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Encyclopedia > Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman DynastyHouse of Osman
Grand Vizier (13201922)
Dīvān (1586?–1908)
Imperial Government (19081920)
See also
SubdivisionsPhanariotes

The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. Before that the tribe/dynasty might have been known as Söğüt but was renamed Osmanlı (Ottoman in English) in honour of Osman. Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... House of Osman is the name to the administrative structure of the Ottoman Dynasty, which is part of state organization of the Ottoman Empire, however directly linked to dynasty. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Events January 20 - Dante - Quaestio de Aqua et Terra January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire was the government structure added to the Ottoman governing structure during the Second Constitutional Era. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... ErtuÄŸrul (أرطغل), also ErtoÄŸrul (with title ErtuÄŸrul Gazi), (1198-1281) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ...


The sultan was the sole and absolute regent, head of state and head of government of the empire, at least officially, though often much power shifted de facto to other officials (in principle all his subservient creatures), especially the Grand Vizier, after whose palace the Ottoman government was known as High Porte, the Sultan's own Topkapı Palace being mainly a seraglio, 'harem'. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Bab-ı Ali in Ottoman times Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire . ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. In the context of the turquerie fashion, the seraglio became the subject of works of art, the most famous perhaps being Mozarts...


See the article on state organisation of the Ottoman Empire for further information on the sultan and the structure of power. The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ...

Contents

Titles

The Ottoman dynasty is known in Turkish as Osmanlı, meaning "House of Osman". The first rulers of the dynasty never had called themselves sultans, but rather beys, or "chieftain", roughly the Turkic equivalent of Emir, which would itself become a gubernatorial title and even a common military or honorific rank. Thus they still formally acknowledged the sovereignty of the contemporary Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and its successor, the Ilkhanate. Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ...


The first Ottoman to actually claim the title of sultân was Murad I, who ruled from 1359 to 1389. The title sultan (سلطان)—in Arabic, was in later Arabic-Islamic dynasties originally the power behind the throne of the Caliph in Bagdad and it was later used for various independent Muslim Monarchs. This title was more prestigious then Emir; it was not comparable to the title of Malik 'king' or the originally Persian title of Shah. With the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the road was open for the Ottoman state to become an empire, with Sultan Mehmed II taking the title of pâdişah (پادشاه), a Persian title meaning "lord of kings" and roughly equivalent to a Christian emperor as would ultimately be formally established. A Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Melik. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... History of Islamic monarchies Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a very prestigious title derived from the Persian word Pādishāh, which is based on the better-known title Shāh King, assumed by several Islamic monarchs, notably these rulers, the first three commanding major Muslim empires: The Shahanshah of... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


In addition to such secular titles, the Ottoman sultan became theCaliph of Islam, starting with Selim I, who became khalif after the death of the last Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil III, the last of Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo. For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ); also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim (October 10, 1465 in Amasya – September 22, 1520 in Edirne) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Al-Mutawakkil III, reigned 1508 to 1516, and 1517, was the last caliph of the Abbasid dynasty. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ...


In Europe, Ottoman padishah was often referred to informally by such terms unrelated to the Ottoman protocol as "the Grand Turk".


The sultans further adopted in time many secondary formal titles as well, such as "Sovereign of the House of Osman", "Sultan of Sultans" (roughly King of Kings), and "Khan of Khans". Sultan of Sultans is the literal English translation of the original Turkish Sultan es-Selatin or Sultan us-Selatin. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title. ...


As the empire grew, sultans adopted secondary titles expressing the empire's claim to be the successor in law of the structures of the absorbed states. Furthermore they tended to enumerate even regular provinces, not unlike the long lists of -mainly inherited- feudal titles in the full style of many Christian European monarch.


Some early Ottoman Sultans even had to accept the vassal status in the eyes of a foreign kingmaker. For example, Tamerlane appointed in 1402 the Ottoman Sultan (deposed in 1410) Sulayman Chelebi Khan, who was styled as-Sultan ul-Azam, Sayyid us-Saladin ul-Arab wal Ajam, Malik ur-Rikaab ul-Umam, Ghiyas ud-Daula wa ud-Dunya, Sultan ul-Islam was ul-Muslimin, as-Sultan ibni us-Sultan, Hasib-i-Nasib-I-Zaman, Amir of Rumelia. Again his brother, who ended the Interregnum after the defeat of Ottomans to Tamerlane, Mehmed I also held his post with a fief from Tamerlane. However the next Ottoman ruler (6th Sultan of House of Osman) was Sultan Murad Khan II (1421 - 1451) took the title 'Abu'l Hayrat, Sultan ul-Mujahidin, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Edirne and Filibe. Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Arabic term for those who engage in Islamic holy war–jihad (struggle). The word is a plural form of , , which literally translated from Arabic means struggler but is often translated in the West as holy warrior. ...


