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Encyclopedia > Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck

In office
21 March 1871 – 20 March 1890
Monarch William I
Frederick III
William II
Succeeded by Leo von Caprivi

Minister-President of Prussia
In office
23 September 1862 – 1 January 1873
Preceded by Adolf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
Succeeded by Albrecht von Roon
In office
9 November 1873 – 20 March 1890
Preceded by Albrecht von Roon
Succeeded by Leo von Caprivi

Born 1 April 1815(1815-04-01)
Schönhausen, Prussia
Died 30 July 1898 (aged 83)
Friedrichsruh, Germany
Political party None
Spouse Johanna von Puttkamer
Signature Otto von Bismarck's signature

Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg, Prince of Bismarck (born April 1, 1815 in Schönhausen, today Saxony-Anhalt; died July 30, 1898 in Friedrichsruh near Hamburg), was a Prussian and German statesman of the 19th century. As Minister-President of Prussia from 1862–90, he oversaw the unification of Germany. From 1867 on, he was Chancellor of the North German Confederation. When the second German Empire was formed in 1871, he served as its first Chancellor, gaining the nickname "Iron Chancellor". As Chancellor, Bismarck held an important role in German government and greatly influenced German politics during his time of service. The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... William II (German: ) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Schönhausen is a special sexual position, only used in Germany or Holland, that is usually used by particularly adventurous gay couples. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrichsruh is a district of Aumühle, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (53,52946° N; 10,34034° O). ... Johanna von Puttkamer in 1855. ... // The name Bismarck is usually associated with the famous Otto von Bismarck, a German statesman of the 19th century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Schönhausen is a special sexual position, only used in Germany or Holland, that is usually used by particularly adventurous gay couples. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrichsruh is a district of Aumühle, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (53,52946° N; 10,34034° O). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...

Contents

Early life

Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, the wealthy family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian Province of Saxony. His father, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck (Schönhausen, November 13, 1771 - November 22, 1845), was a landowner and a former Prussian military officer; his mother, Wilhelmine Luise Mencken (Potsdam, February 24, 1789 - Berlin), Bismarck was educated at the Friedrich-Wilhelm and the Graues Kloster-Gymnasium. Thereafter, at the age of seventeen, he joined the Georg August University of Göttingen, where he spent only a year as a member of the Corps Hannovera before enrolling in the Friedrich Wilhelm University of Berlin. Although Bismarck hoped to become a diplomat, he could only obtain minor administrative positions in Aachen and Potsdam. is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Couleur of Corps Hannovera Göttingen Bismarck 1836 The Corps Hannovera Göttingen is one of the oldest German Student Corps, a Studentenverbindung or student corporation founded 18 January 1809 at the Georg August University of Göttingen. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced...


Bismarck married the noblewoman Johanna von Puttkamer (Viartlum, April 11, 1824 - Varzin, November 27, 1894) at Alt-Kolziglow on July 28, 1847. Like Puttkamer, he became a Pietist Lutheran. Their long and happy marriage produced one daughter (Marie) and two sons (Herbert and Wilhelm, known as "Bill"), all of whom survived into adulthood. Johanna von Puttkamer in 1855. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... (Nicolaus Heinrich Ferdinand) Herbert von Bismarck, Fürst von Bismarck (28 December 1849 - 18 September 1904) was born in Berlin, the son of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck and his wife Johanna, née von Puttkamer. ...


Early political career

In the year of his marriage, 1847, at age 32, Bismarck was chosen as a representative to the newly created Prussian legislature, the Vereinigter Landtag. There, he gained a reputation as a royalist and reactionary politician; he openly advocated the idea that the monarch had a divine right to rule. A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ...


In March 1848, Prussia faced a revolution (one of the revolutions of 1848 in various European nations), which completely overwhelmed King Frederick William IV. The monarch, though initially inclined to use armed forces to suppress the rebellion, ultimately succumbed to the revolutionary movement. He offered numerous concessions to the liberals: he promised to promulgate a constitution, agreed that Prussia and other German states should merge into a single nation, and appointed a liberal, Ludolf Cam, as Minister-President. But the liberal victory perished by the end of the year. The movement became weak due to internal fighting, while the conservatives regrouped, gained the support of the King, and retook control of Berlin. Although a constitution was granted, its provisions fell far short of the demands of the revolutionaries. // Preliminaries Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of over 30 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ...


In 1849, Bismarck was elected to the Landtag, the lower house of the new Prussian legislature. At this stage in his career, he opposed the unification of Germany, arguing that Prussia would lose its independence in the process. He accepted his appointment as one of Prussia's representatives at the Erfurt Parliament, an assembly of German states that met to discuss plans for union, but only in order to oppose that body's proposals more effectively. The Parliament failed to bring about unification, for it lacked the support of the two most important German states, Prussia and Austria.


In 1851, Frederick William appointed Bismarck as Prussia's envoy to the Diet of the German Confederation in Frankfurt. His eight years in Frankfurt were marked by changes in his political opinions. No longer under the influence of his ultraconservative Prussian friends, Bismarck became less reactionary and more moderate. He became convinced that Prussia would have to ally itself with other German states in order to countervail Austria's growing influence. Thus, he grew more accepting of the notion of a united German nation. In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ...


In 1858, Frederick William IV suffered a stroke that paralyzed and mentally disabled him. His brother, William, took over the government of Prussia as regent. Soon he replaced Bismarck as envoy in Frankfurt and made him Prussia's ambassador to the Russian Empire. This was a promotion in his career as Russia was one of the two most powerful neighbors of Prussia (the other was Austria). The regent also appointed Helmuth von Moltke as the new Chief of Staff for the Prussian Army, and Albrecht von Roon as Prussian Minister of War and to the job of reorganizing the army. These three people over the next twelve years transformed Prussia. William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s... Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ...


Bismarck stayed in Saint Petersburg for four years, during which he befriended his future adversary, the Russian Prince Gorchakov. In June 1862, he was sent to Paris, so that he could serve as ambassador to France. Despite his lengthy stay abroad, Bismarck was not entirely detached from German domestic affairs; he remained well-informed due to his friendship with Roon, and they formed a lasting political alliance. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Pushkins portrait of Alexander Gorchakov Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (1798-1883) was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family. ...


Ministerpräsident (Prime Minister) of Prussia

The regent became King William I upon his brother's death in 1861. The new monarch was often in conflict with the increasingly liberal Prussian Diet. A crisis arose in 1862, when the Diet refused to authorise funding for a proposed re-organization of the army. The King's ministers could not convince legislators to pass the budget, and the King was unwilling to make concessions. Wilhelm believed that Bismarck was the only politician capable of handling the crisis, but was ambivalent about appointing a person who demanded unfettered control over foreign affairs. When, in September 1862, the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) overwhelmingly rejected the proposed budget, Wilhelm was persuaded to recall Bismarck to Prussia on the advice of Roon. On 23 September 1862, Wilhelm appointed Bismarck Minister-President and Foreign Minister. William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... This page lists Foreign Ministers of Prussia. ...


Bismarck was intent on maintaining royal supremacy by ending the budget deadlock in the King's favour, even if he had to use extralegal means to do so. He contended that, since the Constitution did not provide for cases in which legislators failed to approve a budget, he could merely apply the previous year's budget. Thus, on the basis of the budget of 1861, tax collection continued for four years.


