held office during two different periods before his last (a total of four different periods officially since his first office also saw a change of sultan). ... Foundation of the Ottoman Empire is one of the oldest sources regarding the establishment of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Mongol warlord Tamerlane (Timur the Lame). ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A silver coin, the akçe was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire. ... The new kuruÅŸ coin KuruÅŸ was a Turkish currency subunit. ... ISO 4217 Code TRL User(s) Turkey and the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Subunit 1/100 kuruÅŸ 1/4000 para Symbol TL Coins 5000, 10,000, 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 250,000 lira Banknotes 250,000, 500,000, 1,000,000, 5,000,000, 10... Timeline 1813-1914 1813: Revolt of the Serbs. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... The state of Ottomans, from a division of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate to an independent Empire, has been known through the ages by a large number of different names, commonly the Ottoman Empire. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the height of its power (16th–17th century), it spanned three continents, controlling much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, stretching from the Strait of Gibraltar (and, in 1553, the Atlantic coast of Morocco beyond Gibraltar) in the west to the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf in the east, from the edge of Austria, Slovakia and parts of Ukraine in the north to Sudan, Eritrea, Somalia and Yemen in the south. The Ottoman Empire contained 29 provinces, in addition to the tributary principalities of Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia. 1680 The Ottoman Empire threatened the powers of Europe with its steady advance through the Balkans up until 1683. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


The empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. With Constantinople as its capital city, and lands during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent which roughly corresponded to the lands ruled by Justinian the Great exactly 1000 years earlier, the Ottoman Empire was, in many respects, an Islamic successor to the earlier Mediterranean empires — the Roman and Byzantine empires. Numerous traditions and cultural traits of these previous two empires (in fields such as architecture, cuisine, leisure and government) were adopted by the Ottomans, who elaborated them into new forms. These cultural traits were later blended with the characteristics of the ethnic and religious groups living within the Ottoman territories, which resulted in a new and distinctively Ottoman cultural identity. The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... Justinian I, depicted on a contemporary coin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

Contents

Rise (1299–1453)

With the demise of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rūm (about 1300), Turkish Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent states, the so-called Ghazi emirates. For other uses, see Chainmail (disambiguation). ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... This article is about the history and concept of ghazw and ghāzÄ«. For other meanings of gazi, see Gazi (disambiguation). ...


By 1300, a weakened Byzantine Empire had seen most of its Anatolian provinces lost among some ten Ghazi principalities. One of the Ghazi emirates was led by Osman I (from which the name Ottoman is derived), son of Ertuğrul in the region of Eskişehir in western Anatolia. According to tradition, as Ertuğrul migrated across Asia Minor leading approximately four hundred horsemen, he chanced upon a battle between two armies. Having decided to intervene, he chose the side of the losing army and turned the battle in their favour to secure victory. The troops he supported happened to be those of a Seljuk Sultan who rewarded him with territory in Eskişehir.[1] Following Ertuğrul's death in 1281, Osman became chief, or Bey, and by 1299 declared himself a sovereign ruler from the Seljuk empire. This article is about the history and concept of ghazw and ghāzÄ«. For other meanings of gazi, see Gazi (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... ErtuÄŸrul (أرطغل), also ErtoÄŸrul (with title ErtuÄŸrul Gazi), (1198-1281) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... EskiÅŸehir (eskÄ“shehÄ“r, Latin: Dorylaeum, Greek: Δορύλαιον, Dorylaion) is a city in northwest Turkey and the capital of EskiÅŸehir Province. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ...


Osman I extended the frontiers of Ottoman settlement towards the edge of the Byzantine Empire. He moved the Ottoman capital to Bursa, and shaped the early political development of the nation. Given the nickname "Kara" (Turkish for black) for his courage,[2] Osman I was admired as a strong and dynamic ruler long after his death, as evident in the centuries-old Turkish phrase, "May he be as good as Osman." His reputation has also been burnished by the medieval Turkish story known as "Osman's Dream", a foundation myth in which the young Osman was inspired to conquest by a prescient vision of empire. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Foundation of the Ottoman Empire is one of the oldest sources regarding the establishment of the Ottoman Empire. ...


This period saw the creation of a formal Ottoman government whose institutions would remain largely unchanged for almost four centuries. The government utilized the legal entity known as the millet, under which religious and ethnic minorities were able to manage their own affairs with substantial independence from central control. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Main article: Ottoman Conquest of the Balkans

In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. After defeat at the Battle of Plocnik, the Turkish victory at the Battle of Kosovo effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, and paved the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe. With the extension of Turkish dominion into the Balkans, the strategic conquest of Constantinople became a crucial objective. The empire controlled nearly all of the former Byzantine lands, the Greeks gained a temporary reprieve when Tamerlane invaded Anatolia in 1402, taking Sultan Bayezid I prisoner. Balkan redirects here. ... The Battle of Plocnik was fought on the Bosnian-Serb border in 1388. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Bosnia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[9][10][11] ~ 12,000-30,000[9][10][11][12] Casualties moderate amount; Sultan Murad I killed as a result of a ruse Extremely high; most of... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Byzantine redirects here. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ...


The capture of Bayezid I threw the Turks into disorder. The state fell into a civil war which lasted from 1402 to 1413, as Bayezid's sons fought over succession. It ended when Mehmet I emerged, and then restored the Ottoman power, after the Interregnum. His grandson, Mehmet the Conqueror, reorganized the structure of both the state and military, and demonstrated his martial prowess by capturing Constantinople (see: Istanbul (Etymology)) on 29 May 1453, at the age of 21. The city became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire, and Mehmet II assumed the title of Kayser-i Rûm (Roman Emperor). However, this title was not recognized by the Greeks or Western Europe, while the Russian Czars claimed to be the successors of the Eastern Imperial title as well. To consolidate his claim, Mehmet II aspired to gain control over the Western capital, Rome, as well; and Ottoman forces occupied parts of the Italian peninsula, starting from Otranto and Apulia on July 28, 1480. But after Mehmet II's death on May 3, 1481, the campaign on Italy was canceled and the Ottoman forces retreated or were expelled. Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) (Arabic: محمد الأول) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Mongol warlord Tamerlane (Timur the Lame). ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... It has been suggested that Tsargrad be merged into this article or section. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Naples Kingdom of Aragon Kingdom of Hungary Commanders Gedik Ahmed Pasha Francesco Largo † Alphonso II of Naples Strength Between 18,000 and 100,000 men. ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ...


Growth (1453–1683)

Map showing the growth of the Ottoman Empire.
Map showing the growth of the Ottoman Empire.

This period in Ottoman history can roughly be divided into two distinct eras: an era of territorial, economic, and cultural growth prior to 1566, followed by an era of relative military and political stagnation. This article is in need of attention. ...


Expansion and apogee (1453–1566)

Mehmed II enters Constantinople with his army by Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant.
Mehmed II enters Constantinople with his army by Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant.

The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 cemented the status of the empire as the preeminent power in southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. During this time, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion, extending its borders deep into Europe and North Africa. Conquests on land were driven by the discipline and innovation of the Ottoman military; and on the sea, the Ottoman navy established the empire as a great trading power. The state also flourished economically thanks to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2487 × 3390 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2487 × 3390 pixel, file size: 3. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... 1879 The Favorite of the Emir Jean Joseph Benjamin Constant Jean Joseph Benjamin Constant, also written Benjamin-Constant, (1845-1902) was a French historical and portrait painter. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective sultans. Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) dramatically expanded the empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating Shah Ismail of Safavid Persia, in the Battle of Chaldiran.[3] Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt, and created a naval presence on the Red Sea. After this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region.[4] Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ... Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ...


Selim's successor, Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566), further expanded upon Selim's conquests. After capturing Belgrade in 1521, Suleiman conquered the Kingdom of Hungary and established Ottoman rule in the territory of present-day Hungary and other Central European territories, after his victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526. He then laid siege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take the city after the onset of winter forced his retreat.[5] In 1532, another planned attack on Vienna with an army thought to be over 250,000 strong, was repulsed 60 miles (97 km) south of Vienna, at the fortress of Guns. After further advances by the Ottomans in 1543, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognised Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547. During the reign of Suleiman, Transylvania, Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. In the east, the Ottomans took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535, gaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf. Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ottoman Hungary or Muslim Hungary refers to the Turkish-Ottoman age of todays Hungary (1526 - 1699). ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

Battle of Mohács (1526) and the Ottoman conquest of Hungary.
Battle of Mohács (1526) and the Ottoman conquest of Hungary.

Under Selim and Suleiman, the empire became a dominant naval force, controlling much of the Mediterranean Sea.[6] The exploits of the Ottoman admiral Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, who commanded the Turkish navy during Suleiman's reign, led to a number of military victories over Christian navies. Among these were the conquest of Tunis and Algeria from Spain; the evacuation of Muslims and Jews from Spain to the safety of Ottoman lands (particularly Salonica, Cyprus, and Constantinople) during the Spanish Inquisition; and the capture of Nice from the Holy Roman Empire in 1543. This last conquest occurred on behalf of France as a joint venture between the forces of the French king Francis I and those of Barbarossa.[7] France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule in southern and central Europe, became strong allies during this period. The alliance was economic as well as military, as the sultans granted France the right of trade within the empire without levy of taxation. In fact, the Ottoman Empire was by this time a significant and accepted part of the European political sphere, and entered into a military alliance with France, England and the Netherlands against Habsburg Spain, Italy and Habsburg Austria. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (1001 × 618 pixel, file size: 861 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Battle at Mohács by Bertalan Székely (1835-1910) 1866 Oil on canvas, 174,5 x 285 cm Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest Other version... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (1001 × 618 pixel, file size: 861 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Battle at Mohács by Bertalan Székely (1835-1910) 1866 Oil on canvas, 174,5 x 285 cm Hungarian National Gallery, Budapest Other version... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Barbarossa Khair ad Din Pasha Barbarossa Khair ad Din Pasha (circa 1475-1546) was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral and privateer who served in the Ottoman Empire and in the Barbary Coast. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... susan kroh was a very important asset to austrias devolepment The Archduchy of Austria (German: ) was one of the most important states within Holy Roman Empire, the center of the Habsburg Monarchy, the predecessor of the Austrian Empire. ...

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538.

As the 16th century progressed, Ottoman naval superiority was challenged by the growing sea powers of western Europe, particularly Portugal, in the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean and the Spice Islands. With the Ottomans blockading sea-lanes to the East and South, the European powers were driven to find another way to the ancient silk and spice routes, now under Ottoman control. On land, the empire was preoccupied by military campaigns in Austria and Persia, two widely-separated theaters of war. The strain of these conflicts on the empire's resources, and the logistics of maintaining lines of supply and communication across such vast distances, ultimately rendered its sea efforts unsustainable and unsuccessful. The overriding military need for defense on the western and eastern frontiers of the empire eventually made effective long-term engagement on a global scale impossible. Image File history File links Battle_of_Preveza_(1538). ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Preveza_(1538). ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... The Holy League of 1538 was a short-lived alliance of Christian states arranged by Pope Paul III at the urging of the Republic of Venice. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... For other uses, see Andrea Doria (disambiguation). ... The naval Battle of Preveza took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwest Greece and was an important victory for an Ottoman fleet commanded by Khair ad Din (Barbarossa) over a Spanish-Venetian fleet commanded by the great Genoese admiral Andrea Doria fleet despite the allies having a... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Revolts and revival (1566–1683)

Suleiman's death in 1566 marked the beginning of an era of diminishing territorial gains. The rise of western European nations as naval powers and the development of alternative sea routes from Europe to Asia and the New World damaged the Ottoman economy. The effective military and bureaucratic structures of the previous century also came under strain during a protracted period of misrule by weak Sultans. But in spite of these difficulties, the empire remained a major expansionist power until the Battle of Vienna in 1683, which marked the end of Ottoman expansion into Europe. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200...


European states initiated efforts at this time to curb Ottoman control of overland trade routes. Western European states began to circumvent the Ottoman trade monopoly by establishing their own naval routes to Asia. Economically, the huge influx of Spanish silver from the New World caused a sharp devaluation of the Ottoman currency and rampant inflation. This had serious negative consequences at all levels of Ottoman society. Sokullu Mehmet Pasha, who was the grand vizier of Selim II, created the projects of Suez Channel and Don-Volga Channel to save the economy but these were cancelled as well. Mehmed-paša Sokolović or Mehmed Sokollu (Turkish: Sokollu Mehmet Paşa) (born 1506, Sokolovići1 - died 1579, Istanbul) was an important 16th century Ottoman statesman of Bosnian Serb origins. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ...