When Mehmed II conquered Constantinople on May 29, 1453, he claimed the title Emperor of the Roman Empire and protector of the Eastern Orthodox Church. He appointed the Patriarch of Constantinople Gennadius Scholarius, whom he protected and whose stature he elevated into leader of all the Eastern Orthodox Christians. As emperor of the Romans he laid claim to all Roman territories, which at the time before the Fall of Constantinople, however, extended to little more than the city itself, plus some areas in Morea (Peloponnese) and the Empire of Trebizond. Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Map of Constantinople. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Gennadius II (lay name Georgios Scholarios) (died circa 1473), patriarch of Constantinople from 1454 to 1464, philosopher and theologian, was one of the last representatives of Byzantine learning, and a strong advocate of Aristotelian philosophy in the Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †,[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by...


The conqueror of Constantinople was Sultan Mehmed II Fatih Ghazi 'Abu'l Fath (1451 - 1481, 7th Sovereign of the House of Osman), was still 'simply' styled Kaysar-i-Rum (=Emperor of [Byzantium = the second] Rome, Caesar of Rome), Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, Emperor of the three Cities of Constantinople, Edirne and Bursa, Lord of the two lands and the two seas and the first to adopt the 'imperial' style Padishah.


Around 1500 the full style of naming of the ruling Sultan had become practically stabilised, e.g. in 1601 Sultan Mehmed III was called:

Sultan Hân N.N.,
Padishah,
Hünkar,
Hakan ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn;
Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans,
Khan of Khans,
Commander (Caliph) of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe
Servant of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem
Caesar of the Roman Empire
Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianople and Bursa, and of the Cities of Damascus and Cairo, of all Azerbaijan, of the Magris, of Barka, of Kairouan, of Aleppo, of Arabic Iraq and of Acem, of Basra, of Al-Hasa, of Dilen, of Ar Raqqah, of Mosul, of Parthia, of Diyarbakır, of Cilicia, of the Vilayets of Erzurum, of Sivas, of Adana, of Karaman, Van, of Barbary, of Abyssinia, of Tunisia, of Tripoli, of Damascus, of Cyprus, of Rhodes, of Candia, of the Vilayet of the Morea, of the Marmara Sea, the Black Sea and also its coasts, of Anatolia, of Rumelia, Baghdad, Kurdistan, Greece, Turkistan, Tartary, Circassia, of the two regions of Kabarda, of Georgia, of the plain of Kypchak, of the whole country of the Tartars, of Kefe and of all the neighboring countries, of Bosnia and its dependencies, of the City and Fort of Belgrade, of the Vilayet of Serbia, with all the castles, forts and cities, of all Albania, of all Eflak and Bogdania, as well as all the dependencies and borders, and many others countries and cities.