Bismarck's conflict with the legislators grew more heated during the following years. In 1863, the House of Deputies passed a resolution declaring that it could no longer come to terms with Bismarck; in response, the King dissolved the Diet, accusing it of trying to obtain unconstitutional control over the ministry. Bismarck then issued an edict restricting the freedom of the press; this policy even gained the public opposition of the Crown Prince, Friedrich Wilhelm (the future King Friedrich III). Despite attempts to silence critics, Bismarck remained a largely unpopular politician. His supporters fared poorly in the elections of October 1863, in which a liberal coalition (whose primary member was the Progress Party) won over two-thirds of the seats in the House. The House made repeated calls to the King to dismiss Bismarck, but the King supported him as he feared that if he dismissed him, a liberal ministry would follow. Friedrich III (October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruled 1888. ... The German Progress Party (Deutsche Fortschrittspartei or DFP) was the first modern political party with a programm in Germany, founded by the liberal members of the Prussian Lower House in 6 June 1861. ...


German unification

Defeat of Denmark and Austria

Germany consisted of a multitude of principalities loosely bound together as members of the German Confederation. Bismarck used both diplomacy and the Prussian military to achieve unification. He excluded Austria from unified Germany, for he sought to make Prussia the most powerful and dominant component of the nation. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ...

Bismarck, left, with Roon (center) and Moltke (right). The three leaders of Prussia in the 1860s
Bismarck, left, with Roon (center) and Moltke (right). The three leaders of Prussia in the 1860s

Bismarck faced a diplomatic crisis when Frederick VII of Denmark died in November 1863. Succession to the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein was disputed; they were claimed by Christian IX (Frederick VII's heir as King) and by Frederick von Augustenburg (a German duke). Prussian public opinion strongly favoured Augustenburg's claim. Bismarck took an unpopular step by insisting that the territories legally belonged to the Danish monarch under the London Protocol signed a decade earlier. Nonetheless, Bismarck did denounce Christian's decision to annex the duchy of Schleswig to Denmark property. With support from Austria, he issued an ultimatum for Christian IX to return Schleswig to its former status; when Denmark refused, Austria and Prussia invaded, commencing the Second war of Schleswig and Denmark was forced to cede both duchies. Originally, it was proposed that the Diet of the German Confederation (in which all the states of Germany were represented) should determine the fate of the duchies; but before this scheme could be effected, Bismarck induced Austria to agree to the Gastein Convention. Under this agreement signed 20 August 1865, Prussia received Schleswig, while Austria received Holstein. In that year he was made Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x794, 121 KB) Description: Otto von Bismarck, Roon and Moltke Source: Bismarck. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x794, 121 KB) Description: Otto von Bismarck, Roon and Moltke Source: Bismarck. ... King Frederick VII Frederick VII (October 6, 1808 - November 15, 1863) was the last king of Denmark to rule as an absolute monarch. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Duke Frederick VIII (July 6, 1829 - January 14, 1880) (Friedrich Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg in German), was the father-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. ... London Protocol is a name used to describe several different documents. ... Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1,700+ killed, wounded... Named after the town of Bad Gastein, the Gastein Convention was a treaty signed on August 14, 1865 between the two principal powers of the German Confederation, Prussia and Austria, over the governing of the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein obtained by the Confederation from Denmark in the Second war... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


But in 1866, Austria reneged on the prior agreement by demanding that the Diet determine the Schleswig-Holstein issue. Bismarck used this as an excuse to start a war with Austria by charging that the Austrians had violated the Convention of Gastein. Bismarck sent Prussian troops to occupy Holstein. Provoked, Austria called for the aid of other German states, who quickly became involved in the Austro-Prussian War. With the aid of Albrecht von Roon's army reorganization, the Prussian army was nearly equal in numbers to the Austrian army. With the organizational genius of Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, the Prussian army fought battles it was able to win. Bismarck had also made a secret alliance with Italy, who desired Austrian-controlled Venetia. Italy's entry into the war forced the Austrians to divide their forces. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s...


To the surprise of the rest of Europe, Prussia quickly defeated Austria and its allies, in a crushing victory at the Battle of Königgrätz (aka "Battle of Sadowa"). As a result of the Peace of Prague (1866), the German Confederation was dissolved; Prussia annexed Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs. To solidify Prussian hegemony, Prussia and several other North German states joined the North German Confederation in 1867; King Wilhelm I served as its President, and Bismarck as its Chancellor. From this point on begins what historians refer to as "The Misery of Austria", in which Austria served as a mere vassal to the superior Germany, a relationship that was to shape history up to the two World Wars. Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Ludwig von Benedek Strength 140,000troops in 3 Prussian Armies 90,000 Austrians and 25,000 Saxons Casualties 10,000 45,000 including 20,000 prisoners {{{notes}}} In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3... For the settlement during the Thirty Years War, see Peace of Prague (1635). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Military success brought Bismarck tremendous political support in Prussia. In the elections to the House of Deputies in 1866, liberals suffered a major defeat, losing their large majority. The new, largely conservative House was on much better terms with Bismarck than previous bodies; at the Minister-President's request, it retroactively approved the budgets of the past four years, which had been implemented without parliamentary consent. Hence, Bismarck is considered one of the most talented statesmen in history.


The Reptiles Slush Fund

Following the 1866 war, Bismarck annexed the Kingdom of Hanover, which had been allied with Austria against Prussia. An agreement was reached whereby the deposed King George V of Hanover was allowed to keep about 50% of the crown assets. The rest were deemed to be state assets and were transferred to the national treasury. Subsequently Bismarck accused George of organizing a plot against the state and sequestered his share (16 million thalers) in the spring of 1868. Bismarck used this money to set up a secret slush fund (the "Reptilienfonds" or Reptiles Fund), which he used to bribe journalists and to discredit his political enemies. In 1870 he used some of these funds to win the support of King Ludwig II of Bavaria for making William I German Emperor.


Bismarck would also use these funds to place informers in the household of Crown Prince Frederick and Victoria. Some of the bogus stories that Bismarck planted in newspapers accused the royal couple of acting as British agents by revealing state secrets to the British government. Frederick and Victoria were great admirers of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. They planned to rule as consorts, like Albert and Queen Victoria, and they planned to reform the fatal flaws in the executive branch that Bismarck would create for himself. The office of Chancellor responsible to the Kaiser would be replaced with a British-style cabinet, with ministers responsible to the Reichstag. Government policy would be based on the consensus of the cabinet. In order to undermine the royal couple, when the future Kaiser William II was still a teenager, Bismarck would separate him from his parents and would place him under his tutelage. Bismarck planned to use William as a weapon against his parents in order to retain his own power. Bismarck would drill William on his prerogatives and would teach him to be insubordinate to his parents. Consequently, William II developed a dysfunctional relationship with his father and especially with his English mother.


In 1892, after Bismarck's dismissal, Kaiser William II would stop the abuse of the fund by releasing the interest payments into the official budget. [1]


Establishment of the German Empire

Prussia's victory over Austria increased tensions with France. The French Emperor, Napoleon III, feared that a powerful Germany would change the balance of power in Europe. Bismarck, at the same time, did not avoid war with France. He believed that if the German states perceived France as the aggressor, they would unite behind the King of Prussia. For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. ...


A suitable premise for war arose in 1870, when the German Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was offered the Spanish throne, which had been vacant since a revolution in 1868. France blocked the candidacy and demanded assurances that no member of the House of Hohenzollern become King of Spain. To provoke France into declaring war with Prussia, Bismarck published the Ems Dispatch, a carefully edited version of a conversation between King Wilhelm and the French ambassador to Prussia, Count Benedetti. Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Prince Leopold Stefan Karl Anton Gustav Eduard Tassilo von Hohenzollern (22 September 1835 - 8 June 1905) was the head of the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, and played some minor role in European power politics. ... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... The Ems Dispatch (sometimes called the Ems Telegram) is the document that instigated the Franco-Prussian War. ...