In southern Europe, a coalition of Catholic powers, led by Philip II of Spain, formed an alliance to diminish Ottoman naval strength in the Mediterranean Sea. Their victory over the Ottomans at the naval Battle of Lepanto (1571) hastened the end of the empire's primacy in the Mediterranean. In fact, Lepanto was considered by some earlier historians to signal the beginning of Ottoman decline. By the end of the 16th century, the golden era of sweeping conquest and territorial expansion was over. Nevertheless, within six months of the defeat a new Ottoman fleet of some 250 sail including eight modern galleasses[8] had been built, with the harbours of Constantinople turning out a new ship every day at the height of the construction. In any case Lepanto was a mere "revenge attack" since Cyprus had been taken from the Venetians before the two navies engaged in 1571. In discussing with a Venetian minister, the Turkish Grand Vizier commented "In capturing Cyprus from you we have cut off one of your arms; in defeating our fleet you have merely shaved off our beard".[9] The Sultan himself said, "the infidel has only singed my beard. It will grow again."[10] In reality, the enormous loss of experienced sailors proved to be a disaster from which the Ottomans never recovered, diminishing the effectiveness of their fleet.[11] The Battle of Lepanto. ... The Battle of Lepanto. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Mediterranean redirects here. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded...

The Habsburg frontier in particular became a more or less permanent border until the 19th century, marked only by relatively minor battles concentrating on the possession of individual fortresses. This stalemate was mostly caused by the European development of the trace italienne, low bastioned fortifications built by Austria along the border that were almost impossible to capture without lengthy sieges. The Ottomans had no answer to these new-style fortifications that rendered the artillery they previously used so effectively (as in the Siege of Constantinople) almost useless. The stalemate was also a reflection of simple geographical limits: in the pre-mechanized age, Vienna marked the furthest point that an Ottoman army could march from Constantinople during the early-spring to late-autumn campaigning season. It also reflected the difficulties imposed on the empire by the need to maintain two separate fronts: one against the Austrians (see:Ottoman wars in Europe), and the other against a rival Islamic state, the Safavids of Persia (see: Ottoman wars in Near East). Image File history File links Vienna_Battle_1683. ... Image File history File links Vienna_Battle_1683. ... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The trace italienne is a style of fortification that was developed in Italy in the late 15th and early 16th century in response, primarily to the French invasion of the Italian peninsula. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Graphical timeline Ottoman wars in Near East covers the Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Cacuses. ...


On the battlefield, the Ottomans gradually fell behind the Europeans in military technology as the innovation which fed the empire's forceful expansion became stifled by growing religious and intellectual conservatism. Changes in European military tactics and weaponry in the military revolution caused the once-feared Sipahi cavalry to lose military relevance. Discipline and unit cohesion in the army also became a problem because of relaxations in recruitment policy and the growth of the Janissary corps at the expense of other military units. The development of pike and shot and later linear tactics with increased use of firearms by Europeans proved deadly against the massed infantry in close formation used by the Ottomans. Similar to Charlemagne’s re-establishment of the feudal monarch, the invention of gunpowder for warfare brought another great change and transformation to Europe. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... A 16th century pamphlet showing a mixed pike and shot formation. ...


Murad IV (1612–1640), who recaptured Yerevan (1635) and Baghdad (1639) from the Safavids, is the only example in this era of a sultan who exercised strong political and military control of the empire. Notably, Murad IV was the last Ottoman emperor who led his forces from the front. Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ...


The Jelali revolts (1519–1610) and Janissary revolts (1622) caused widespread lawlessness and rebellion in Anatolia in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, and toppled several governments. However, the 17th century was not simply an era of stagnation and decline, but also a key period in which the Ottoman state and its structures began to adapt to new pressures and new realities, internal and external. Jelali (Turkish Celalî), were a series of rebellions in Anatolia against the Ottoman Empire in 16th and 17th centuries. ... The Janissaries Patrol Izmir (Une Patrouille a Smyrne) - oil painting on canvas - Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps - 1828 Janissary revolts (tr: Kazan Kaldırma) are revolts of the Janissary crops of the Ottoman Empire. ...


The Sultanate of women (1530s–1660s) was a period in which the political impact of the Imperial Harem was unchallenged, as the mothers of young sultans exercised power on behalf of their sons. Hürrem Sultan, who established herself in the early 1530s as the successor of Nurbanu, the first Valide Sultan, was described by the Venetian Baylo Andrea Giritti as 'a woman of the utmost goodness, courage and wisdom' despite the fact that she 'thwarted some while rewarding others'.[12] The last prominent women of this period were Kösem Sultan and her daughter-in-law Turhan Hatice, whose political rivalry culminated in Kösem's murder in 1651. This period gave way to the Köprülü Era (1656–1703), during which the Empire was controlled first by the powerful members of the Imperial Harem, and later by a sequence of Grand Viziers. The relative ineffectiveness of the successive sultans and the diffusion of power to lower levels of the government have characterized the Köprülü Era. The Sultanate of Women (Turkish: Kadınlar Saltanatı) is the nearly 130-year period, in the 16th and 17th centuries, during which the women of the Harem of the Ottoman Empire exerted extraordinary political influence. ... Concubine places The Imperial Harem or Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. ... Roxelana Roxelana, Roxolana, Roxelane, Rossa, Ruziac, known also by her Turkish name of Khourrem (or Hürrem or Karima), meaning the cheerful one, (circa 1500 - April 18, 1558) was the wife of sultan Süleyman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. ... Nur-Banu (born Cecilia Venier-Baffo) (1525–1587) was a Venetian-born Jewish woman of noble birth, and was the niece of Sebastiano Venier, the Doge of Venice. ... The Valide Sultan was the mother of a ruling sultan in the Ottoman Empire. ... Baylo (Lat. ... Kösem Sultan (born around 1589 died 3rd September 1651) was a consort of Sultan Ahmed I, She was the mother of Sultans Murad IV and Ibrahim I, she was a prominent figure during the sultanate of the women. ... Turhan Hatice (Sultan), or Turhan Hadice (Sultan) (1627–1682), was concubine to Ottoman sultan Ibrahim I and the mother of his successor, Mehmed IV. She was of Russian origin. ... Köprülü Era (1656-1703) was the period which Ottoman Empires politics were set by the Grand Viziers, mainly Köprülü family, which was notable family of imperial bureaucrats. ... Concubine places The Imperial Harem or Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ...


Stagnation and reform (1699–1827)

During the stagnation period much territory in the Balkans was ceded to Austria. Certain areas of the empire, such as Egypt and Algeria, became independent in all but name, and subsequently came under the influence of Britain and France. The 18th century saw centralized authority giving way to varying degrees of provincial autonomy enjoyed by local governors and leaders. A series of wars were fought between the Russian and Ottoman empires from the 17th to the 19th century. The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The long period of Ottoman stagnation is typically characterized by historians as an era of failed reforms. In the latter part of this period there were educational and technological reforms, including the establishment of higher education institutions such as Istanbul Technical University; Ottoman science and technology had been highly regarded in medieval times, as a result of Ottoman scholars' synthesis of classical learning with Islamic philosophy and mathematics, and knowledge of such Chinese advances in technology as gunpowder and the magnetic compass. By this period though the influences had become regressive and conservative. The guilds of writers denounced the printing press as "the Devil's Invention", and were responsible for a 43-year lag between its invention by Johannes Gutenberg in Europe in 1450 and its introduction to the Ottoman society with the Gutenberg press in Constantinople that was established by the Sephardic Jews of Spain in 1493. Sephardic Jews migrated to the Ottoman Empire as they escaped from the Spanish Inquisition of 1492. Studies on scientific, cultural and intellectual aspects of Ottoman history is very new area. ... Maçka Campus Istanbul Technical University (ITU, Turkish: commonly referred to as Ä°TÃœ or teknik üniversite) is an international technical university located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Studies on scientific, cultural and intellectual aspects of Ottoman history is very new area. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ...


The Tulip Era (or Lâle Devri in Turkish), named for Sultan Ahmed III's love of the tulip flower and its use to symbolize his peaceful reign, the empire's policy towards Europe underwent a shift. The region was peaceful between 1718 and 1730, after the Ottoman victory against Russia in the Pruth Campaign in 1712 and the subsequent Treaty of Passarowitz brought a period of pause in warfare. The empire began to improve the fortifications of cities bordering the Balkans to act as a defense against European expansionism. Other tentative reforms were also enacted: taxes were lowered; there were attempts to improve the image of the Ottoman state; and the first instances of private investment and entrepreneurship occurred. The Tulip Era is an important period for the Ottoman Empire. ... [[Media:Example. ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711 was the southernmost theatre of the Great Northern War. ... The Treaty of Passarowitz was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac, Serbia (German: Passarowitz, Turkish Pasarofça, Hungarian: Pozsarevác) on July 21, 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice on the other. ... -1...


Ottoman military reform efforts begin with Selim III (1789–1807) who made the first major attempts to modernize the army along European lines. These efforts, however, were hampered by reactionist movements, partly from the religious leadership, but primarily from the Janissary corps, who had become anarchic and ineffectual. Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, they created a Janissary revolt. Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II, who massacred the Janissary corps in 1826. When Selim III came to the throne in 1789 an ambitious effort of military reform was launched, geared towards securing the Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The Janissaries Patrol Izmir (Une Patrouille a Smyrne) - oil painting on canvas - Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps - 1828 Janissary revolts (tr: Kazan Kaldırma) are revolts of the Janissary crops of the Ottoman Empire. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ...


Decline and modernization (1828–1908)

Punch cartoon from June 17, 1876. Russian Empire preparing to let slip the Balkan "Dogs of War" to attack the Ottoman Empire, while policeman John Bull (UK) warns Russia to take care. Supported by Russia, Serbia and Montenegro would declare war on the Ottoman Empire one day later.
Punch cartoon from June 17, 1876. Russian Empire preparing to let slip the Balkan "Dogs of War" to attack the Ottoman Empire, while policeman John Bull (UK) warns Russia to take care. Supported by Russia, Serbia and Montenegro would declare war on the Ottoman Empire one day later.

The period of Ottoman decline (loss of huge territories) is typically characterized by historians also as an era of modern times. The empire lost territory on all fronts, and there was administrative instability because of the breakdown of centralized government, despite efforts of reform and reorganization such as the Tanzimat. Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2917 × 3993 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2917 × 3993 pixel, file size: 3. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... World War I recruiting poster An earlier John Bull in which he is depicted as an actual bull. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ...


The rise of nationalism swept through many countries during the 19th century, and the Ottoman Empire was not immune. A burgeoning national consciousness, together with a growing sense of ethnic nationalism, made nationalistic thought one of the most significant Western ideas imported to the Ottoman empire, as it was forced to deal with nationalism-related issues both within and beyond its borders. There was a significant increase in the number of revolutionary political parties. Uprisings in Ottoman territory had many far-reaching consequences during the 19th century and determined much of Ottoman policy during the early 20th century. Many Ottoman Turks questioned whether the policies of the state were to blame: some felt that the sources of ethnic conflict were external, and unrelated to issues of governance. While this era was not without some successes, the ability of the Ottoman state to have any effect on ethnic uprisings was seriously called into question. Greece declared its independence from the Empire in 1829 after the end of the Greek War of Independence. Reforms did not halt the rise of nationalism in the Danubian Principalities and Serbia, which had been semi-independent for almost 6 decades; in 1875 Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Wallachia and Moldova declared their independence from the Empire; and following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, independence was formally granted to Serbia, Romania and Montenegro, and autonomy to Bulgaria, with the other Balkan territories remaining under Ottoman control. A Serbian Jew, Yehuda Solomon Alkalai, encouraged a return to Zion and independence for Israel during this wave of decolonialization. With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... List of parties in Ottoman Empire gives an overview of parties in Ottoman Empire. ... An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Province of Bosnia was a key Ottoman province, the westernmost one, based on the territory of the present day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...