History of Islamic monarchies Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a very prestigious title derived from the Persian word Pādishāh, which is based on the better-known title Shāh King, assumed by several Islamic monarchs, notably these rulers, the first three commanding major Muslim empires: The Shahanshah of... Shah is a Persian word for King, adopted in many languages, either actually used (in the Orient) as a princely style or to render oriental originals. ... Khagan, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ... The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. ... Servant has a number of meaning: A servant is another word for domestic worker, a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Caesar may refer to the following: Related to Ancient Roman times Caesar (title), a title used by Roman Emperors Julius Caesar (100 BC–44 BC), a famous politician and military leader He used the Caesar cipher in his military campaigns. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Map of Constantinople. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Barka (Arabic: ‎) is a coastal town in the region Al Bāţinah, in northern Oman. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... The minaret of Äcem Mosque The Äcem Mosque The Äcem Mosque ([], Tatar: ), also spelled Äcimevs, Azimovs, Azim, Ajim, Ajem or Azimovskaya Mosque (Russian: ) is a prominent cathedral mosque in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Ash Sharqiyah, known as Eastern Province is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... Ar Raqqah (ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ; also spelled Rakka), city in north central Syria, capital of the Raqqah province, located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Persian; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Erzurum (Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ«Õ¶ (Karin) in Armenian) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... Adana (Greek Άδανα) (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Karaman is a town in south central Turkey, located north of the Taurus Mountains, ca 100 km south of Konya. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other meanings, see Barbary Coast (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... Tatary or Great Tatary (Latin: Tataria or Tataria Magna) was a name used by Europeans from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate a great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean inhabited by Turkic and... Circassia, also known as Cherkessia in Russian, is a region in Caucasia. ... The Kabardino-Balkar Republic or Kabardino-Balkaria (Russian: ; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic), located in the northern Caucasus. ... Kypchaks (also Kipchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kypchaks were also named Kuman, Kun and Polovtsian (pl. ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... Theodosia (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a port and resort city in Crimea, Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast. ... The Province of Bosnia was a key Ottoman province, the westernmost one, based on the territory of the present day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Dependency has a number of meanings: In project management, a dependency is a link amongst a projects terminal elements. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) is a geographical and historical region in north-eastern Romania. ...

Heads of the House of Osman

Pre-Imperial Heads of the House of Osman

Name Born-Died Reign start Reign end Relationship
Süleyman Shah (Bey) Died 1227 1227
Ertugrul (Bey) 1198 - 1281 1227 1281 Son of Suleyman Shah

Suleyman Shah (Arabic: سليمان شاه) (Süleyman Şah, d. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Ertuğrul, also Ertoğrul, (1198-1281) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...

Imperial heads of the House of Osman (1281-1922)

Name Born-Died Reign start Reign end Relationship
Osman I (Bey) 12581326 1281 1326 Son of Ertugrul
Orhan I (Bey) 12841359 1326 1359 Son of Osman I
Murad I (the God-like One) 1326 - 1389 Bey from 1359, Sultan from 1383 28 June 1389 Son of Orhan I
Bayezid I (the Thunderbolt) 1354 - 1403 28 June 1389 20 July 1402 Son of Murat I
Ottoman Interregnum 1402 1413
Mehmed I (Celebi) 1389 - 1421 1413 26 May 1421 Son of Bayezid I
Murad II (first reign) 1404 - 1451 26 May 1421 August 1444 (abdicated) Son of Mehmed I
Mehmed II (the Conqueror) (first reign) 1432 - 1481 August 1444 1446 Son of Murad II
Murad II (second reign) 1404 - 1451 1446 3 February 1451 Son of Mehmed I
Mehmed II (the Conqueror) (second reign) 1432 - 1481 3 February 1451 3 May 1481 Son of Murad II
Bayezid II 1447/1448 - 1512 20 May 1481 25 April 1512 (abdicated) Son of Mehmed II
Selim I (the Grim) 1465 - 1520 25 April 1512 (Caliph from 1517) 22 September 1520 Son of Bayezid II
Suleyman I (the Magnificent) 1494 - 1566 22 September 1520 6 September 1566 Son of Selim I
Selim II 1524 - 1574 6 September 1566 12 December 1574 Son of Suleyman I
Murad III 1546 - 1595 12 December 1574 15 January 1595 Son of Selim II
Mehmed III 1566 - 1603 15 January 1595 22 December 1603 Son of Murad III
Ahmed I 1590 - 1617 22 December 1603 22 November 1617 Son of Mehmed III
Mustafa I (first reign) 1592 - 1639 22 November 1617 26 February 1618 (deposed) Son of Mehmed III
Osman II 1604 - 1622 26 February 1618 20 May 1622 Son of Ahmed I
Mustafa I (second reign) 1592 - 1639 20 May 1622 10 September 1623 (deposed) Son of Mehmed III
Murad IV 1612 - 1640 10 September 1623 9 February 1640 Son of Ahmed I
Ibrahim I (the Mad) 1615 - 1648 9 February 1640 8 August 1648 (deposed) Son of Ahmed I
Mehmed IV 1642 - 1693 8 August 1648 8 November 1687 (deposed) Son of Ibrahim I
Suleyman II 1642 - 1691 8 November 1687 23 June 1691 Son of Ibrahim I
Ahmed II 1643 - 1695 23 June 1691 6 February 1695 Son of Ibrahim I
Mustafa II 1664 - 1703 6 February 1695 22 August 1703 (abdicated) Son of Mehmed IV
Ahmed III 1673 - 1736 22 August 1703 1 October 1730 (abdicated) Son of Mehmed IV
Mahmud I 1696 - 1754 2 October 1730 13 December 1754 Son of Mustafa II
Osman III 1699 - 1757 14 December 1754 30 October 1757 Son of Mustafa II
Mustafa III 1717 - 1774 30 October 1757 21 January 1774 Son of Ahmed III
Abdul Hamid I 1725 - 1789 21 January 1774 7 April 1789 Son of Ahmed III
Selim III 1761 - 1808 7 April 1789 29 May 1807 (deposed) Son of Mustafa III
Mustafa IV 1779 - 1808 29 May 1807 28 July 1808 (deposed) Son of Abdul Hamid I
Mahmud II 1785 - 1839 28 July 1808 1 July 1839 Son of Abdul Hamid I
Abdulmecid I 1823 - 1861 1 July 1839 25 June 1861 Son of Mahmud II
Abdülâziz 1830 - 1876 25 June 1861 30 May 1876 (deposed) Son of Mahmud II
Murad V 1840 - 1904 30 May 1876 31 August 1876 (deposed) Son of Abdulmecid I
Abdul Hamid II 1842 - 1918 31 August 1876 27 April 1909 (deposed) Son of Abdulmecid I
Mehmed V (Reşad) 1844 - 1918 27 April 1909 3 July 1918 Son of Abdulmecid I
Mehmed VI (Vahideddin) 1861 - 1926 3 July 1918 1 November 1922 (deposed) Son of Abdulmecid I