Wilhelm I was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles, France.
Wilhelm I was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles, France.

France mobilized and declared war on July 19, five days after the dispatch was published in Paris. It was seen as the aggressor and German states, swept up by nationalism and patriotic zeal, rallied to Prussia's side and provided troops. The Bismarck family contributed its two sons to the Prussian cavalry. The Franco-Prussian War (1870) was a great success for Prussia. The German army, commanded by Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, won victory after victory. The major battles were all fought in one month (7 August till 1 September), the French were defeated in every battle. The remainder of the war featured very careful German operations and massive confusion on the part of the French. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the end, France was asked to surrender Alsace and part of Lorraine, because Moltke and his generals insisted that it was needed to keep France defensive.[2]. Bismarck opposed the annexation because he did not wish to make a permanent enemy of France.[3] Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ...


Bismarck acted immediately to secure the unification of Germany. He negotiated with representatives of southern German states, offering special concessions if they agreed to unification. The negotiations succeeded; King Wilhelm was proclaimed as a 'German Emperor' on 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors in the Château de Versailles[citation needed]. The new German Empire was a federation: each of its 25 constituent states (kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, and free cities) retained some autonomy. The King of Prussia, as German Emperor, was not sovereign over the entirety of Germany; he was only primus inter pares, or first amongst equals. But he held presidency of this body the Bundesrat, which met to discuss policy presented from the Chancellor (whom the president appointed.) William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe Versailles: Garden front The Château de Versailles — often called the Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles — is a royal château, outside the gates of which the... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... This article is about federal states. ... First among equals redirects here. ...


In his later years Bismarck claimed that Prussia's wars against Austria and France had come about through his manipulation of surrounding states according to his "master plan". However Bismarck himself once said "man cannot create the current of events. He can only float with them, and steer". This view was widely accepted by contemporaries and historians up to the 1950s. However, this view was largely based upon his Memoirs written after his resignation in which Bismarck's role is unsurprisingly placed in the foreground of events. The idea that Bismarck actually controlled major events is disputed by some historians such as the controversial Briton A.J.P. Taylor who challenged previous interpretations by claiming Bismarck to be a "flawed leader with little control of events." Bismarck's greatest talent as a statesman, according to this view, was the skill with which he merely reacted to events as they unfolded and turned them to his advantage. For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ...


Chancellor of the German Empire

Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor of Germany in 1871.
Otto von Bismarck became Chancellor of Germany in 1871.

In 1871, Otto von Bismarck was raised to the rank of Fürst (Prince) von Bismarck. He was also appointed Imperial Chancellor of the German Empire, but retained his Prussian offices (including those of Minister-President and Foreign Minister). Because of both the imperial and the Prussian offices that he held, Bismarck had a large amount of control over domestic and foreign policy. The office of Minister-President (M-P) of Prussia was temporarily separated from that of Chancellor in 1873, when Albrecht von Roon was appointed to the former office. But by the end of the year, Roon resigned due to ill health, and Bismarck again became M-P. Bismarck with Pickelhaube Source: Uni Duesseldorf, copyright expired. ... Bismarck with Pickelhaube Source: Uni Duesseldorf, copyright expired. ... The Chancellor of the German Empire, in German Reichskanzler, meaning Imperial Chancellor was the title of the head of the German gouvernment from 1871 till 1934. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince; however this translation can be misleading, since a Fürst usually ranks below a Duke. ...


In the following years, one of Bismarck's primary political objectives was to reduce the influence of the Catholic church in Germany. This may have been due to the anti-liberal message of Pope Pius IX in the Syllabus of Errors of 1864, and especially to the dogma of Papal infallibility (1870). Bismarck feared that Pope Pius IX and future popes would use the definition of the doctrine of their infallibility as a political weapon for creating instability by driving a wedge between Catholics and Protestants. To prevent this, Bismarck attempted, without success, to reach an understanding with other European governments, whereby future papal elections would be manipulated. The European governments would agree on unsuitable papal candidates, and then instruct their national cardinals to vote in the appropriate manner.[4] Prussia (except Rhineland) and most other northern German states were predominantly Protestant, but many Catholics lived in the southern German states (especially Bavaria). In total, one third of the population was Catholic. Bismarck believed that the Roman Catholic Church held too much political power, and was also concerned about the emergence of the Catholic Centre Party (organised in 1870). Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... The Syllabus of Errors (Latin: Syllabus Errorum) was a document issued by Pope Pius IX on December 8,1864, Feast of the Immaculate Conception, as an appendix to his encyclical Quanta Cura. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ...


Accordingly, he began an anti-Catholic campaign known as the Kulturkampf. In 1871, the Catholic Department of the Prussian Ministry of Culture was abolished. In 1872, the Jesuits were expelled from Germany. Bismarck somewhat supported the emerging anti-Roman Old Catholic Churches and Lutheranism. More severe anti-Roman Catholic laws of 1873 allowed the government to supervise the education of the Roman Catholic clergy, and curtailed the disciplinary powers of the Church. In 1875, civil ceremonies were required for weddings, which could hitherto be performed in churches. However, these efforts only ended up strengthening the Catholic Centre Party, and Bismarck abandoned the Kulturkampf im 1878 to preserve what political capital he had left. Pius died that same year, replaced by a more pragmatic Pope Leo XIII which would eventually establish a better relationship with Bismarck. The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest...


The Kulturkampf had won Bismarck a new supporter in the secular National Liberal Party, which had become Bismarck's chief ally in the Reichstag. But in 1873, Germany and much of Europe had entered the Long Depression beginning with the crash of the Vienna Stock Exchange in 1873, the Gründerkrise. A downturn hit the German economy for the first time since vast industrial development in the 1850s after the 1848–49 revolutions. To aid faltering industries, the Chancellor abandoned free trade and established protectionist tariffs, which alienated the National Liberals who supported free trade. The Kulturkampf and its effects also stirred up public opinion against the party who supported it, and Bismarck used this opportunity to distance himself from the National Liberals. This marked a rapid decline in the support of the National Liberals, and by 1879 their close ties with Bismarck had all but ended. Bismarck instead returned to conservative factions — including the Centre Party — for support. The National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) was a German political party which flourished between 1867 and 1918. ... The Long Depression (1873 – 1896) affected much of the world from the early 1870s until the mid-1890s and was contemporary with the Second Industrial Revolution. ... The Vienna Stock Exchange (VSX) (German Wiener Börse AG) is a stock exchange in Vienna, Austria and one of the most established exchanges in Eastern- and Southeastern Europe. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...


To prevent the Austro-Hungarian problems of different nationalities within one state, the government tried to Germanize the state's national minorities, situated mainly in the borders of the empire, such as the Danes in the North of Germany, the French of Alsace-Lorraine and the Poles in the East of Germany. Germanization (also spelled Germanisation) is either the spread of the German language and culture either by force or assimilation, or the adaptation of a foreign word to the German language in linguistics, much like the Romanization of many languages which do not use the Latin alphabet. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


His policies concerning the Poles of Prussia were generally unfavourable to them, and anti-Polish,[5] furthering enmity between the German and Polish peoples. The policies were usually motivated by Bismarck's view that Polish existence was a threat to German state; Bismarck himself wrote about Poles "one shoots the wolves if one can",[6] and spoke Polish. // Anti-Polonism Germans execute Poles against a prison wall, Leszno, Poland, October 1939. ...