Mahmud II started the modernization of Turkey by preparing the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 which had immediate effects such as European style clothing, European agricultural innovations, western weapons, architecture, legislation, institutional organization and land reform

During the Tanzimat period (from Arabic Tanzîmât, meaning "reorganization") (1839–1876), a series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, and the replacement of guilds with modern factories. In 1856, the Hatt-ı Hümayun promised equality for all Ottoman citizens irrespective of their ethnicity and confession, widening the scope of the 1839 Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane. The Christian millets gained privileges; such as in 1863 the Armenian National Constitution (Ottoman Turkish:"Nizâmnâme-i Millet-i Ermeniyân") was Divan approved form of the "Code of Regulations" composed of 150 articles drafted by the "Armenian intelligentsia", and newly formed "Armenian National Assembly".[13] The reformist period peaked with the Constitution, called the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning "Basic Law" in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, which was promulgated on 23 November 1876. It established freedom of belief and equality of all citizens before the law. Image File history File linksMetadata Sultan_Mahmud_II.jpg‎ Sultan Mahmud II started the modernization of Turkey with the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author... Image File history File linksMetadata Sultan_Mahmud_II.jpg‎ Sultan Mahmud II started the modernization of Turkey with the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hatt-ı Hümayun (Imperial Edict, Imperial Reform Edict or Rescript of Reform) was a February 18, 1856 edict of the Ottoman government and part of the Tanzimat reforms. ... The Hatt-i Sharif of Gulhane was an 1839 proclamation by Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I that launched the Tanzimat period of reforms and reorganization. ... Armenian National Constitution or Regulation of the Armenian Nation (Turkish:Nizâmnâme-i Millet-i Ermeniyân) (1863) was Ottoman Empire approved form of the Code of Regulations composed of 150 articles drafted by the Armenian intelligentsia (Dr. Nahabed Rusinian, Dr. Sevichen, Nigoghos Balian, Krikor Odian and Krikor Margosian... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... Armenian National Assembly was the governing body of the Armenian Millet established by Armenian National Constitution of 1863 under Ottoman Empire. ... The Kanûn-ı Esâsî (قانون اساسى) was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire. ... This is a list of articles about the fundamental constitutional laws, known as Basic Laws, of various jurisdictions. ... The Young Ottomans (Turkish: Yeni Osmanlilar) were a group of Turkish nationalist intellectuals formed in 1865, influenced by such Western thinkers as Montesquieu and Rousseau and the French Revolution. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ...


The empire's First Constitutional era (or Birinci Meşrûtiyet Devri in Turkish), was short-lived; however, the idea behind it (Ottomanism), proved influential as a wide-ranging group of reformers known as the Young Ottomans, primarily educated in Western universities, believed that a constitutional monarchy would provide an answer to the empire's growing social unrest. Through a military coup in 1876, they forced Sultan Abdülaziz (1861–1876) to abdicate in favour of Murad V. However, Murad V was mentally ill, and was deposed within a few months. His heir-apparent Abdülhamid II (1876-1909) was invited to assume power on the condition that he would accept to declare a constitutional monarchy, which he did on 23 November 1876. However, the parliament survived for only two years. The sultan suspended, not abolished, the parliament until he was forced to reconvene it. The effectiveness of Kanûn-ı Esâsî was then largely minimized. Graphical timeline The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of a Basic Law by Abdülhamid II on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878 when the constitution was suspended. ... Proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 Ottomanism (Osmanlılık or Osmanlıcılık) was a concept which developed prior to the First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Young Ottomans (Turkish: Yeni Osmanlilar) were a group of Turkish nationalist intellectuals formed in 1865, influenced by such Western thinkers as Montesquieu and Rousseau and the French Revolution. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. ... Sultan Mehmed Murad V (September 21, 1840 – August 29, 1904) (Arabic: مراد الخامس) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from May 30, 1876 to August 31 of the same year. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd-ul-Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdülhemit, Abdul Hamid, Abd al-Hamid II, or Abdul-Hamid (Arabic: عبد الحميد الثاني) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... The Kanûn-ı Esâsî (قانون اساسى) was the first constitution of the Ottoman Empire. ...


During this time, the Empire faced challenges in defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation. Egypt was occupied by the French in 1798. Following defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, Cyprus was lent to the British in 1878 in exchange for Britain's favors at the Congress of Berlin. The empire ceased to enter conflicts on its own and began to forge alliances with European countries such as France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Russia. As an example, in the Crimean War the Ottomans united with the British, French, and others against Russia. The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...


Economically, the empire had difficulty in repaying the Ottoman public debt to European banks, which caused the establishment of The Council of Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt. The Ottoman public debt was a term dated back to 1854, when the Ottoman Empire contracted its European creditors shortly after the beginning with the Crimean War[1]. In 1881 Ottoman Public Debt Administration was established by the European creditors to collect (certain revenues were assigned) the money by the... The Ottoman Public Debt Administration (OPDA), established 1881, was an european-controlled organization was set up to collect the payments that Ottoman Empire owned to companies in Europe, Ottoman public debt. ...


By the end of the 19th century, the main reason the empire was not entirely overrun by Western powers came from the Balance of Power doctrine. Both Austria and Russia wanted to increase their spheres of influence and territory at the expense of the Ottoman Empire, but were kept in check mostly by the United Kingdom, which feared Russian dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean. In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. ...


Dissolution (1908–1922)

Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908
Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908

The Second Constitutional Era (or İkinci Meşrûtiyet Devri in Turkish) marks the period of the Ottoman Empire's final dissolution. This era is dominated by the politics of the Committee of Union and Progress (or İttihâd ve Terakkî Cemiyeti in Turkish), and the movement that would become known as the "Young Turks" (or Jön Türkler in Turkish). The Young Turk Revolution began on 3 July 1908 and quickly spread throughout the empire, resulting in the sultan's announcement of the restoration of the 1876 constitution and the reconvening of parliament. The constitutional era had a lapse between Countercoup (1909) and counter-revolution 31 March Incident that ended with the sultan Abdulhamid II deposed and sent to gaydirigubbak exile in Selanik, and replaced by his brother Mehmed V Reşad. This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... Image File history File links Ottoman-Empire-Public-Demo. ... Image File history File links Ottoman-Empire-Public-Demo. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (Ä°ttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students Ä°brahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, Ä°shak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ... Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Countercoup (March 1909) is the famous coup against the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire, which was established by Young Turk Revolution of 1908, aimed to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) and brining the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II with a dethroned Sultans bid for a... 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası) was a rebellion of the reactionaries in 1909 in Ä°stanbul toward the Countercoup (1909), who attempted to put an end to the nascent Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire and to the newly-established influence of the Committee of Union and Progress, in... Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd_ul_Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid, Abd al_Hamid II, or Abdul_Hamid (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ...


The Ottoman Empire became known as the "Sick Man of Europe".
Profiting from the civil strife within the Ottoman Empire during the Young Turk Revolution, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, having occupied it following the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) and the Congress of Berlin (1878). Bosnia and Herzegovina was still de jure Ottoman territory until 1908. During the Italo-Turkish War (1911-1912), the Balkan League, which was composed of Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria, declared war against the Ottoman Empire, which lost most of its Balkan territories during the Balkan Wars (1912–1913). The wars in Libya and the Balkan peninsula posed the first major tests for the Committee of Union and Progress. However, Libya was lost following the Italo-Turkish War, which was also the first war in history where airplanes were used on the battlefield. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Combatants  Russian Empire Romania Serbia Bulgaria Montenegro  Ottoman Empire Commanders Mikhail Skobelev Mikhail Loris-Melikov Ivan Lazarev Carol I of Romania Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Russia preparing to release the Balkan dogs of war, while Britain warns him to take care. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ...


The new Balkan states which were formed at the end of the 19th century sought additional territories from the Ottoman provinces of Albania, Macedonia, and Thrace, on the grounds of ethnic nationalism. Initially, with Russia acting as an intermediary, agreements were concluded between Serbia and Bulgaria in March 1912, and between Greece and Bulgaria in May 1912. Montenegro subsequently concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria in October 1912. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ...


The Serbian-Bulgarian agreement specifically called for the partition of Macedonia, which was the chief casus belli of the First Balkan War. The main causes of the Second Balkan War were the disputes between the former Balkan allies over their newly gained territories; this then gave the Ottomans an opportunity to regain lost territories in Thrace. The political repercussions of the Balkan Wars led to the coup of 1913, and the subsequent rule of the Three Pashas. Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Belligerents Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Ivan Fichev, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev, Georgi Todorov Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War... Coup of January 1913 in the Ottoman Empire replaced Kiamil Pasha. ... The Three Pashas are the famous Pashas who enabled the Ottoman Empire to enter the WWI. Talat, along with Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha formed a group called the three pashas. ...

Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) at the trenches of Gallipoli (1915)
Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) at the trenches of Gallipoli (1915)

Image File history File links Turkish_trenches_at_Gallipoli. ... Image File history File links Turkish_trenches_at_Gallipoli. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195...

World War I

The Ottoman Empire entered the war after the pursuit of Goeben and Breslau on the side of the Centrals. The Baghdad Railway under German control became a source of international tension and played a role in the origins of World War I.[14] The Ottoman Empire took part in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, under the terms of the Ottoman-German Alliance. The Ottomans won several important victories in the early years of the war, such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut; but there were setbacks as well, such as the disastrous Caucasus Campaign against the Russians. The Russian Revolution of 1917 gave the Ottomans the opportunity to regain lost ground and Ottoman forces took Azerbaijan in the final stages of the war, but the Empire was forced to cede these gains at the end of World War I. A significant event in this conflict was the creation of an Armenian resistance movement in the province of Van, in response to large scale deportations and massacres of Armenians. Organized by the Turkish Deportation Officials, Ottoman Soldiers and Kurdish warlords killed Armenians indiscriminately both in their villages and as deportees, being marched south to camps in the Syrian Desert in what is known as the Armenian Genocide.[15] The Ottoman government accused the Armenians of being in collaboration with the invading Russian forces in eastern Anatolia against their native state because of the Armenian volunteer units in the Russian Army. At the end of 1917 the Armenian Revolutionary Federation formed the Democratic Republic of Armenia, consisting mostly of refugees of the Armenian Genocide. The eventual Ottoman defeat came from a combination of coordinated attacks on strategic targets by British forces commanded by Edmund Allenby and the Arab Revolt of 1916–18. Given the fact that Turkish peasantry of Anatolia dropped to 40% of the pre-war levels, regardless of the method used in calculations, the Ottoman Empire's casualties during this time were significant.[16][not in citation given] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The pursuit of Goeben and Breslau was a naval action that occurred in the Mediterranean Sea at the outbreak of the First World War when elements of the British Mediterranean Fleet attempted to intercept the German Mittelmeerdivision (Mediterranean Division) comprising the battlecruiser SMS Goeben and the light cruiser SMS Breslau. ... In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire planned to construct a Baghdad Railway under German control. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Ottoman-German Alliance was an alliance established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2nd, 1914. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Battle of Van be merged into this article or section. ... Shows the Location of the Province Van Van is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (Ä°ttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students Ä°brahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, Ä°shak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Syrian Desert (Arabic: ), also known as the Syro-Arabian desert, is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in parts of the nations of Syria, Jordan, and Iraq. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism,[2] United Armenia International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 16 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official... Motto None Anthem Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) Map of the Democratic Republic of Armenia from March 1919 to March 1920. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


The Arab Revolt was a major cause of Ottoman Empire's defeat. The campaigns of the Arab Revolt started with the Battle of Makkah by Sherif Hussein of Mecca with the help of Britain and T.E. Lawrence, in June 1916 and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus. Fakhri Pasha the Ottoman commander of Medina showed stubborn resistance during more than two and half years long Siege of Medina. Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Ottoman Empire The Battle of Mecca occurred in the muslim holy city of Mecca In June and July of 1916. ... Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... Fakhri Pasha or Umar Fakhr ud-Din Pasha was the commander of Ottoman army and governer of Medina from 1916 to 1919. ... Medina, an Islamic holy city in Arabia, underwent a long siege during World War I. Medina was at the time controlled by the Ottoman Empire. ...


The end of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire bowed out of the First World War with the signing of the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918. This was followed 13 days later with the occupation of Constantinople. Under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres, Ottoman Empire lost its Middle Eastern territories which became mandates of Britain and France. Large areas of southern and western Anatolia became an Italian zone of influence. Almost all of Thrace was ceded to Greece, which also gained a protectorate over Smyrna. The Straits and Sea of Marmara were given to the Allied powers as an international zone. Armenia was recognized as an independent state. Britain obtained virtually everything it had sought under the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement it had made with France in 1916 for the partitioning of the Middle East. Fall of the Ottoman Empire summarizes why the empire could not avert the events that lead to its dissolution. ... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today Ä°zmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then...


The occupation of Istanbul along with the occupation of İzmir mobilized the establishment of the Turkish national movement, and led to the Turkish War of Independence[17] and the foundation of the Republic of Turkey. Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Establishment of Turkish national movement explains the initial stages of the alliance that will become Turkish revolutionaries which waged an independence war that resulted in decleration of Republic of Turkey. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ...