This does not cite its references or sources. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Events End of reign of John VI Cantacuzenus, as Byzantine emperor. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Mongol warlord Tamerlane (Timur the Lame). ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 21 - Battle of Baugé. A small French force surprises and defeats a smaller English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events March 2 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... Murad II (June 1404, Amasya – February 3, 1451, Edirne) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānÄ«, Turkish:) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Sultan Beyazid II Bayezid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) (Arabic: بايزيد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ); also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim (October 10, 1465 in Amasya – September 22, 1520 in Edirne) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى SelÄ«m-i sānÄ«, Turkish:)(May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1574 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Mehmed III Mehmed III (May 26, 1566 – December 22, 1603) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ahmed I (Ottoman Turkish: احمد اول Aḥmed-i evvel) (April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) (Arabic: مصطفى الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Osman II (also known as Genç Osman – meaning Young Osman – in Turkish) (in Arabic عثمان الثاني) (November 3, 1604 – May 20, 1622) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death on 20 May 1622. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) (Arabic: مصطفى الأول) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Murad IV (Arabic: مراد الرابع) (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... Sultan Ibrahim I Ibrahim I (November 5, 1615 – August 12, 1648) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640–1648. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Ahmed II (in Arabic أحمد الثانى) (February 25, 1643 – 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Jan. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Sultan Mustafa II Mustafa II (February 6, 1664 – December 28, 1703) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Sultan Mahmud I Mahmud I (August 2, 1696 – December 13, 1754) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1730 to 1754. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Osman III (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sultan Mustafa III Mustafa III (January 28, 1717 – January 21, 1774) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1757 to 1774. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the 27th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sultan Mustafa IV Mustafa IV (September 8, 1779 – November 15, 1808) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-MecÄ«d-i evvel) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the 31st sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Abdülâziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز ‘Abdü’l-‘AzÄ«z) was the 32nd sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between June 25, 1861 and May 30, 1876. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sultan Mehmed Murad V (September 21, 1840 – August 29, 1904) (Arabic: مراد الخامس) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from May 30, 1876 to August 31 of the same year. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: Ä°kinci Abdülhamid) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... Jan. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...