Bismarck worried about the growth of the socialist movement — in particular, that of the Social Democratic Party. In 1878, he instituted the Anti-Socialist Laws. Socialist organizations and meetings were forbidden, as was the circulation of socialist literature. Socialist leaders were arrested and tried by police courts. But despite these efforts, the movement steadily gained supporters and seats in the Reichstag. Socialists won seats in the Reichstag by running as independent candidates, unaffiliated with any party, which was allowed by the German Constitution. Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... SPD redirects here. ... A contemporary printing of the Socialist Laws The Anti-Socialist Laws or Socialist Laws (German: Sozialistengesetze) were a series of acts, the first of which was passed on October 19, 1878 by the German Reichstag. ...


Then the Chancellor tried to reduce the appeal of socialism to the public, by trying to appease the working class. He enacted a variety of paternalistic social reforms, which can be considered the first European labor laws. The Health Insurance Act of 1883 entitled workers to health insurance; the worker paid two-thirds, and the employer one-third, of the premiums. Accident insurance was provided in 1884, and old age pensions and disability insurance in 1889. Other laws restricted the employment of women and children. Still, these efforts were not very successful; the working class largely remained unreconciled with Bismarck's conservative government. This article is in need of attention. ...


Foreign policies

A main objective of Bismarck's was to prevent other major powers allying with France.
A main objective of Bismarck's was to prevent other major powers allying with France.

Bismarck devoted himself to keeping peace in Europe, so that the strength of the German Empire would not be threatened. He was forced to contend with French revanchism — the desire to avenge the loss in the Franco-Prussian War. Bismarck adopted a policy of diplomatically isolating France, while maintaining cordial relations with other nations in Europe. In order to avoid alienating the United Kingdom, he initially declined to seek a colonial empire or an expansion of the navy. In 1872, he offered friendship to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Russia, whose rulers joined Wilhelm I in the League of the Three Emperors, also known as the Dreikaiserbund. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Revanchism (from French revanche, revenge) is a term used since the 1870s to describe political campaigns to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country during previous wars and strifes, sometimes quite distant in time. ... The League of the Three Emperors, also known as the Three Emperors League (German: ), was an 1873 alliance among the emperors of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia, the three largest powers in Eastern and Central Europe at the time. ...


Bismarck also maintained good relations with Italy. He can be seen as partially responsible for Italian Unification. His role in pursuing the 1866, Austro-Prussian War against Austria allowed Italy to truly annex Venetia, which had been an Austrian vassal state since 1815, and the Congress of Vienna. Also Bismark's persual of the 1870, Franco-Prussian War, made it necessary for Napoleon III to remove the French troops, which had been guarding the pope, from Rome and The Papal States. Without both of these actions, the process of Italian Unification would have been hindered. Italian Unification (Italian: il Risorgimento, or The Resurgence) was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Venetia is a name used mostly in a historical context for the area of north-eastern Italy formerly under the control of the Republic of Venice and corresponding approximately to the present-day Italian administrative regions of the Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Italian Unification (Italian: il Risorgimento, or The Resurgence) was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ...


But after Russia's victory over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), Bismarck helped negotiate a settlement at the Congress of Berlin. The Treaty of Berlin, 1878, revised the earlier Treaty of San Stefano, reducing the great advantages it gave to Russia in southeastern Europe. Bismarck and other European leaders opposed the growth of Russian influence, and so tried to protect the power of the Ottoman Empire (see Eastern Question). As a result, Russo-German relations suffered; the Russian Prince Gorchakov denounced Bismarck for compromising his nation's victory. The relationship further suffered due to Germany's protectionist policies. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... It has been suggested that Romanian War of Independence be merged into this article or section. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano of March 3rd, 1878 The Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire at the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. ... The Eastern Question, in European history, encompasses the diplomatic and political problems posed by the decay of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). ... Coat of arms of the Gorchakov family Gorchakov, or Gortchakoff (Russian: ) is a Russian princely family of Rurikid stock, descended from Michael Vsevolodovich, prince of Chernigov, who, in 1246, was assassinated by the Mongols. ...


The League of the Three Emperors having fallen apart, Bismarck negotiated the Dual Alliance (1879) with Austria-Hungary. This became the Triple Alliance in 1882 with the addition of Italy. Attempts to reconcile Germany and Russia did not have lasting effect: the Three Emperors' League was re-established in 1881, but quickly fell apart, and the Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 was allowed to expire in 1890. The Dual Alliance was created by the treaty of October 7th, 1879, by which Germany and Austria-Hungary undertook to support one another if either was attacked by Russia, and to offer each other benevolent neutrality in the event of attack by another power, generally (and especially following the Franco... For other uses, see Triple Alliance. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Reinsurance Treaty The Reinsurance Treaty (June 18, 1887) was an attempt by Bismarck to continue to ally with Russia after the League of the Three Emperors broke down. ...


At first, Bismarck opposed the idea of seeking colonies, arguing that the burden of obtaining and defending them would outweigh the potential benefits. But during the late 1870s public opinion shifted to favour the idea of a colonial empire. Other European nations also began to rapidly acquire colonies (see New Imperialism). During the early 1880s, Germany joined other European powers in the Scramble for Africa. Among Germany's colonies were Togoland (now part of Ghana and Togo), Cameroon, German East Africa (now Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania), and German South-West Africa (now Namibia). The Berlin Conference (1884–1885) established regulations for the acquisition of African colonies; in particular, it protected free trade in certain parts of the Congo basin. {{}} // The term imperialism was used from the third quarter of the nineteenth century to describe various forms of political control by a greater power over less powerful territories or nationalities, although analytically the phenomena which it denotes may differ greatly from each other and from the New imperialism. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa. ... German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... The Congo River (for a time known as Zaire River) is the largest river in Western Central Africa. ...


In February 1888, during a Bulgarian crisis, Bismarck addressed the Reichstag on the dangers of a European war. The Bulgarian Crisis refers to an event as part of the Balkan crisis between 1885 and 1888 which saw a conflict between the Germans and the Russians. ...

He warned of the imminent possibility that Germany will have to fight on two fronts; he spoke of the desire for peace; then he set forth the Balkan case for war and demonstrates its futility: Bulgaria, that little country between the Danube and the Balkans, is far from being an object of adequate importance… for which to plunge Europe from Moscow to the Pyrenees, and from the North Sea to Palermo, into a war whose issue no man can foresee. At the end of the conflict we should scarcely know why we had fought.

[7]

Last years

In 1888, the German Emperor, Wilhelm I, died leaving the throne to his son, Friedrich III. But the new monarch was already suffering from an incurable cancer and spent all three months of his reign fighting the disease before dying. He was replaced by his son, Wilhelm II. The new Emperor opposed Bismarck's careful foreign policy, preferring vigorous and rapid expansion to protect Germany's "place in the sun." Image File history File links 1890_Bismarcks_Ruecktritt. ... Image File history File links 1890_Bismarcks_Ruecktritt. ... Dropping the Pilot is a political cartoon by Sir John Tenniel, first published in the British magazine Punch, March 1890. ... Friedrich III (October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruled 1888. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ...