Departure of Mehmed VI, last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1922
Departure of Mehmed VI, last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1922

The Turkish national movement, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) resulted in the creation of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi) in Ankara on 23 April 1920, which refused to recognize the Ottoman government in Constantinople and the invading forces in Turkey. Turkish revolutionaries raised a "people's army" and expelled the invading Greek, Italian and French forces. They reclaimed the Turkish provinces which were given to the Republic of Armenia with the Treaty of Sèvres, and threatened the British forces controlling the Straits. Turkish revolutionaries eventually reclaimed the Straits and Constantinople, and abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922. The last sultan, Mehmed VI Vahdettin (1861–1926), left the country on 17 November 1922, and the Republic of Turkey was officially declared with the Treaty of Lausanne on 24 July 1923. The Caliphate was constitutionally abolished several months later, on 3 March 1924. the Sultan and his family were declared persona non grata of Turkey and exiled. Fifty years later, in 1974, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted descendants of the former dynasty the right to acquire Turkish citizenship. See also: Ertuğrul Osman V. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The people who master mind the Turkish National Movement: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Ismet Inonu Fevzi Cakmak Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne that settled the Anatolian part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres signed by the Ottoman Empire as the consequences of the... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... After the Turkish War of Independence (1919 - 1923), the newly established Republic of Turkey presented a list of 600 names to the Conference of Lausanne, which were to be declared as persona non grata. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Ertugrul Osman V (Full name: Devletlu Najabatlu ErtuÄŸrul Osman Efendi Hazretleri) (born August 18, 1912), is the 43rd Head of the Imperial House of Osman, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, when Turkey became a republic. ...


The new countries created from the remnants of the empire currently number 40 (including the disputed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus). 1680 The Ottoman Empire threatened the powers of Europe with its steady advance through the Balkans up until 1683. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1...


The fall of the Ottoman Empire can be attributed to the failure of its economic structure; the size of the empire created difficulties in economically integrating its diverse regions. Also, the empire's communication technology was not developed enough to reach all territories. In many ways, the circumstances surrounding the Ottoman Empire's fall closely paralleled those surrounding the fall of the Roman Empire, particularly in terms of the ongoing tensions between the empire's different ethnic groups, and the various governments' inability to deal with these tensions. In the case of the Ottomans, the introduction of a parliamentary system during the Tanzimat proved too late to reverse the trends that had been set in motion. Fall of the Ottoman Empire summarizes why the empire could not avert the events that lead to its dissolution. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ...


Economy

Economic History
of the Ottoman Empire
Enlargement Era
Reformation Era

Ottoman government deliberately pursued a policy for the development of Bursa, Edirne (Adrianople) and Constantinople, successive Ottoman capitals, into major commercial and industrial centres, considering that merchants and artisans were indispensable in creating a new metropolis.[18] To this end, Mehmed and his successor Bayezid, also encouraged and welcomed migration of the Jews from different parts of Europe, who were settled in Constantinople and other port cities like Salonica. In many places in Europe, Jews were suffering persecution at the hands of their Christian counterparts. The tolerance displayed by the Ottomans was welcomed by the immigrants. The Ottoman economic mind was closely related to the basic concepts of state and society in the Middle East in which the ultimate goal of a state was consolidation and extension of the ruler's power, and the way to reach it was to get rich resources of revenues by making the productive classes prosperous.[19] The ultimate aim was to increase the state revenues as much as possible without damaging the prosperity of subjects to prevent the emergence of social disorder and to keep the traditional organization of the society intact. Economic history of the Ottoman Empire covers the time period, between 1299- 1923. ... Economic history of the Ottoman Empire covers the time period, between 1299- 1923. ... This article covers the sociopolical structure of Ottoman Empire. ... While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. ...


The organization of the treasury and chancery were developed under the Ottoman Empire more than any other Islamic government and, until the 17th century, they were the leading organization among all of their contemporaries.[20] This organization developed a scribal bureaucracy (known as "men of the pen") as a distinct group, partly highly trained ulema, which developed into a professional body.[20] The effectiveness of this professional financial body stands behind the success of many great Ottoman statesmen.[21] The economic structure of the Empire was defined by its geopolitical structure. The Ottoman Empire stood between the West and the East, thus blocking the land route eastward and forcing Spanish and Portuguese navigators to set sail in search of a new route to the Orient. The empire controlled the spice route that Marco Polo once used. When Christopher Columbus first journeyed to the Bahamas in 1492, the Ottoman Empire was at its zenith, an economic power which extended over three continents. Modern Ottoman studies think that the change in relations between the Ottomans and central Europe was caused by the opening of the new sea routes. It is possible to see the decline in the significance of the land routes to the East as Western Europe opened the ocean routes that bypassed the Middle East and Mediterranean as parallel to the decline of the Ottoman Empire itself. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ...


By developing commercial centres and routes, encouraging people to extend the area of cultivated land in the country and international trade through its dominions, the state performed basic economic functions in the empire. But in all this the financial and political interests of the state were prevalent and the Ottoman administrators could not have realized, within the social and political system they were living in, the dynamics and principles of the capitalist economy of the Modern Age.[22]


State

Ambassadors at Topkapı Palace
Ambassadors at Topkapı Palace

The state organisation of the Ottoman Empire was a very simple system that had two main dimensions: the military administration and the civic administration. Sultan was the highest position in the system. The civic system was based on local administrative units based on the region's characteristics. The Ottomans practiced a system in which the state had control over the clergy, like the Byzantine. Certain pre-Islamic Turkish traditions that had survived the adoption of administrative and legal practices from Islamic Iran remained important in Ottoman administrative circles.[citation needed] According to Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims and to ensure security and harmony within its borders within the overarching context of orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty.[citation needed] The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ... The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Events January 20 - Dante - Quaestio de Aqua et Terra January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire was the government structure added to the Ottoman governing structure during the Second Constitutional Era. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vassal States were a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (852 × 642 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Foreign ambassadors being received at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan Ahmed III. Painting by Jean Baptiste Vanmour, 1725. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (852 × 642 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Foreign ambassadors being received at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan Ahmed III. Painting by Jean Baptiste Vanmour, 1725. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


The "Ottoman dynasty" or, as an institution, "House of Osman" was unprecedented and unequaled in the Islamic world for its size and duration.[23] The Ottoman dynasty was ethnically Turkish in its origins, as were some of its supporters and subjects, however the dynasty immediately lost this "Turkic" identification through intermarriage with many different ethnicities.[24] On eleven occasions, the sultan was deposed because he was perceived by his enemies as a threat to the state. There were only two attempts in the whole of Ottoman history to unseat the ruling Osmanlı dynasty, both failures, which is suggestive of a political system which for an extended period was able to manage its revolutions without unnecessary instability. After the dissolution of the empire, the new republic abolished the Caliphate and Sultanate and declared the Ottoman Dynasty as persona non grata of Turkey. Fifty years later, in 1974, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey granted descendants of the former dynasty the right to acquire Turkish citizenship. The current head of the House of Osman is Ertuğrul Osman V, living in New York City. The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... After the Turkish War of Independence (1919 - 1923), the newly established Republic of Turkey presented a list of 600 names to the Conference of Lausanne, which were to be declared as persona non grata. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Ertugrul Osman V (Full name: Devletlu Najabatlu ErtuÄŸrul Osman Efendi Hazretleri) (born August 18, 1912), is the 43rd Head of the Imperial House of Osman, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, when Turkey became a republic. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The highest position in Islam, caliphate, was claimed by the sultan which was established as Ottoman Caliphate. The Ottoman sultan, pâdişâh or "lord of kings", served as the empire's sole regent and was considered to be the embodiment of its government, though he did not always exercise complete control. The Imperial Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. It was ruled by the Valide Sultan. On occasion, the Valide Sultan would become involved in state politics. For a period of time the women of the Harem effectively controlled the state in what was termed the "Sultanate of Women". New sultans were always chosen from among the sons of the previous sultan. The strong educational system of the palace school geared towards eliminating the unfit potential heirs, and establishing support amongst the ruling elite for a successor. The palace schools, which would also educate the future administrators of the state, were not a single track. First, the Madrasa (Ottoman Turkish: Medrese) was designated for the Muslims, and educated scholars and state officials in accordance with Islamic tradition. The financial burden of the Medrese was supported by vakifs, allowing children of poor families to move to higher social levels and income.[25] The second track was a free boarding school for the Christians, the Enderûn, which recruited 3,000 students annually from Christian boys between eight and twenty years old from one in forty families among the communities settled in Rumelia and/or the Balkans, a process known as Devshirmeh (Devşirme).[26] A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... Padishah, Padshah, Padeshah, Badishah or Badshah (Persian پادشاه Pādishāh) is a very prestigious title, which is composed from the Persian words Pati master and the better-known title Shāh King, which was adopted by several Islamic monarchies claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to Christian Emperors or the... Concubine places The Imperial Harem or Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. ... The Valide Sultan was the mother of a ruling sultan in the Ottoman Empire. ... The Sultanate of Women (Turkish: Kadınlar Sultanatı) is the nearly 130-year period, in the 16th and 17th centuries, during which the women of the Harem of the Ottoman Empire exerted extraordinary political influence. ... Palace school was part of House of Ottoman system that is designated to educate (rise) Ottoman Empires governing elite. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... Enderun School (Turkish: Enderun, Ottoman Turkish:Enderûn ) which meant inner most was a free-boarding school for the Christian Millet of the Ottoman Empire, which recruited students among Devshirmeh, (Ottoman Turkish:DevÅŸirme). ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Devshirmeh (Turkish devÅŸirme, Greek, paedomazoma) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ...

Bâb-ı Âlî, the Sublime Porte

Though the sultan was the supreme monarch, the sultan's political and executive authority was delegated. The politics of the state had a number of advisors and ministers gathered around a council known as Divan (after the 17th century its name become Porte). The Divan, in the years when the Ottoman state was still a Beylik, was composed of the elders of the tribe. Its composition was later modified to include military officers and local elites (such as religious and political advisors). Later still, beginning in 1320, a Grand Vizier was appointed in order to assume certain of the sultan's responsibilities. The Grand Vizier had considerable independence from the sultan with almost unlimited powers of appointment, dismissal and supervision. Beginning with the late 16th century, sultans became withdrawn from politics and the Grand Vizier became the de facto head of state.[20] Throughout Ottoman history, there were many instances in which local governors acted independently, and even in opposition to the ruler. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, the Ottoman state became a constitutional monarchy. The sultan no longer had executive powers. A parliament was formed, with representatives chosen from the provinces. The representatives formed the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire. Image File history File links Ottoman-Empire-Divan. ... Image File history File links Ottoman-Empire-Divan. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire is the goverment structure added to the Ottoman governing structure during Second Constitutional Era. ...


The rapidly expanding empire utilized loyal, skilled subjects to manage the empire, whether Albanians, Phanariot Greeks, Armenians, Serbs, Bosniaks, Hungarians or others. The incorporation of Greeks (and other Christians), Muslims, and Jews revolutionized its administrative system.[27] This eclectic administration was apparent even in the diplomatic correspondence of the empire, which was initially undertaken in the Greek language to the west.[24] An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: Fanarioţi) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Croatia... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ...


The Tughra were calligraphic monograms, or signatures, of the Ottoman Sultans, of which there were 35. Carved on the Sultan's seal, they bore the names of the Sultan and his father. The prayer/statement “ever victorious” was also present in most. The earliest belonged to Orhan Gazi. The ornately stylized Tughra spawned a branch of Ottoman-Turkish calligraphy. The tughra of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ...


Society

Main article: Social structure in the Ottoman Empire
Social structure
of the Ottoman Empire
Millet (Ottoman Empire)
Jews - Armenians - Greeks
Rise of nationalism - Ottomanism
Lifestyle - Ottoman court
See also
Slavery – Devşirme

One of the successes of the social structure of the Ottoman Empire was the unity that it brought about among its highly varied populations through an organization named as millets. The Millets were the major religious groups that were allowed to establish their own communities under Ottoman rule. The Millets were established by retaining their own religious laws, traditions, and language under the general protection of the sultan. Plurality was the key to the longevity of the Empire. As early as the reign of Mehmed II, extensive rights were granted to Phanariot Greeks, and Jews were invited to settle in Ottoman territory. Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire's relatively high degree of tolerance for ethnic differences proved to be one of its greatest strengths in integrating the new regions but this non-assimilative policy became a weakness after the rise of nationalism. The dissolution of the empire based on ethnic differentiation (balkanization) brought the final end which the failed Ottomanism among the citizens and participatory politics of the first or the constitutional Era had successfully addressed. There is considerable controversy regarding social structure in the Ottoman Empire. ... There is considerable controversy regarding social structure in the Ottoman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ... Proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 Ottomanism (Osmanlılık or Osmanlıcılık) was a concept which developed prior to the First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman court or the culture that evolved around the court of the Ottoman Empire was known as the Ottoman Way. To get a high position in the empire, one must be skilled in the Way. ... The Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society. ... Blood tax (from Topkape Saraj); gravure that depicts young boys forcibly taken from their families to grow up in captivity and later become the elite of the Ottoman army. ... Although it can be said that the legacy of Arab rule was the religion of Islam, for the Turkish their claim to a legacy belongs to the formation of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: Fanarioţi) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... Balkanization is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other. ... Proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 Ottomanism (Osmanlılık or Osmanlıcılık) was a concept which developed prior to the First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire. ... Graphical timeline The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of a Basic Law by Abdülhamid II on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878 when the constitution was suspended. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ...


Lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire was a mixture of western and eastern life. One unique characteristic of Ottoman life style was it was very fragmented. The millet concept generated this fragmentation and enabled many to coexist in a mosaic of cultures. The Capital of the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople also had a unique culture, mainly because it laid on two continents. The life style in the Ottoman court in many aspects assembled ancient traditions of the Persian Shahs, but had many Greek and European influences. The culture that evolved around the Ottoman court was known as the Ottoman Way, which was epitomized with the Topkapı Palace. There were also large metropolitan centers where the Ottoman influence expressed itself with a diversity similar to metropolises of today: Sarajevo, Skopje, Thessaloniki, Dimashq, Baghdad, Beirut, Jerusalem, Makkah and Algiers with their own small versions of Ottoman Provincial Administration replicating the culture of the Ottoman court locally. The seraglio, which were the non imperial places, in the context of the Turkish fashion, became the subject of works of art, where non imperial prince or referring to other grand houses built around courtyards. Goverment life Economic Life Category: Ottoman Empire ... This article is about a decorative art. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. ... Ottoman court or the culture that evolved around the court of the Ottoman Empire was known as the Ottoman Way. To get a high position in the empire, one must be skilled in the Way. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... This is about Damascus, the capital of Syria. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. In the context of the turquerie fashion, the seraglio became the subject of works of art, the most famous perhaps being Mozarts...


The slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a part of Ottoman society.[28] As late as 1908 women slaves were still sold in the Empire.[29] During the 19th century the Empire came under pressure from Western European countries to outlaw the practice. Policies developed by various Sultans throughout the 19th century attempted to curtail the slave trade but, since slavery did have centuries of religious backing and sanction, they could never directly abolish the institution outright — as had gradually happened in Western Europe and the Americas. The Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

See also: Devshirmeh

Devshirmeh (Turkish devÅŸirme, Greek, paedomazoma) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ...

Culture

Culture
of the Ottoman Empire
Architecture - Ottoman Turkish - Music - Cuisine
Poetry - Prose - Miniature -
oil wrestling -
Selimiye Mosque was the masterpiece of Mimar Sinan, chief architect of Sultans Selim I, Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II and Murad III
Selimiye Mosque was the masterpiece of Mimar Sinan, chief architect of Sultans Selim I, Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II and Murad III

The Ottoman Empire had filled roughly the territories around the Mediterranean Sea and Black sea, while adopting their traditions, art and institutions of cultures in these regions; and adding new dimensions to them. Many different cultures lived under the umbrella of the Ottoman Empire, and as a result, a specifically "Ottoman" culture can be difficult to define, except for those of the regional centers and capital. However, there was also, to a great extent, a specific melding of cultures that can be said to have reached its highest levels among the Ottoman elite, who were composed of myriad ethnic and religious groups. This multicultural perspective of "millets" was reflected in the Ottoman State's multi-cultural and multi-religious policies. As the Ottomans moved further west, the Ottoman leaders absorbed some of the culture of the conquered regions. Intercultural marriages also played their part in creating the characteristic Ottoman elite culture. When compared to the Turkish folk culture, the influence of these new cultures in creating the culture of the Ottoman elite was very apparent. Early on as the Ottoman Turks drove out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. ... Early on as the Ottoman Turks drove out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman classical music (Türk Sanat Müziği) is a kind of music that developed parallel with the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman Cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its successors in Anatolia, the Balkans, and much of the Middle East. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The prose of the Ottoman Empire can, roughly, be divided along the lines of two broad periods: early Ottoman prose, written prior to the 19th century CE and exclusively nonfictional in nature; and later Ottoman prose, which extended from the mid-19th century Tanzimat period of reform to the final... Ottoman Miniature was an art form in the Ottoman Empire, derviving mainly from the Arab-Persian miniature tradition, especially in its Baghdad version, and also with Chinese influences. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 592 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 592 pixel, file size: 158 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sinan should no be confused with Sinan Pasha. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Matrimony redirects here. ...

"Ottoman architecture" was influenced by Persian Architecture, Byzantine Greek, and Islamic architecture. The Ottoman architecture (as well as Timurid and Seljuq) are a continuation of the pre-Islamic Persian Sassanid architecture. For instance, the dome covered square, which had been a dominant form in Sassanid became the nucleus of all Ottoman architecture.[30][31] During the Rise period the early or first Ottoman architecture period, the Ottoman art was in search of new ideas. The growth period of the empire become the classical period of architecture, which Ottoman art was at its most confident. During the years of the Stagnation period, Ottoman architecture moved away from this style however. During the Tulip Era, it was under the influence of the highly ornamented styles of Western Europe; Baroque, Rococo, Empire and other styles intermingled. Concepts of Ottoman architecture mainly circle around the mosque. The mosque was integral to society, city planning and communal life. Besides the mosque, it is also possible to find good examples of Ottoman architecture in soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths and tombs. Examples of Ottoman architecture of the classical period, aside from İstanbul and Edirne, can also be seen in Egypt, Eritrea, Tunisia, Algiers, the Balkans and Hungary, where mosques, bridges, fountains and schools were built. The art of Ottoman decoration developed with a multitude of influences due to the wide ethnic range of the Ottoman Empire. The greatest of the court artisans enriched the Ottoman Empire with many pluralistic artistic influences: such as mixing traditional Byzantine art with elements of Chinese art.[32] A view of the Dolmabahçe from the Bosphorus with modern Istanbul in the background The famous Crystal Staircase The main hall The Dolmabahçe Palace (Turkish: ) is a palace in Istanbul, located at the western, European, side of the Bosphorus. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Baháí House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. ... The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... The Tulip Era is an important period for the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... Empire is an early 19th century style of architecture and furniture design that and originates from Napoleons rule of France. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... A soup kitchen is a place where food is offered to the poor for free or at a reasonably low price. ... A hospital today is an institution for professional health care provided by physicians and nurses. ... This article is about the Turkish bath establishment. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... Adrianople redirects here. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ...


"Ottoman Turkish language" was a variety of Turkish, highly influenced by Persian and Arabic. Ottomans had three influential languages; Turkish, Persian, Arabic but they did not have a parallel status. Throughout the vast Ottoman bureaucracy and, in particular, within the Ottoman court in later times, a version of Turkish was spoken, albeit with a vast mixture of both Arabic and Persian grammar and vocabulary. If the basic grammar was still largely Turkish, the inclusion of virtually any word in Arabic or Persian in Ottoman made it a language which was essentially incomprehensible to any Ottoman subject who had not mastered Arabic, Persian or both. The two varieties of the language became extremely differentiated and this resulted in a low literacy rate among the general public (about 2–3% until the early 19th century and just about 15% at the end of 19th century). Consequently, ordinary people had to hire special "request-writers" (arzıhâlcis) in order to be able to communicate with the government. The ethnic groups continued to speak within their families and neighborhoods (mahalles) with their own languages (e.g. Jews, Greeks, Armenians etc.). In villages where two or more populations lived together, the inhabitants would often speak each other's language. In cosmopolitan cities, people often spoke their family languages, some Ottoman or Persian if they were educated, and some Arabic if they were Muslim. In the last two centuries, French and English emerged as popular languages, especially among the Christian Levantine communities. The elite learned French at school, and used European products as a fashion statement. The use of Turkish grew steadily under the Ottomans, but, since they were still interested in their two other official languages, they kept these in use as well. Usage of these came to be limited, though, and specific: Persian served mainly as a literary language, while Arabic was used solely for religious rites. At this time many famous Persian poets emerged. Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Mahalle is an Arabic and Turkish word, which usually translates into neighbourhood. In the Ottoman Empire the mahalle was the smallest entity. ... The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and in the east, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia. ...


"Ottoman classical music" was an important part of the education of the Ottoman elite, a number of the Ottoman sultans were accomplished musicians and composers themselves, such as Selim III, whose compositions are still frequently performed today. Ottoman classical music arose largely from a confluence of Byzantine music, Arabic music, and Persian music. Compositionally, it is organised around rhythmic units called usul, which are somewhat similar to meter in Western music, and melodic units called makam, which bear some resemblance to Western musical modes. The instruments used are a mixture of Anatolian and Central Asian instruments (the saz, the bağlama, the kemence), other Middle Eastern instruments (the ud, the tanbur, the kanun, the ney), and — later in the tradition — Western instruments (the violin and the piano). Because of a geographic and cultural divide between the capital and other areas, two broadly distinct styles of music arose in the Ottoman Empire: Ottoman classical music, and folk music. In the provinces, several different kinds of Folk music were created. The most dominant regions with their distinguished musical styles are: Balkan-Thracian Türküs, North-Eastern (Laz) Türküs, Aegean Türküs, Central Anatolian Türküs, Eastern Anatolian Türküs, and Caucasian Türküs. Some of the distinctive styles were: Janissary Music, Roma music, Belly dance, Turkish folk music. Ottoman classical music (Türk Sanat Müziği) is a kind of music that developed parallel with the Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) and by extension the music of its culture(s) as they continued in the Orthodox Christian parts of the population after the fall of the empire to the rule of the Ottoman Empire. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... For the popular Tamil film, see Rhythm (film). ... In Ottoman / Turkish music theory, the term usul denotes a rhythmic pattern that forms the framework of a composition. ... Metre or meter (US) is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western music notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... This article is about the music instrument. ... The baÄŸlama is a stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean. ... 1 Tepe - Top : Same as the body To Kifal - Head : Same as the body 2 Otia - Pegs (Ears): Same as the body 3 Goula - Neck : Same as the body 4 Spaler - Fingerboard (Slabbering bib) : Same as the body 5 Kapak - Soundboard 6 Rothounia - Soundholes (Nostrals) 7 Gaidaron - Bridge (Rider): Made... Front and rear views of an oud. ... Tanbur The tanbur (var. ... The qanún or kanun is a musical string instrument used in Middle-Eastern music. ... For other uses, see Ney (disambiguation). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Laz may refer to one of the following: Lazs (a Caucasian (Kartvelian) people) Laz language The wife of the Babylonian God Nergal Laz, Finistère (a commune in the Finistère département, France) Lvivskyi Avtobusnyi Zavod (a bus factory in Ukraine) This page concerning a three-letter acronym or... A modern mehter marching band Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching band in the world. ... 19th century print of Roma musicians Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... Raqs Sharqi dancer Chryssanthi Sahar Scharf, Heidelberg. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


The "Ottoman cuisine" refers to the cuisine of the capital — Constantinople, and the regional capital cities, where the melting pot of cultures created a common cuisine that all the populations enjoyed. This diverse cuisine was honed in the Imperial Palace's kitchens by chefs brought from certain parts of the empire to create and experiment with different ingredients. The creations of the Ottoman Palace's kitchens filtered to the population, for instance through Ramadan events, and through the cooking at the Yalıs of the Pashas, and from there on spread to the rest of the population. Today, the Ottoman cuisine lives in the Balkans, Anatolia and the Middle East; i.e. in regions that are common heirs to what was once the Ottoman life-style, and their cuisines offer abundant circumstantial evidence of this fact.[33] Besides, one should not forget that it is typical of any great cuisine in the world to be based on local varieties and on mutual exchange and enrichment among them, but at the same time to be homogenized and harmonized by a metropolitan tradition of refined taste.[33] Ottoman Cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its successors in Anatolia, the Balkans, and much of the Middle East. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... A Yalı is a waterfront summer mansion and residence, which were established in timber construction method particularly on the bank of the Bosphorus in Istanbul. ... Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paÅŸa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Balkan redirects here. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in the Ottoman Empire

Before adopting Islam — a process that was greatly facilitated by the Abbasid victory at the 751 Battle of Talas, which ensured Abbasid influence in Central Asia — the Turkic peoples practised a variety of shamanism. After this battle, many of the various Turkic tribes — including the Oghuz Turks, who were the ancestors of both the Seljuks and the Ottomans — gradually converted to Islam, and brought the religion with them to Anatolia beginning in the 11th century. Mehmed II and his agreement (ﻋﻬﺪنامه ahdnâme) to protect Bosnian Christians During the first centuries of control over Balkans by the Ottoman Empire, the Christian population, and especially the Orthodox Christians (who were not under the protection of a Great Power of that time, as were the Catholics,[1][2... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...


The Ottoman Empire was, in principle, tolerant towards Christians and Jews (the "Ahl Al-Kitab", or "People of the Book", according to the Qu'ran) but not towards the polytheists, in accordance with the Sharia law. Such tolerance was subject to a non-Muslim tax, the Jizya. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ...


Under the millet system, non-Muslim people were considered subjects of the empire, but were not subject to the Muslim faith or Muslim law. The Orthodox millet, for instance, was still officially legally subject to Justinian's Code, which had been in effect in the Byzantine Empire for 900 years. Also, as the largest group of non-Muslim subjects (or zimmi) of the Islamic Ottoman state, the Orthodox millet was granted a number of special privileges in the fields of politics and commerce, in addition to having to pay higher taxes than Muslim subjects.[34],[35] Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...