Post-Imperial Heads of the House of Osman (1922-Present)

Name Born-Died Reign start Reign end
Abdulmecid II 1868 - 1944 19 November 1922 23 August 1944
Ahmed IV Nihad 1883 - 1954 23 August 1944 4 June 1954
Osman IV Fuad 1895 - 1973 4 June 1954 19 May 1973
Mehmed Abdulaziz II 1901 - 1977 19 May 1973 19 January 1977
Ali Vâsib 1903 - 1983 19 January 1977 9 December 1983
Mehmed VII Orhan 1909 - 1994 9 December 1983 12 March 1994
Ertuğrul Osman V 1912 - 12 March 1994 Present

Note: Although Abdul Mejid II was chosen as caliph in 1922, he was no longer Sultan, as the National Assembly had abolished the sultanate to turn Turkey into a republic. The caliphate was abolished in turn in 1924. Abdul Mejid II (also with various alternate spellings, including Abd-ul-Mejid, Abdul Medjit, and, in modern Turkish, Abdülmecit; in Arabic عبد المجيد الثانى ) (lived May 29, 1868 – August 23, 1944; reigned November 19, 1922 – March 3, 1924) was the last Caliph of the Ottoman Dynasty, the 101st Caliph in line from... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Ahmed IV Nihad (July 6th, 1883 - June 4th 1954) was the second post-imperial head of the Imperial House of Osman. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Osman Fuad Efendi (24 February 1895 - May 19, 1973) was the 39th head of the Ottoman dynasty. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Mehmed Abdulaziz Efendi (September 26, 1901 - January 19, 1977) was the 40th head of the Ottoman dynasty. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Prince Ali Vâsib Efendi (October 13, 1903 - December 9, 1983) was the 41st head of the Ottoman dynasty. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Prince Mehmed Orhan Efendi (July 11, 1909 - March 12, 1994) was the 42nd head of the Ottoman dynasty. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Ertugrul Osman V (born August 18, 1912) is the head of the House of Osmanli, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, when Turkey became a republic. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Abdul Mejid II (also with various alternate spellings, including Abd-ul-Mejid, Abdul Medjit, and, in modern Turkish, Abdülmecit; in Arabic عبد المجيد الثانى ) (lived May 29, 1868 – August 23, 1944; reigned November 19, 1922 – March 3, 1924) was the last Caliph of the Ottoman Dynasty, the 101st Caliph in line from... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It was from the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) onwards that the Ottoman Sultans decided to lay claim to the Universal Caliphate. For that to be credible, they needed to establish an acceptable source of legitimacy in the eyes of the world. For that purpose, Turkish propaganda (which was greatly to influence Urdu journalism and Indian Muslim thought), dredged up the mythical story of transfer of the Caliphate to Selim, by al-Mutawakkil in 1517. It was necessary to take resort to that mythical origin of the Ottoman Caliphate which, it was hoped, would reinforce their claim for legitimacy of their Caliphate. If they could show that it had been formally transferred to them by a member of the House of Abbas who was supposed to be the custodian-in-exile of the Abbasid Caliphate and held that legacy until he could transfer it to a Muslim Sultan who possessed secular power that could do justice to that awesome office, their claim, they hoped, would thereby be unchallengeable. The Ottomans resurrected al-Mutawakkil from the grave to prove their Caliphal credentials. The claim is that from 1517 onwards, the Ottoman Sultan was also Caliph (i.e. successor to the Prophet), which theoretically gave him overlordship over all Muslim rulers in the world. And it is claimed, for example, among the Mughal Emperors of India, only Aurangzeb had the Khutba read in his own name. However, there is evidence that contradicts this. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was signed on July 21, 1774, between the Russian Empire (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... Khutba (خطبة) is an Arabic term referring to the Islamic sermon delivered either before the Friday Salah (see: Jumuah) and after the Eid Salat. ...


See also

The tughra of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... The Valide Sultan was the mother of a ruling sultan in the Ottoman Empire. ... In the early period, the Ottomans practiced open succession. ...

References

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ottoman sultans

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

In English

  • Turkey, includes all the full ruler styles with various biographical data in the Royal Ark
  • Sultans, Contemporary Paintings by Ismail Acar
  • Everything about Ottoman Empire Everything about the history, culture and civilization of Ottoman Empire
  • MSN encarta - the Ottoman Empire (see Sultanate)
  • WorldStatesmen- Turkey
  • Ottoman Dynasty meet at Dolmabahçe Palace
  • Ottoman Empire - The Family

İsmail Acar İsmail Acar is a Turkish painter. ...

In Turkish

  • Osmanlı Sultanları

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