Conflicts between Wilhelm II and his chancellor soon poisoned their relationship. Bismarck believed that he could dominate Wilhelm, and showed little respect for his policies in the late 1880s. Their final split occurred after Bismarck tried to implement far-reaching anti-Socialist laws in early 1890. Kartell majority in the Reichstag, of the amalgamated Conservative Party and the National Liberal Party, was willing to make most of the laws permanent. But it was split about the law allowing the police the power to expel socialist agitators from their homes, a power used excessively at times against political opponents. The National Liberals refused to make this law permanent, while the Conservatives supported only the entirety of the bill and threatened to and eventually vetoed the entire bill in session because Bismarck wouldn't agree to a modified bill.

Bismarck, late in his career.
Bismarck, late in his career.

As the debate continued, Wilhelm became increasingly interested in social problems, especially the treatment of mine workers who went on strike in 1889, and keeping with his active policy in government, routinely interrupted Bismarck in Council to make clear his social policy. Bismarck sharply disagreed with Wilhelm's policy and worked to circumvent it. Even though Wilhelm supported the altered anti-socialist bill, Bismarck pushed for his support to veto the bill in its entirety. But when his arguments couldn't convince Wilhelm, Bismarck became excited and agitated until uncharacteristically blurting out his motive to see the bill fail: to have the socialists agitate until a violent clash occurred that could be used as a pretext to crush them. Wilhelm replied that he wasn't willing to open his reign with a bloody campaign against his subjects. The next day, after realizing his blunder, Bismarck attempted to reach a compromise with Wilhelm by agreeing to his social policy towards industrial workers, and even suggested a European council to discuss working conditions, presided by the German Emperor.

Bismarck on his 80th birthday (April 1, 1895)
Bismarck on his 80th birthday (April 1, 1895)

Despite this, a turn of events eventually led to his distancing from Wilhelm. Bismarck, feeling pressured and unappreciated by the Emperor and undermined by ambitious advisers, refused to sign a proclamation regarding the protection of workers along with Wilhelm, as was required by the German Constitution, to protest Wilhelm's ever increasing interference to Bismarck's previously unquestioned authority. Bismarck also worked behind the scenes to break the Continental labour council which Wilhelm had set so dearly to his heart. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The final break came as Bismarck searched for a new parliamentary majority, with his Kartell voted from power due to the anti-socialist bill fiasco. The remaining powers in the Reichstag were the Catholic Centre Party and the Conservative Party. Bismarck wished to form a new block with the Centre Party, and invited Ludwig Windthorst, the parliamentary leader to discuss an alliance. This would be Bismarck's last political manoeuvre. Wilhelm was furious to hear about Windthorst's visit. In a parliamentary state, the head of government depends on the confidence of the parliamentary majority, and certainly has the right to form coalitions to ensure his policies a majority. However, in Germany, the Chancellor depended on the confidence of the Emperor alone, and Wilhelm believed that the Emperor had the right to be informed before his minister's meeting. After a heated argument in Bismarck's estate over imperial authority, Wilhelm, stormed out, both parting ways permanently. Bismarck, forced for the first time into a situation he could not use to his advantage, wrote a blistering letter of resignation, decrying Wilhelm's interference in foreign and domestic policy, which was only published after Bismarck's death. As it turned out, Bismarck became the first victim of his own creation, and when he realized that his dismissal was imminent: The factual accuracy of this article is Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Ludwig Windthorst (1812-1891), German politician, was born on the 17th of January 1812 at Kaldenhof, a country house near Osnabrück. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ...

All Bismarck’s resources were deployed; he even asked Empress Frederick to use her influence with her son on his behalf. But the wizard had lost his magic; his spells were powerless because they were exerted on people who did not respect them, and he who had so signally disregarded Kant’s command to use people as ends in themselves had too small a stock of loyalty to draw on. As Lord Salisbury told Queen Victoria: 'The very qualities which Bismarck fostered in the Emperor in order to strengthen himself when the Emperor Frederick should come to the throne have been the qualities by which he has been overthrown.' The Empress, with what must have been a mixture of pity and triumph, told him that her influence with her son could not save him for he himself had destroyed it.[8]

Bismarck resigned at Wilhelm II's insistence in 1890, at age 75, to be succeeded as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia by Leo von Caprivi. Bismarck was discarded ("dropping the pilot"), given a new title, the Duke of Lauenburg, and entered into restless, resentful retirement to his estates at Varzin (in today's Poland). Within one month after his wife died on 27 November 1894, he moved to Friedrichsruh near Hamburg, waiting in vain to be petitioned for advice and counsel. Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... Warcino is a village in Poland Latitude 54. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrichsruh is a district of Aumühle, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (53,52946° N; 10,34034° O). ...


As soon as he had to leave his office, citizens started to praise him, collecting money to build monuments like the Bismarck Memorial or towers dedicated to him. Much honour was given to him in Germany, many buildings have his name, books about him were best-sellers, and he was often painted, e.g., by Franz von Lenbach and C.W. Allers. The Bismarck Memorial, located in Berlins Tiergarten is a prominent memorial to Prince Otto Von Bismarck, Minister of Prussia and later the first Chancellor of Germany. ... Bismarck monument, Hamburg The Bismarck-Denkmal (German for Bismarck monument) is a monument in the city of Hamburg, in the centre of the St. ... Franz von Lenbach, Portrait of his daughter Marion. ... Christian Wilhelm Allers (* August 6th 1857 at Hamburg; † October 19th 1915 at Karlsruhe) was a german painter. ...


Bismarck spent his final years gathering his memoirs (Gedanken und Erinnerungen, or Thoughts and Memories), which criticized and discredited the Emperor. He died in 1898 (at the age of 83) at Friedrichsruh, where he is entombed in the Bismarck-Mausoleum. He was succeeded as Fürst von Bismarck-Schönhausen by Herbert. A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ...


On his Gravestone it is written "Loyal German Servant of Kaiser William I".


Last warning and prediction

Bismarck-Monument, Hamburg
Bismarck-Monument, Hamburg
Memorial statue in Baden-Baden
Memorial statue in Baden-Baden

In December 1897, Wilhelm II visited Bismarck for the last time. Bismarck again warned the Kaiser about the dangers of improvising government policy based on the intrigues of courtiers and militarists. Bismarck’s last warning was: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2112x2816, 981 KB) Description: Germany Hamburg Bismarck memorial Date: December 2004 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2112x2816, 981 KB) Description: Germany Hamburg Bismarck memorial Date: December 2004 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures Please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Bismarck monument, Hamburg The Bismarck-Denkmal (German for Bismarck monument) is a monument in the city of Hamburg, in the centre of the St. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 688 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 688 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... , Baden-Baden is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

"Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please. But when this is no longer the case, it will be very different for you."

Alan Palmer, Bismarck, Charles Scribner’s Sons (1976) p. 267]

Subsequently, Bismarck made these accurate predictions:

"Jena came twenty years after the death of Frederick the Great; the crash will come twenty years after my departure if things go on like this" ― a prophecy fulfilled almost to the month. Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...

A.J.P. Taylor, Bismarck, Alfred A Knopf, New York (1969) p. 264] For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ...

Bismarck’s social legislation

„[...] der eigentliche Beschwerdepunkt des Arbeiters ist die Unsicherheit seiner Existenz; er ist nicht sicher, dass er immer Arbeit haben wird, er ist nicht sicher, dass er immer gesund ist, und er sieht voraus, dass er einmal alt und arbeitsunfähig sein wird. Verfällt er aber der Armut auch nur durch längere Krankheit, so ist er darin nach seinen eigenen Kräften vollständig hilflos, und die Gesellschaft erkennt ihm gegenüber bisher eine eigentliche Verpflichtung außer der ordinären Armenpflege nicht an, auch wenn er noch so treu und fleißig die Zeit vorher gearbeitet hat. Die ordinäre Armenpflege lässt aber viel zu wünschen übrig [...].“ Look up Problem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ...