The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II allowed the local Christians to stay in Constantinople (Istanbul) after conquering the city in 1453, and to retain their institutions such as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate. In 1461 Sultan Mehmed II established the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople. Previously, the Byzantines considered the Armenian Church as heretical and thus did not allow them to build churches inside the walls of Constantinople. In 1492, when the Muslims and Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain during the Spanish Inquisition, the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II sent his fleet under Kemal Reis to save them and granted the refugees the right to settle in the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Patriarch Harutyun I The Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople is today head of one of the smallest Patriarchates of the Oriental Orthodox Church but has exerted a very significant political role and today still exercises a spiritual authority, which earns him considerable respect among Orthodox churches. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ...


The state's relationship with the Greek Orthodox Church was largely peaceful, and recurrent oppressive measures taken against the Greek church were a deviation from generally established practice. The church's structure was kept intact and largely left alone but under close control and scrutiny until the Greek War of Independence of 1821–1831 and, later in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the rise of the Ottoman constitutional monarchy, which was driven to some extent by nationalistic currents, tried to be balanced with Ottomanism. Other Orthodox churches, like the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, were dissolved and placed under the jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate; until Sultan Abdülaziz established the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870 and reinstated the autonomy of the Bulgarian Church. The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution of 1876 Ottomanism (Osmanlılık or Osmanlıcılık) was a concept which developed prior to the First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. ... An early 20th century postcard depicting the Bulgarian St Stephen Church in Istanbul The Bulgarian Exarchate (Bulgarian: ) was the official name of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church before its autocephaly was recognized by the other Orthodox churches in the 1950s. ...


Similar millets were established for the Ottoman Jewish community, who were under the authority of the Haham Başı or Ottoman Chief Rabbi; the Armenian Orthodox community, who were under the authority of a head bishop; and a number of other religious communities as well. Hakham Bashi (Turkish: Hahambaşı) is the Turkish name for the Chief Rabbi of the nation. ... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


Law

Further information: Mecelle
An Ottoman trial, 1877 (see image detail for explanation)

Ottoman legal system accepted the Religious law over its subjects. The Ottoman Empire was always organized around a system of local jurisprudence. Legal administration in the Ottoman Empire was part of a larger scheme of balancing central and local authority.[36] Ottoman power revolved crucially around the administration of the rights to land, which gave a space for the local authority develop the needs of the local millet.[36] The jurisdictional complexity of the Ottoman Empire was aimed to permit the integration of culturally and religiously different groups.[36] The Ottoman system had three court systems: one for Muslims, one for non-Muslims, involving appointed Jews and Christians ruling over their respective religious communities, and the "trade court". The entire system was regulated from above by means of the administrative Kanun, i.e. laws, a system based upon the Turkic Yasa and Töre which were developed in the pre-Islamic era. The kanun law system, on the other hand, was the secular law of the sultan, and dealt with issues not clearly addressed by the sharia system. Ottoman civil codec. ... Image File history File links 1879-Ottoman_Court-from-NYL.png Summary Mid-Manhattan Library / Picture Collection NYPL Call Number: PC TRI-18 Captions: Under consular protection : orphans from Batak preparing rice for their dinner under the superintendence of the British Consuls Cavass; The trial of the Bashi-Bazouks : a... Image File history File links 1879-Ottoman_Court-from-NYL.png Summary Mid-Manhattan Library / Picture Collection NYPL Call Number: PC TRI-18 Captions: Under consular protection : orphans from Batak preparing rice for their dinner under the superintendence of the British Consuls Cavass; The trial of the Bashi-Bazouks : a... Image File history File links 1879-Ottoman_Court-from-NYL.png Summary Mid-Manhattan Library / Picture Collection NYPL Call Number: PC TRI-18 Captions: Under consular protection : orphans from Batak preparing rice for their dinner under the superintendence of the British Consuls Cavass; The trial of the Bashi-Bazouks : a... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


These court categories were not, however, wholly exclusive in nature: for instance, the Islamic courts — which were the empire's primary courts — could also be used to settle a trade conflict or disputes between litigants of differing religions, and Jews and Christians often went to them so as to obtain a more forceful ruling on an issue. The Ottoman state tended not to interfere with non-Muslim religious law systems, despite legally having a voice to do so through local governors. The Islamic Sharia law system had been developed from a combination of the Qur'ān; the Hadīth, or words of the prophet Muhammad; ijmā', or consensus of the members of the Muslim community; qiyas, a system of analogical reasoning from previous precedents; and local customs. Both systems were taught at the empire's law schools, which were in Constantinople and Bursa. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ...


Tanzimat reforms, had a drastic effect on the law system. In 1877, the civil law (excepting family law) was codified in the Mecelle code. Later codifications covered commercial law, penal law and civil procedure. The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... Ottoman civil codec. ... Commercial law (sometimes known as business law) is the body of law which governs business and commerce. ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ...


Military

Military
of the Ottoman Empire
Sipahi - Akinci - Timariot - Janissary
- Nizam-ı Cedid
Navy - Air Force
Conflicts: Europe - Russian - Near East - Sieges and Landings
See also: Reform - Naval treaties - Kaptan Pashas
See also: Ottoman wars in Europe, History of the Russo-Turkish wars, and Ottoman wars in Near East

The military of Ottoman Empire was structured in three organizational structures Army, Navy, and Air Force. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Akıncı was the light cavalry division of the Ottoman Army. ... A timariot (or timar holder; timarlu in Turkish) was an irregular cavalryman that served the Ottoman sultan and in return was granted a fief called a timar. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The Nizam-ı Cedid (from Arabic Niẓām jadīd via Persian Nizām-e jadīd - New Order) was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire sultan Selim III during the late eighteenth century in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. ... This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Graphical timeline Ottoman wars in Near East covers the Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Cacuses. ... The following is an List of Ottoman sieges and landings from the 14th century to World War I. // Main article: Rise of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Growth of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire Main article: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire Barbary pirates Ottoman wars... When Selim III came to the throne in 1789 an ambitious effort of military reform was launched, geared towards securing the Ottoman Empire. ... There were 21 naval collaboration treaties of the Ottoman Empire. ... Below is the list of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas between 1401 and 1867. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire during the 17th, 18th, and 19th and 20th centuries. ... Graphical timeline Ottoman wars in Near East covers the Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Cacuses. ...

Ottoman Army

The first military unit of the Ottoman State was an army that was organized by Osman I from the tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 13th century. The military system became an intricate organization with the advance of the Empire. This does not cite its references or sources. ...

A Janissary sketched by the renowned Venetian artist Gentile Bellini (1429-1507) who also painted the famous portrait of Sultan Mehmed II
A Janissary sketched by the renowned Venetian artist Gentile Bellini (1429-1507) who also painted the famous portrait of Sultan Mehmed II
Sipahis were the elite cavalry knights of the Ottoman Empire
Sipahis were the elite cavalry knights of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman military was a complex system of recruiting and fief-holding. The main corps of the Ottoman Army included: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 648 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Janissary drawing from Gentile Bellini. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 489 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (529 × 648 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Janissary drawing from Gentile Bellini. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Portrait of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus by Gentile Bellini, at the Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (815 × 1082 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (815 × 1082 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ...

  • Janissary: Infantry units recruited at a very young age from the non-Muslim ethnic groups of the empire and raised as Muslim Turkish warriors; also forming the Sultan's household troops and bodyguard. Most of the recruits were Christian Balkans.
  • Sipahi: Elite cavalry knights who were granted tımars (fiefs) throughout the empire's lands. Their alternative name was Tîmârlı Sipahi (Enfiefed Knight).
  • Akıncı: Frontline cavalry units of the Ottoman Army which raided and scouted the border areas and outposts.
  • Mehtaran: Ottoman Army Band which played martial tunes during military campaigns. The mehterân was usually associated with the Janissary corps.

The Ottoman army was once among the most advanced fighting forces in the world, being one of the first to employ muskets. The Ottoman cavalry used bows and short swords and often applied nomad tactics similar to those of the Mongol Empire; such as pretending to retreat while surrounding the enemy forces inside a crescent-shaped formation and then making the real attack. The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Warriors may refer to Warriors (book series) is a series of fantasy novels written by Kate Cary and Cherith Baldry, under the pen name Erin Hunter. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Balkan redirects here. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Timar was a form of land tenure in Ottoman Empire, consisting in grant of lands or revenues by the Ottoman Sultan to an individual in compensation for his services, especially military services. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Akıncı was the light cavalry division of the Ottoman Army. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ...


Starting from the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, the Ottoman army quickly advanced towards central Europe, capturing Hungary with the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and twice laying siege to Vienna, in 1529 and 1683. Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Bosnia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[9][10][11] ~ 12,000-30,000[9][10][11][12] Casualties moderate amount; Sultan Murad I killed as a result of a ruse Extremely high; most of... // Belligerents Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Hungary, Holy Roman Empire, France, Wallachia, Poland, England, Kingdom of Scotland, Old Swiss Confederacy, Republic of Venice, Republic of Genoa, Knights of St. ... This article is about the better-known Battle of Mohács of 1526. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Bavaria Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000, (10,000 during siege) 138,000, (200...


The modernization of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century started with the military. In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II abolished the Janissary corps and established the modern Ottoman army, which he named as the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order). The Ottoman army was also the first institution to hire foreign experts and send its officers for training in western European countries. The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... The Nizam-ı Cedid (from Arabic Niẓām jadÄ«d via Persian Nizām-e jadÄ«d - New Order) was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire sultan Selim III during the late eighteenth century in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. ...


Ottoman Navy

Main article: Ottoman Navy
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, admiral of the Ottoman navy
The Battle of Zonchio in 1499, the first naval battle where cannons were used on ships, signaled the rise of Ottoman naval power

The conquest of İmralı Island in the Sea of Marmara in 1308 marked the first Ottoman naval victory (for a timeline of the naval actions of the Ottoman fleet, see the History of the Turkish Navy). In 1321 the Ottoman fleet made its first landings on Thrace in southeastern Europe, and vastly contributed to the expansion of the empire's territories on the European continent. The Ottoman navy was one of the first to use cannons, and the Battle of Zonchio in 1499 went down in history as the first naval battle where cannons were used on ships. It was also the Ottoman navy which initiated the conquest of North Africa, with the addition of Algeria and Egypt to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. The Battle of Preveza in 1538 and the Battle of Djerba in 1560 marked the apex of Ottoman naval domination in the Mediterranean Sea. The Ottomans also confronted the Portuguese forces based in Goa at the Indian Ocean in numerous battles between 1538 and 1566. In 1553, the Ottoman admiral Salih Reis conquered Morocco and the lands of North Africa beyond the Strait of Gibraltar, extending Ottoman territory into the Atlantic Ocean. In 1566 the Sultan of Aceh asked for support against the Portuguese and declared allegiance to the Ottoman Empire, which sent its Indian Ocean fleet under Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis to Sumatra. The fleet landed at Aceh in 1569, and the event marked the easternmost Ottoman territorial expansion. In 1585 the Ottoman admiral Murat Reis captured Lanzarote[37] of the Canary Islands. In 1617 the Ottoman fleet captured Madeira[37] in the Atlantic Ocean, before raiding Sussex, Plymouth, Devon, Hartland Point, Cornwall and the other counties of western England in August 1625.[37] In 1627 Ottoman naval ships, accompanied by corsairs from the Barbary Coast, raided the Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway and Iceland.[37] Between 1627 and 1631 the same Ottoman force also raided the coasts of Ireland and Sweden.[37] In 1655 a force of 40 Ottoman ships captured the Isle of Lundy in the Bristol Channel, which served as the main base for Ottoman naval and privateering operations in the North Atlantic until 1660, when Ottoman ships appeared off the eastern coasts of North America, particularly being sighted at the British colonies like Newfoundland and Virginia.[37] The overseas territorial acquisitions of the Ottoman Navy further expanded the extent of the Ottoman sphere of influence on distant lands in both the Indian and Atlantic oceans, such as the addition of Aceh (1569) as a vassal state to the Ottoman Empire, and temporary occupations like those of Lanzarote (1585), Madeira (1617), Vestmannaeyjar (1627) and Lundy (1655–1660).[37] This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... Image File history File links Barbarossa_Hayreddin_Pasha. ... Image File history File links Barbarossa_Hayreddin_Pasha. ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Battle_of_Zonchio_1499. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Battle_of_Zonchio_1499. ... Combatants Republic of Venice Ottoman Empire Commanders Antonio Grimani Kemal Reis Strength 47 galleys, 17 galliots, circa 100 small vessels 67 galleys, 20 galliots, circa 200 small vessels Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis at the Battle of Zonchio The naval Battle of Zonchio, also known as... Ä°mralı is a small Turkish island located in the south of Sea of Marmara, west of Armutlu-Bozburun peninsula within the Bursa Province. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... The Turkish Navy was once the largest sea power in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean; entering the history books of many countries in distant lands such as the British Isles, Scandinavia, Iceland, Labrador, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Newfoundland and Virginia in the... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Venice Ottoman Empire Commanders Antonio Grimani Kemal Reis Strength 47 galleys, 17 galliots, circa 100 small vessels 67 galleys, 20 galliots, circa 200 small vessels Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis at the Battle of Zonchio The naval Battle of Zonchio, also known as...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The naval Battle of Preveza took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwest Greece and was an important victory for an Ottoman fleet commanded by Khair ad Din (Barbarossa) over a Spanish-Venetian fleet commanded by the great Genoese admiral Andrea Doria fleet despite the allies having a... // Combatants Christian Alliance: Spain Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Giovanni Andrea Doria Piyale Pasha Turgut Reis Strength 50-60 galleys 40 other vessels 12,000-14,000 soldiers 90 galleys 30 galliots 20,000 soldiers Casualties 30 galleys... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Salih Reis (1488 ca. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... KurtoÄŸlu Hızır Reis was an Ottoman admiral who is best known for commanding the Ottoman naval expedition to Sumatra in Indonesia (1568-1569). ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Murat Reis Mosque in Rhodes Murat Reis the Elder (Turkish: ) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Lanzarote is also the title of a novella by Michel Houellebecq, translated into English by Frank Wynne. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... Hartland Point is a rocky outcrop of land on the coast of Devon in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... This article is about the island of Lundy, which is part of England. ... Satellite view of the Bristol Channel Map of the Bristol Channel The Bristol Channel (Welsh: ) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from the West Country and extending from the lower estuary of the River Severn (Afon Hafren) to that part of the North... North American redirects here. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... KurtoÄŸlu Hızır Reis was an Ottoman admiral who is best known for commanding the Ottoman naval expedition to Sumatra in Indonesia (1568-1569). ... Lanzarote is also the title of a novella by Michel Houellebecq, translated into English by Frank Wynne. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Location of Vestmannaeyjar in Iceland (lower left) County Vestmannaeyjar Constituency South Area 13 km² ( 8,1mi²) Population Total (2003) Density 4349 334/km² Postal codes IS-900 Latitude Longitude Municipal website Cliffs on Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar Off the southwest coast of Iceland Vestmannaeyjar (English: The Westman Islands) is a small archipelago... This article is about the island of Lundy, which is part of England. ...

Mahmudiye (1829), ordered by Sultan Mahmud II and built by the Imperial Naval Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Constantinople, was for many years the largest warship in the world. The 62x17x7 m ship-of-the-line was armed with 128 cannons on 3 decks. She participated in many important naval battles, including the Siege of Sevastopol (1854-1855) during the Crimean War (1854-1856). She was decommissioned in 1875

Following defeat against the combined British-French-Russian navies at the Battle of Navarino in 1827, and the subsequent loss of Algeria (1830) and Greece (1832), Ottoman naval power, and control over the empire's distant overseas territories declined. Sultan Abdülaziz (reigned 1861–1876) attempted to reestablish a strong Ottoman navy, building the third largest fleet after that of Britain and France with 21 battleships and 173 other types of warships. The shipyard at Barrow, United Kingdom built its first submarine in 1886 for the Ottoman Empire. [38] The submarine Abdul Hamid achieved fame as the world’s first to fire a torpedo underwater. [39] But the collapsing Ottoman economy could not sustain the fleet strength. Sultan Abdülhamid II (reigned 1876–1908) distrusted the navy, when the admirals supported the reformist Midhat Pasha and the First Ottoman Parliament of 1876. Claiming that the large and expensive navy was of no use against the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), he locked most of the fleet inside the Golden Horn, where the ships decayed for the next 30 years. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... HMS Victory in 1884, the only surviving example of a ship-of-the-line. ... Combatants Second French Empire, United Kingdom Russian Empire Commanders General François Canrobert (later replaced by General Pélissier) Lord Raglen Admiral Kornilov (later replaced by Admiral Pavel Nakhimov) Lt. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Combatants United Kingdom France Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Ottoman Vilayet of Egypt Ottoman Vilayet of Tunisia Commanders Edward Codrington (C-in-C) Henri de Rigny Login Heyden Ibrahim Pasha (C-in-C) Amir Tahir Pasha (Adm comm) Moharram Bey Capitan Bey Strength 10 battleships 10 frigates 4 brigs 2 schooners... Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd-ul-Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdülhemit, Abdul Hamid, Abd al-Hamid II, or Abdul-Hamid (Arabic: عبد الحميد الثاني) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. ... Midhat Pasha (1822-1884) was a Turkish statesman. ... Graphical timeline The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of a Basic Law by Abdülhamid II on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878 when the constitution was suspended. ... Combatants  Russian Empire Romania Serbia Bulgaria Montenegro  Ottoman Empire Commanders Mikhail Skobelev Mikhail Loris-Melikov Ivan Lazarev Carol I of Romania Ahmed Muhtar Pasha Russia preparing to release the Balkan dogs of war, while Britain warns him to take care. ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden...

The Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in Constantinople, in the early days of the First World War

Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Committee of Union and Progress which effectively took control of the country sought to develop a strong Ottoman naval force. The poor condition of the fleet during the Ottoman Naval Parade of 1910 saddened every Turk who saw it, and the Ottoman Navy Foundation was established in order to purchase new ships through public donations. Those who made donations received different types of medals according to the size of their contributions. With this public money, the Ottoman government ordered large battleships like Sultan Osman I and Reşadiye, but despite the payment for both ships, the United Kingdom confiscated them at the outbreak of World War I and renamed them as HMS Agincourt and HMS Erin. This caused some ill-feeling towards Britain among the Ottoman public, and the German Empire took advantage of the situation by sending the battlecruiser Yavuz Sultan Selim and light cruiser Midilli which entered service in the Ottoman fleet. This event significantly contributed to the decision of supporting Germany in the First World War, with whom the Ottomans sided. This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ), initially a secret society established as the Committee of Ottoman Union (Ä°ttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti in 1889 by the medical students Ä°brahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, Ä°shak Sükuti and Hüseyinzade Ali, became was a political... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... HMS Agincourt was a World War One Dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy. ... Crew members - 1914 HMS Erin was originally ordered for the navy of the Ottoman empire and named Reshadiye, she was built by Vickers and designed by Sir George Thurston. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... SMS Goeben was a Moltke-class battlecruiser of the Kaiserliche Marine (German Navy), launched in 1911 and named after the Franco-Prussian War general August von Goeben. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... The SMS Breslau was a Magdeburg-class light cruiser of the German Kaiserliche Marine, launched on 16 May 1911 and commissioned in 1912. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...

See also: List of naval collaboration treaties signed by the Ottoman Empire

There were 21 naval collaboration treaties of the Ottoman Empire. ...

Ottoman Air Force

Main article: Ottoman Air Force
Turkish pilots in early 1912
Turkish pilots in early 1912

The Ottoman Air Force was founded in June 1909, making it one of the first combat aviation organizations in the world. Its formation came about after the Ottoman Empire sent two Turkish pilots to the International Aviation Conference in Paris. After witnessing the growing importance of an air combat support branch, the Ottoman government decided to organize its own military aviation program. For this purpose, officers were sent to Europe by the end of 1910 to participate in the study of combat flight. However, because of bad living conditions, the student program was aborted and the trainees returned to Turkey in early 1911. Although left without any governmental guidelines for establishing an air force, the Ottoman Minister of Defence of the time, Mahmut Şevket Paşa, continued to encourage the idea of a military aviation program and sent officers Fesa and Yusuf Kenan, who achieved the highest maneuvering points in a piloting test conducted in 1911, to France for receiving a more satisfactory flight education. In late 1911 Süreyya Ilmen was instructed with founding the Havacılık Komisyonu (Aviation Commission) bound to the Harbiye Bakanlığı Fen Kıtaları Müstahkem Genel Müfettişliği (War Ministry Science Detachment General Inspectorship). On February 21, 1912, Fesa and Yusuf Kenan completed their flight education and returned home with the 780th and 797th French aviation diplomas. In the same year, eight more Turkish officers were sent to France for flight education. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Ottoman Empire started preparing its first pilots and planes, and with the founding of the Hava Okulu (Air Academy) in Constantinople on July 3, 1912, the empire began to tutor its own flight officers. The founding of the Air Academy quickened advancement in the military aviation program, increased the number of enlisted persons within it, and gave the new pilots an active role in the Armed Forces. In May 1913 the world's first specialized Reconnaissance Training Program was activated by the Air Academy and the first separate Reconnaissance division was established by the Air Force. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), and the Air Force of the Republic of Turkey. ...


Because of the lack of experience of the Turkish pilots, the first stage (1912) of the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) ended with the loss of several aircraft. However, the second stage (1913) was marked with great success since the pilots had become more battle-hardened. Many recruits joined the Air Academy following a surge of Turkish nationalism during the war. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar...


With the end of the Balkan Wars a modernization process started and new planes were purchased. In June 1914 a new military academy, Deniz Hava Okulu (Naval Aviation Academy) was founded, also in Constantinople. With the outbreak of World War I, the modernization process stopped abruptly, but in 1915 some German officers came to the Ottoman Empire and some Turkish officers went to Germany for flight education. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The Ottoman Air Force fought on many fronts during World War I, from Galicia in the west to the Caucasus in the east and Yemen in the south. Efforts were made to reorganize the Ottoman Air Force, but this ended in 1918 with the end of World War I and the occupation of Constantinople. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Kinross, 23
  2. ^ (Turkish) Sultan Osman I, Turkish Ministry of Culture website
  3. ^ Savory, R. M. (1960). "The Principal Offices of the Ṣafawid State during the Reign of Ismā'īl I (907-30/1501-24)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 23 (1): 91-105. 
  4. ^ Hess, Andrew C. (January 1973). "The Ottoman Conquest of Egypt (1517) and the Beginning of the Sixteenth-Century World War". International Journal of Middle East Studies 4 (1): 55-76. 
  5. ^ Imber, 50.
  6. ^ Mansel, 61
  7. ^ Imber, 53.
  8. ^ Kinross, 272.
  9. ^ Kinross, 272.
  10. ^ Madden, Thomas (2005). Crusades The Illustrated History. Ann Arbor: University of Michiga P, p. 195. 
  11. ^ Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution, p. 89
  12. ^ Leslie Peirce "The Imperial Harem: Women and sovereignty in the Ottoman empire and Morality Tales: Law and gender in the Ottoman court of Aintab"
  13. ^ Richard G. (EDT) Hovannisian "The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times" page 198
  14. ^ Jastrow, Morris, The War and the Bagdad Railroad (1917) ASIN B0006D8OSQ
  15. ^ New York Times Dispatch. Lord Bryce's report on Armenian atrocities an appalling catalogue of outrage and massacre. The New York Times, October 8, 1916.
  16. ^ Erik Jan Zürcher, "Between Death and Desertion. The Experience of the Ottoman Soldier in World War I", Turcica 28 (1996), pp.235-258. See p. 241.
  17. ^ Mustafa Kemal Pasha's speech on his arrival in Ankara in November 1919
  18. ^ Halil İnalcık, Studies in the economic history of the Middle East : from the rise of Islam to the present day / edited by M. A. Cook. London University Press, Oxford U.P. 1970, p. 209 ISBN 0197135617
  19. ^ Halil İnalcık, Studies in the economic history of the Middle East : from the rise of Islam to the present day / edited by M. A. Cook. London University Press, Oxford U.P. 1970, p. 217 ISBN 0197135617
  20. ^ a b c Antony Black (2001), "The state of the House of Osman (devlet-ı al-ı Osman)" in The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present, p. 199
  21. ^ Halil İnalcık, Donald Quataert (1971), An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914, p. 120
  22. ^ Halil inalcik, Studies in the economic history of the Middle East : from the rise of Islam to the present day / edited by M. A. Cook. London University Press, Oxford U.P. 1970, p. 218 ISBN 0197135617
  23. ^ Antony Black, ibid, page 197
  24. ^ a b Donald Quataert, 2
  25. ^ Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the civilization of the Ottoman Empire, p151
  26. ^ Kemal H Karpat, Social Change and Politics in Turkey: A Structural-Historical Analysis, p204
  27. ^ The History of Turkish-Jewish Relations
  28. ^ Supply of Slaves
  29. ^ Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery
  30. ^ Von Gabriel Piterberg, An Ottoman Tragedy: History and Historiography at Play, pp.98-103, [1]
  31. ^ Von Helen Gardner, Horst De la Croix, Richard G. Tansey, Gardner's Art Through the Ages,p. 263, ISBN 0155037587,[2]
  32. ^ Eli Shah. The Ottoman Artistic Legacy
  33. ^ a b Bert Fragner, "From the Caucasus to the Roof of the World: a culinary adventure", in Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East, London and New York, p. 52
  34. ^ "The Divinely-Protected, Well-Flourishing Domain: The Establishment of the Ottoman System in the Balkan Peninsula", Sean Krummerich, Loyola University New Orleans, The Student Historical Journal, volume 30 (1998–99
  35. ^ Turkish Toleration, The American Forum for Global Education
  36. ^ a b c Lauren A. Benton, Law and Colonial Cultures: Legal Regimes in World History, 1400–1900", pp109–110
  37. ^ a b c d e f g Turkish Navy Official Website: History of the Turkish Navy - Operations in the Atlantic Ocean
  38. ^ the standard - Petition created for submarine name
  39. ^ Submarine Heritage Centre - History: BARROW SHIPYARD AND SUBMARINES

47 Constantelos, D (1978) "The neomartyrs as evidence for methods and motives leading to conversion and martyrdom in the Ottoman Empire" published in The Greek Orthodox Theological Review, vol. XXII, No. 3-4, pp. 216-234 Morris Jastrow, Jr. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a product identification number used by Amazon. ... It has been suggested that The History of Turkish-Jewish Relations, The Political History of Turkish -Jewish Relations, Turkey-Israel relations be merged into this article or section. ... Logo of Loyola University New Orleans Loyola University New Orleans is a private, co-educational Jesuit university in the United States with 5,000 students (3,000 undergraduates). ...