Otto von Bismarck, 20.03.1884[9]

The 1880s were a period when Germany started on its long road towards the welfare state it is today. The Social Democratic, National Liberal and Center parties were all involved in the beginnings of social legislation, but it was Bismarck who established the first practical aspects of this program. The program of the Social Democrats included all of the programs that Bismarck eventually implemented, but also included programs designed to preempt the programs championed by Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels. Bismarck’s idea was to implement the minimum aspects of these programs that were acceptable to the German government without any of the overtly Socialistic aspects. There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) was a German political party which flourished between 1867 and 1918. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 - August 5, 1895) was a German Socialist philosopher and the co-founder of modern Communist theory with Karl Marx. ...


Bismarck opened debate on the subject on 17 November 1881 in the Imperial Message to the Reichstag, using the term applied Christianity to describe his program. In 1881 Bismarck had also referred to this program as Staatssozialismus, when he made the following accurate prediction to a colleague: 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...

"It is possible that all our politics will come to nothing when I am dead but state socialism will drub itself in. (Der Staatssozialismus paukt sich durch.)"[10]

Bismarck’s program centered squarely on insurance programs designed to increase productivity, and focus the political attentions of German workers on supporting the Junker's government. The program included Health Insurance; Accident Insurance (Workman’s Compensation); Disability Insurance; and an Old-age Retirement Pension, none of which were then currently in existence to any great degree.


Based on Bismarck’s message, The Reichstag filed three bills designed to deal with the concept of Accident insurance, and one for Health Insurance. The subjects of Retirement pensions and Disability Insurance were placed on the back burner for the time being.[11]


Health Insurance Bill of 1883

The first bill that had success was the Health Insurance bill, which was passed in 1883. The program was considered the least important from Bismarck’s point of view, and the least politically troublesome. The program was established to provide health care for the largest segment of the German workers. The health service was established on a local basis, with the cost divided between employers and the employed. The employers contributed 1/3rd, while the workers contributed 2/3rds . The minimum payments for medical treatment and Sick Pay for up to 13 weeks were legally fixed. The individual local health bureaus were administered by a committee elected by the members of each bureau, and this move had the unintended effect of establishing a majority representation for the workers on account of their large financial contribution. This worked to the advantage of the Social Democrats who – through heavy Worker membership – achieved their first small foothold in public administration.[11]


Accident Insurance Bill of 1884

Bismarck’s government had to submit three draft bills before they could get one passed by the Reichstag in 1884. Bismarck had originally proposed that the Federal Government pay a portion of the Accident Insurance contribution. Bismarck’s motive was a demonstration of the willingness of the German government to lessen the hardship experienced by the German workers as a means of weaning them away from the various left-wing parties, most importantly the Social Democrats. The National Liberals took this program to be an expression of State Socialism, which they were dead set against. The Center party was afraid of the expansion of Federal Power at the expense of States Rights. As a result, the only way the program could be passed at all was for the entire expense to be underwritten by the Employers. To facilitate this, Bismarck arranged for the administration of this program to be placed in the hands of “Der Arbeitgeberverband in den beruflichen Korporationen”, which translates as “The organization of employers in occupational corporations”. This organization established central and bureaucratic insurance offices on the Federal, and in some cases the State level to perform the actual administration. The program kicked in to replace the health insurance program as of the 14th week. It paid for medical treatment and a Pension of up to 2/3rds of earned wages if the worker was fully disabled. This program was expanded in 1886 to include Agricultural workers.[11] State socialism, broadly speaking, is any variety of socialism which relies on ownership of the means of production by the state. ...


Old Age and Disability Insurance Bill of 1889

The Old Age Pension program, financed by a tax on workers, was designed to provide a pension annuity for workers who reached the age of 70 years. At the time, the life expectancy for the average Prussian was 45 years. Unlike the Accident Insurance and Health Insurance programs, this program covered Industrial, Agrarian, Artisans and Servants from the start. Also, unlike the other two programs, the principle that the Federal Government should contribute a portion of the underwriting cost, with the other two portions prorated accordingly, was accepted without question. The Disability Insurance program was intended to be used by those permanently disabled. This time, the State or Province supervised the programs directly.[11] This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Legacy

Memorial to Otto von Bismarck, Tiergarten, Berlin
Memorial to Otto von Bismarck, Tiergarten, Berlin

Bismarck's most important legacy is the unification of Germany. Germany had existed as a collection of hundreds of separate principalities and Free Cities since the formation of the Holy Roman Empire. Over the next thousand years various kings and rulers had tried to unify the German states without success until Bismarck. Largely as a result of Bismarck's efforts, the various German kingdoms were united into a single country. Following unification, Germany became one of the most powerful nations in Europe. Bismarck's astute, cautious, and pragmatic foreign policies allowed Germany to retain peacefully the powerful position into which he had brought it; maintaining amiable diplomacy with almost all European nations. France, the main exception, was devastated by Bismarck's wars and his harsh subsequent policies towards it; France became one of Germany's most bitter enemies in Europe. Austria, too, was weakened by the creation of a German Empire, though to a much lesser extent than France. Bismarck's diplomatic feats were accidentally undone, however, by Kaiser Wilhelm II, whose policies unified other European powers against Germany in time for World War I. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 295 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 295 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... This article is about the medieval empire. ... William II (German: ) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


During most of his nearly 30 year-long tenure, Bismarck held undisputed control over the government's policies. He was well supported by his friend Albrecht von Roon, the war minister, as well as the leader of the Prussian army Helmuth von Moltke. Bismarck's diplomatic moves relied on a victorious Prussian military, and these two people gave Bismarck the victories he needed to convince the smaller German states to join Prussia. Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s...

Memorial dedicated to Bismarck as a student at the Rudelsburg
Memorial dedicated to Bismarck as a student at the Rudelsburg

Bismarck took steps to silence or restrain political opposition, as evidenced by laws restricting the freedom of the press, the Kulturkampf, and the anti-socialist laws. His king (later Emperor) Wilhelm I rarely challenged the Chancellor's decisions; on several occasions, Bismarck obtained his monarch's approval by threatening to resign. However, Wilhelm II intended to govern the country himself, making the ousting of Bismarck one of his first tasks as Kaiser. Bismarck's successors as Chancellor were much less influential, as power was concentrated in the Emperor's hands. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2128x2848, 1757 KB) Description: Allianzstein auf der Rudelsburg, Stein der Rudelsburger Allianz Source: selbsterstellt Date: 11. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2128x2848, 1757 KB) Description: Allianzstein auf der Rudelsburg, Stein der Rudelsburger Allianz Source: selbsterstellt Date: 11. ... The castle ruin Rudelsburg is located on the eastern banks of river Saale near Bad Kösen in the district Burgenlandkreis of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ...


Two ships of the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine), as well as the German battleship Bismarck from the World War II-era, were named after him. The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ...