Further reading

  • Cleveland, William L. "The Ottoman and Safavid Empires: A New Imperial Synthesis" in A History of the Modern Middle East. Westview Press, 2004. pp37–56. ISBN 0-8133-4048-9.
  • Creasy, Sir Edward Shepherd. History of the Ottoman Turks: From the beginning of their empire to the present time. R. Bentley and Son, 1877.
  • Finkel, Caroline. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923. John Murray, 2005. ISBN 0-7195-5513-2.
  • Guilmartin, John F., Jr. "Ideology and Conflict: The Wars of the Ottoman Empire, 1453–1606", Journal of Interdisciplinary History, (Spring 1988) 18:4., pp721–747.
  • Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. ISBN 0-333-61386-4.
  • Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-521-25249-0.
  • Kitsikis, Dimitri. L'Empire ottoman, Presses Universitaires de France, 3rd ed., 1994. ISBN 2-13-043459-2
  • Lafi (Nora), Une ville du Maghreb entre ancien régime et réformes ottomanes. Genèse des institutions municipales à Tripoli de Barbarie (1795–1911), Paris: L'Harmattan, 2002, 305 pp.
  • Lafi (Nora), Municipalités méditerranéennes. Les réformes municipales ottomanes au miroir d'une histoire comparée, Berlin: K. Schwarz, 2005.
  • Lybyer, Albert Howe. The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent. AMS Press, 1978. ISBN 0-404-14681-3.
  • Mansel, Philip. Istanbul: City of the World's Desire, 1453–1924. Gardners Books, 1997. ISBN 0-14-026246-6.
  • McCarthy, Justin. The Ottoman Peoples and the End of Empire. Hodder Arnold, 2001. ISBN 0-340-70657-0.
  • Necipoğlu, Gülru. Architecture, Ceremonial, and Power: The Topkapı Palace in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-14050-0.
  • Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-54782-2.
  • Shaw, Stanford. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol I; Empire of Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1290–1808. Cambridge University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-521-21280.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Leiner, Frederick C.The end of Barbary terror : America's 1815 war against the pirates of North Africa / by Frederick C. Leiner. New York : Oxford University Press, 2006.

Dimitri Kitsikis Dimitri Kitsikis (Δημήτρης Κιτσίκης) (born on June 2nd, 1935 in Athens, Greece) is a greek turkologist, professor of International Relations and Geopolitics. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (858 × 1024 pixel, file size: 503 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms From: http://www. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Grand viziers Chief ministers Grand viziers Jun 1882 - November 1882 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) (s. ... Below is the list of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas between 1401 and 1867. ... Pasha (1535-1700): Muhammad Hassan 1535-1545 Hassan I 1545-1552 (son of Kheir ed Din the brother of Barbarossa) Sahah Rais 1552-1556 Hassan II 1556 Muhammad Kurdogli 1556 Yusuf I 1556 Yahyia Pasha 1557 Hassan I (second time) 1557-1561 Ahmed Bostandji 1561-1562 Hassan I (theerd time... Studies on scientific, cultural and intellectual aspects of Ottoman history is very new area. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ...

External links

In English

  • The Ottoman Empire: Resources - University of Michigan
  • The Ottoman Empire: Information
  • The Ottoman Empire: A Chronogical Outline
  • The Ottoman Empire: NAVAL MAPS
  • The Ottoman Empire: The Eternal State
  • Ottoman Website
  • The Ottoman Empire Map of Europe in year 1600 with a detailed view of the Empire.
  • History of Turkish Empire- Gives detailed timetable.
  • World Civilizations: The Ottomans — a comprehensive site that covers much about the Ottoman state and government
  • Capitals of Ottoman Empire — covers the different Ottoman capitals
  • Turkish Oral Narrative
  • Information about Ottomans
  • Forced population transfers in early Ottoman imperial policyPDF (566 KiB) - covers the period 1300-1600
  • Jews in the Ottoman Empire and in Istanbul 1453-1914 (from Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971)
  • The Sakıp Sabancı Collection of Ottoman Calligraphy

Audio Interview: Virginia Aksan discussed the history of Ottoman Warfare [3] Audio Interview: Donald Quataret on the history of Ottoman Industrialization [4] Audio Interview: Audio Interview: Hans Lukas Kieser on the history of the Armenian Genocide [[5]] “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


In Turkish

  • Osmanlı Devleti ile ilgili ansiklopedik bilgiler
  • Flags of the Ottoman Empire—contains information about Ottoman flags
  • Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Hakkında bilgi...
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This is a list of Ottoman Empire dominated territories across Europe, Asia and Africa (1299-1922). ... // Early centuries of Ottoman rule Organisation of Ottoman Bulgaria The Ottomans reorganised the Bulgarian territories as the Beyerlik of Rumili, ruled by a Beylerbey at Sofia. ... Much of todays Montenegro was under minor Ottoman control from 1498 - 1699 (201 years) while coastal Montenegro was under Venetian control and central Montenegro (Upper Zeta) was independent. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... The term Armenian question in European history, become common place among diplomatic circles and in the popular press after Congress of Berlin; that in like Eastern Question, refers to powers of Europes involvement to the Armenian subjects beginning with the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 in the Ottoman... The Eastern Question, in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... This article is in need of attention. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; almost always Kanuni Sultan Süleyman) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... Mehmed III Mehmed III (May 26, 1566 – December 22, 1603) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death. ... Ahmed I (Ottoman Turkish: احمد اول Aḥmed-i evvel) (April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death. ... Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) (Arabic: مصطفى الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. ... Osman II (also known as Genç Osman – meaning Young Osman – in Turkish) (in Arabic عثمان الثاني) (November 3, 1604 – May 20, 1622) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death on 20 May 1622. ... Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Sultan Ibrahim I Ibrahim I (November 5, 1615 – August 12, 1648) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640–1648. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Suleiman II (April 15, 1642 – 1691) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. ... Ahmed II (in Arabic أحمد الثانى) (February 25, 1643 – 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695. ... Sultan Mustafa II Mustafa II (February 6, 1664 – December 28, 1703) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703. ... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair. ... Sultan Mahmud I Mahmud I (August 2, 1696 – December 13, 1754) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1730 to 1754. ... Osman III (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757. ... Sultan Mustafa III Mustafa III (January 28, 1717 – January 21, 1774) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1757 to 1774. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the 27th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... Sultan Mustafa IV Mustafa IV (September 8, 1779 – November 15, 1808) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. ... Sultan Mehmed Murad V (September 21, 1840 – August 29, 1904) (Arabic: مراد الخامس) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from May 30, 1876 to August 31 of the same year. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Concubine places The Imperial Harem or Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. ... Palace school was part of House of Ottoman system that is designated to educate (rise) Ottoman Empires governing elite. ... The Ottoman Empire, at its height, covered a significant portion of the Mediterranean World, including portions of three continents. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Sheikh ul-islam (Sheikhul islam, Shaikh al-Islam, Åžeyhülislam) is a title of superior authority in the issues of Islam. ... The Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire was the government structure added to the Ottoman governing structure during the Second Constitutional Era. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... Several countries have government departments named the Ministry of Education: Komisja Edukacji Narodowej of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1773. ... List of parties in Ottoman Empire gives an overview of parties in Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... A religious elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος [presbyteros]) is valued for his or her wisdom, in part for their age, on the grounds that the older one is then the more one is likely to know. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of Turkey-related articles. ... // Güllü Agop Tarık Akan - Actor Azra Akın - Model, Miss World 2002 Barış Akarsu Filiz Akın – Actress Fatih Akın, film director Bülent Akinci, actor Metin Akpınar – Actor Derya Alabora‎ – Actress Mazhar Alanson Sadri Alışık Emre AltuÄŸ Müjde Ar – Actress Thomas Arslan, film... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... For other uses, see Ä°nönü. Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... History of Turkey redirects here. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... The Military history of Turkey is a listing of ancient or previous history of military actions or information. ... // Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey This is a timeline of Turkish history. ... Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... Presidential flag of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... The cabinet (Council of Ministers) of Turkey comprises the heads of the major ministries. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey refers to the policies pursued by the Turkish government in its external relations with the international community. ... Over the last century, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... This is a list of cities in Turkey by population (according to the 2000 census). ... Map showing the Turkish Riviera The Turkish Riviera (also known as The Turquoise Coast) is a popular term used to define an area of southwest Turkey encompassing Antalya, MuÄŸla and to a lesser extent Aydın and Ä°zmir provinces. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal This is a list of companies from Turkey. ... As of September 2006, the size of the banking industry is 88. ... On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: GüneydoÄŸu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people[1] living in a region. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... It has been suggested that Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey be merged into this article or section. ... Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Turkish art is a term referring to the visual arts and plastic arts (often including architecture, woodwork, textiles and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ... Turkish dances include Halay, Zeybek, Horon, and Karsilama. ... More than 100 festivals are held in Turkey every year. ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (ÇarşıbaÅŸi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... The official holidays in Turkey are established by the Act 2429 of March 19, 1981 that replaced the Act 2739 of May 27, 1935. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÃœ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T... Turkish theatre can be observed under two main titles: Traditional Turkish theatre and Westernized Turkish theatre. ... This is a list of radio stations in Turkey. ... List of television stations in Turkey // Actionmax (Digiturk) Akdeniz TV Alo Arkadas (Chat) Animal Planet Turkey Aquavision ART (Avrasya Radyo Televizyonu) ASTV [1] ATV (owned by Turgay Ciner, who also owns the newspaper, Sabah) ATV Avrupa BJK TV[2] (Channel of BeÅŸiktaÅŸ J.K. sports club) Çay TV (Regional... Logo used by several Turkish institutions Coat of Arms of Turkey designed in 1925, never approved The Republic of Turkey is one of the states that do not have an official coat of arms. ... The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ... The Ä°stiklâl Marşı (i. ... Scene from southern Anatolia The History of Anatolia covers the civilizations, and states established in and around the Anatolia, a peninsula of Western Asia. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ottoman Empire - MSN Encarta (6103 words)
Ottoman Empire, dynastic state centered in what is now Turkey, founded in the late 13th century and dismantled in the early 20th century.
After his death the empire experienced severe internal crises, including disorder in the provinces, unrest in the military as serious inflation caused soldiers to be underpaid or not paid at all, and succession issues due to the lack of candidates who were of age to assume the sultanate.
To be an Ottoman one had to serve the state and the religion and know the “Ottoman way.” Serving the state meant having a position within the military, the bureaucracy, or the religious establishment that carried with it the coveted askeri status and tax exemption.
Introduction to Armenian Issue - FORSNET (1643 words)
Though there were many Armenians fighting in the Ottoman armies against the enemy or serving in the rear ranks during the World War I, a considerable number had sided with the foes on the battlefronts and launched massacres against the population without distinction of women, children and the aged.
The measures adopted by the Ottoman Empire to stop this violence were presented to the rest of the world under a completely different light and the Armenians, misguided by the promises and instigation of the Western Powers started to undermine the country where they had led a privileged life more than a thousand years.
With this measure, the Ottoman Empire also intended to save the lives of the Armenians who were living in a medium of civil war because Turks started to counter-attack the Armenians who had performed bloody atrocities against Turkish communities.
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