Numerous statues and memorials dot the cities, towns, and countryside of Germany, including numerous Bismarck towers on four continents, and the famous Bismarck Memorial in Berlin. The only memorial showing him as a student at Göttingen University (together with his dog Ariel) and as a member of his Corps Hannovera was re-erected in 2006 at the Rudelsburg. The gleaming white The Bismarck-Denkmal (German for Bismarck monument) is a monument in the city of Hamburg. It stand in the centre of the St. Pauli district. Built in 1906, it is the largest and probably most well-known memorial to Bismarck world-wide. Bismarck-towers are a unique German monument-style to honor the ex-chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1815 - 1898). ... The Bismarck Memorial, located in Berlins Tiergarten is a prominent memorial to Prince Otto Von Bismarck, Minister of Prussia and later the first Chancellor of Germany. ... Couleur of Corps Hannovera Göttingen Bismarck 1836 The Corps Hannovera Göttingen is one of the oldest German Student Corps, a Studentenverbindung or student corporation founded 18 January 1809 at the Georg August University of Göttingen. ... The castle ruin Rudelsburg is located on the eastern banks of river Saale near Bad Kösen in the district Burgenlandkreis of Saxony-Anhalt. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... St. ...


His fellow student at Göttingen university, John Lothrop Motley, describes Bismarck as Otto v. Rabenmark in his novel Morton's Hope, or the Memoirs of a Provincial (1839). John Lothrop Motley (April 15, 1814 - May 29, 1877), was an American historian. ...


Documentaries

  • "Bismarck - Chancellor and Demon", Germany 2007, 2 x 45’ – This two-part Documentary will shed light on Bismarck's contradictory personality. His personal memories serve as our guide, and the picture is rounded out with historical facts. This film raises questions: What thoughts, what ideas were behind the man who went down in German history as the "Iron Chancellor"? What desires, what ideals pushed him to seek power? How did a former gambler with debts and a taste for excess and alcohol become the founder of the German Reich? Written and directed by Christoph Weinert [1]

Place names

The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ... Bismarck is a village located in Vermilion County, Illinois. ... Location of Bismarck in Burleigh County, North Dakota Coordinates: , Country State County Burleigh Founded 1872 Government  - Mayor John Warford Area  - City 27. ... The Bismarck Sea lies to the north of the island of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. ...

Titles from birth to death

  • 1865-30 July 1898: High Born Count Otto of Bismarck-Schönhausen
  • 1871-30 July 1898: His Serene Highness The Prince of Bismarck
  • 1890-30 July 1898: His Serene Highness The Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg

is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

References in fiction

Otto von Bismarck appears as a character in the historical novel Royal Flash, part of the Flashman series of books by George MacDonald Fraser. In the novel, von Bismarck is portrayed as a very aggressive and ambitious character with excellent horsemanship skills. In the film version, Bismarck was portrayed by Oliver Reed. Royal Flash is a 1975 movie based on George MacDonald Frasers second Flashman novel, Royal Flash. ... Harry Paget Flashman is a fictional character originally created by the author Thomas Hughes in his semi-autobiographical work Tom Browns Schooldays, first published in 1857. ... George MacDonald Fraser, OBE (born 2 April 1926 in Carlisle) is a British author of both historical novels and non-fiction books. ... Royal Flash is a 1975 movie based on George MacDonald Frasers second Flashman novel, Royal Flash. ... Robert Oliver Reed (February 13, 1938 – May 2, 1999) was an English actor known for his macho image on and off screen. ...


After meeting Bismarck at the Congress of Berlin, Disraeli cast him as the Count of Ferroll in his 1880 novel Endymion. Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Endymion is a novel published in 1880 by Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, the former Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


In the 1941 film The Prime Minister, a biopic of Disraeli, Bismarck is shown ranting whilst his shadow falls across the map of Europe, implying that the 1870s Eastern crisis was caused by German desire to dominate the Balkans.


In D.H. Lawrence's "Women in Love" a pet rabbit is named Bismarck after him. "Il n'etait que chancelier." p238.


Footnotes

  1. ^ Brockhaus-Enzyklopädie, (17th edition, 1966-74)
  2. ^ Tuchman, Barbara, The Guns of August. New York; Ballantine Books, 1962, p.35
  3. ^ Massie, Robert K., Dreadnaught. New York; Ballantinre Books, 1992, p.62
  4. ^ "Bismarck's confidential diplomatic circular to German representatives abroad, Berlin, 14 May 1872." In: F.B.M. Hollyday, Bismarck, Prentice-Hall (1970) pp 42-44
  5. ^ BISMARCK, DHM.
  6. ^ von BISMARCK, Otto, Deutsche und Polen.
  7. ^ Ludwig, 1927 p. 73
  8. ^ Michael Balfour, "The Kaiser and his Times," Houghton Mifflin (1964) p. 132
  9. ^ Bavarian State Library, Münchener Digitalisierungszentrum (MDZ), Reichstagsprotokolle, Bd. 082, 05.Legislaturperiode 04.Session 1884, 9. Sitzung am Donnerstag, 20.03.1884 (Sitzungsbeginn: page 133), speech of Otto von Bismarck: page 161 ff., page 165
  10. ^ Werner Richter, Bismarck, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1965) p. 275
  11. ^ a b c d Holborn, Hajo: A History of Modern Germany — 1840–1945: Princeton University Press; 1969; pp. 291–93.

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Otto von Bismarck
  • Crankshaw, Edward. Bismarck. The Viking Press. (1981).
  • Eyck, Erich. Bismarck and the German Empire. W. W. Norton & Company. (1964).
  • Hiss, O.C. Bismarck: Gesetze und Würste. Sans Souci Druck (1931)
  • Lerman, Katharine Anne. Bismarck: Profiles in Power. Longman, 2004. ISBN 0-582-03740-9.
  • Philip Bartoli, Bismark's Portal, A new way of thinking'.' http://bismarck1870.webng.com/
  • Emil Ludwig, Wilhelm Hohenzollern: The last of the Kaisers, New York (1927)
  • Palmer, Alan. Bismarck, Charles Scribner’s Sons. (1976)
  • Otto Pflanze. Bismarck and the Development of Germany. 3 vols. (Princeton University Press, 1963–90).
  • Werner Richter, Bismarck, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1965).
  • Stern, Fritz. Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichröder and the Building of the German Empire. Penguin. (1977).
  • Taylor, A. J. P. Bismarck: the Man and the Statesman. Hamish Hamilton. (1955).

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Fritz Richard Stern (1926- ) is an American historian of German history, Jewish history, and historiography. ... For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ...

See also

Wilhelm Johann Carl Eduard Stieber (1818 - January 29, 1882) was Bismarcks master spy, director of the Büreaus. ...

External links

  • Life of Otto von Bismarck
  • Gedanken und Erinnerungen "Thoughts and Remeniscences" by Otto von Bismarck Vol. I
  • Gedanken und Erinnerungen "Thoughts and Remeniscences" by Otto von Bismarck Vol. II
  • Bismarck's Memoirs Vol. II. In English at archive.org
  • Complete German text of Bismarck's autobiography
  • The correspondence of William I. and Bismarck : with other letters from and to Prince Bismarck at archive.org
  • The Kaiser vs. Bismarck : suppressed letters by the Kaiser and new chapters from the autobiography of the Iron Chancellor at archive.org
  • Bismarck: his authentic biography. Including many of his private letters and personal memoranda at archive.org
  • The love letters of Bismarck; being letters to his fiancée and wife, 1846-1889; authorized by Prince Herbert von Bismarck and translated from the German under the supervision of Charlton T. Lewis at archive.org
  • Prince Bismarck's Letters to His Wife, His Sister, and Others, from 1844-1870
  • Rede des Reichskanzlers Fürsten Bismarck über das Bündniss zwischen Deutschland und Oesterreich Speech of Reich Chancellor Prince Bismark on the League between Germany and Austria Oct. 7 1879
  • [2] - A complete website on the life & Accomplishements of Bismark by Philip Bartoli]
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
'
Prussian Ambassador to the
German Confederation

1852–1858
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Prussian Ambassador to Russia
1858–1862
Succeeded by
'
Preceded by
'
Prussian Ambassador to France
June — September 1862
Succeeded by
'
Political offices
Preceded by
Adolf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
Prime Minister of Prussia
1862–1873
Succeeded by
Albrecht von Roon
Preceded by
Albrecht von Bernstorff
Foreign Minister of Prussia
1862–1890
Succeeded by
Leo von Caprivi
New title
Chancellor of the North German Confederation
1867–1871
Elevation to empire
New title
Formation of the
German Empire
Chancellor of Germany
1871–1890
Succeeded by
Leo von Caprivi
Preceded by
Albrecht von Roon
Prime Minister of Prussia
1873–1890
German nobility
New title Fürst von Bismarck
1871–1898
Succeeded by
Herbert von Bismarck
Duke of Lauenburg
(for life)

1890–1898
extinct
Persondata
NAME Bismarck, Otto von
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Der Eiserne Kanzler
SHORT DESCRIPTION Chancellor of Germany, Diplomat
DATE OF BIRTH April 1, 1815
PLACE OF BIRTH Schönhausen, Elbe
DATE OF DEATH July 30, 1898
PLACE OF DEATH Friedrichsruh near Hamburg
The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... Count Albrecht von Bernstorff (March 22, 1809, Dreilützow, Mecklenburg, Germany – March 26, 1873, London, England) was a Prussian statesman. ... This page lists Foreign Ministers of Prussia. ... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... Neuschwanstein Castle. ... Several noble titles were conferred on the great German statesman and diplomat Otto von Bismarck during the course of his career. ... (Nicolaus Heinrich Ferdinand) Herbert von Bismarck, Fürst von Bismarck (28 December 1849 - 18 September 1904) was born in Berlin, the son of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck and his wife Johanna, née von Puttkamer. ... The title Duke of Lauenburg derives from the Duchy of Lauenburg, which has been ruled by various people since its foundation in 1269. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... Chlodwig Carl Viktor, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Fürst von Ratibor und Corvey (31 March 1819 – 6 July 1901) was a German statesman and Chancellor of Germany. ... Prince  , born Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849 – October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ... Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29, 1856–January 1, 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. ... Georg Michaelis (September 8, 1857–July 21, 1936) was the first Chancellor of Germany of non-noble background. ... Georg Friedrich Graf von Hertling (August 31, 1843 – January 4, 1919) was a Bavarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Bavaria and as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1917 to 1918. ... Prince Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm of Baden (Max von Baden) (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden (being the eldest son of his uncle Prince Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden), and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Germany. ... “November Revolution” redirects here. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Philipp Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German Social Democratic politician, who proclaimed the Republic on 9 November 1918, and who became the first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. ... Gustav Adolf Bauer (6 January 1870–16 September 1944) was a German Social Democratic Party leader and Chancellor of Germany from 1919 to 1920. ... For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... Konstantin Fehrenbach (January 11, 1852–March 26, 1926) was a German Catholic politician who was one of the major leaders of the Catholic Center Party. ... Karl Joseph Wirth, known as Joseph Wirth, (September 6, 1879 – January 3, 1956) was a German politician of the Catholic Centre Party who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1921 to 1922. ... Dr. jur. ...   (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... Hans Luther (10 March 1885–11 May 1962) was a German politician and former Chancellor of Germany. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... For other Hermann Müllers: see Hermann Müller. ... Heinrich Brüning on a Centre Party election poster (German Resistance Museum, Berlin) Dr. Heinrich Brüning ( ) (November 26, 1885 – March 30, 1970) was a German politician during the Weimer Republic. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, (August 22, 1887 – March 4, 1977) was a German politician. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October 1969. ... For the Oz character, see Willy Brandt (Oz). ... For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 38 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation. ... Adolf Heinrich Graf[1] Arnim-Boitzenburg (10 April 1803 –8 January 1868) was a German statesman, and the first Prime Minister of Prussia. ... Ernst Heinrich Adolf von Pfuel (November 3, 1779, Jahnsfelde, Brandenburg - December 3, 1866, Berlin) was a Prussian general, Governor of Berlin, Prussian Minister of War from 7 September 1848 to 2 November 1848, and Prussian Prime Minister in 1848. ... Prince Karl Anton Joachim Zephyrin Friedrich of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (7 September 1811 - 2 June 1885) was head of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Prime Minister of Prussia. ... Albrecht Graf von Roon Prussian Minister of War Albrecht Theodor Graf Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 – 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... Count Botho zu Eulenburg ( 1831 - 1912) was a Prussian statesman. ... Chlodwig Carl Viktor, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Fürst von Ratibor und Corvey (31 March 1819 – 6 July 1901) was a German statesman and Chancellor of Germany. ... Prince  , born Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849 – October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ... Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29, 1856–January 1, 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. ... Georg Michaelis (September 8, 1857–July 21, 1936) was the first Chancellor of Germany of non-noble background. ... Georg Friedrich Graf von Hertling (August 31, 1843 – January 4, 1919) was a Bavarian politician who served as Prime Minister of Bavaria and as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1917 to 1918. ... Prince Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm of Baden (Max von Baden) (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden (being the eldest son of his uncle Prince Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden), and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (666x679, 127 KB) Source: http://www. ... The Free State of Prussia (blue), within Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic Capital Berlin Government Republic Minister-President  - 1918 Friedrich Ebert  - 1920-19321 Otto Braun  - 1933-1945 Hermann Göring Historical era Interwar period  - Established 9 November, 1918  - Preußenschlag 20 July 1932  - Abolition (de facto) 30... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Paul Hirsch was a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party who served as Prime Minister of Prussia from 1918 to 1920. ... Otto Braun to the left, 1932 Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was Prime Minister of Prussia. ... Adam Stegerwald was a German Catholic politician and a leader of the left wing of the Centre Party. ... Otto Braun to the left, 1932 Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was Prime Minister of Prussia. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... Otto Braun to the left, 1932 Otto Braun (28 January 1872 - 14 December 1955) was a German Social Democratic politician, who was Prime Minister of Prussia. ... The Preußenschlag (Prussian coup) was one of the major steps towards the destruction of the German Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and the rise of Adolf Hitler to power. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ... The Preußenschlag (Prussian coup) was one of the major steps towards the destruction of the German Weimar Republic (1919-1933) and the rise of Adolf Hitler to power. ...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrichsruh is a district of Aumühle, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (53,52946° N; 10,34034° O). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Otto von Bismarck - MSN Encarta (1678 words)
Bismarck was born at Schönhausen, northwest of Berlin.
Bismarck knew that war would be necessary to achieve German unification, and he began to plan accordingly.
Bismarck decided that the only way to bring the south into an alliance with the north was to start a war that threatened both north and south equally.
Otto von Bismarck - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4438 words)
Otto von Bismarck was educated at the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium and the Graues Kloster-Gymnasium.
Otto von Bismarck, until 1871 a Graf (Count), was raised to the rank of Fürst (Prince).
Bismarck resigned at Wilhelm II's insistence in 1890, at age 75, to be succeeded as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia by Leo von Caprivi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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