FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Otto Skorzeny
Otto Skorzeny
June 12, 1908July 6, 1975

Place of birth Vienna, Austria
Place of death Madrid, Spain
Allegiance Nazi Germany
Years of service 19311945
Rank Obersturmbannführer
Battles/wars World War II
*Eastern Front
*Unternehmen Eiche
*Operation Panzerfaust
*Battle of the Bulge (Operation Greif)
Awards Iron Cross
Knight's Cross
Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross
Other work Werwolves
ODESSA
Paladin Group

Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908July 6, 1975[1]) was a Standartenführer[2] in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. He also was the initiator of Operation Greif, for which he was judged after the war: this special operation involved false flag tactics, that is wearing the uniform of the enemy to confuse him and advance into his lines. He also helped train the Werwolves, a Nazi stay-behind organisation which tried to engage in guerrilla warfare against the Allies, and organized the Nazi "ratlines", which formed the basis of the ODESSA network after the war, which helped exfiltrate Nazi war criminals to Francoist Spain and other friendly countries (in particular South America). After creating the Paladin Group in 1970, he died a few months before Franco himself, in July 1975. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (415 × 641 pixels, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... SS-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch SA-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank which was used by both the SA and the SS. The title was first created as an SA rank in 1932 after an expansion of the SA created the need for an... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... The daring rescue of Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. ... Operation Panzerfaust, also known as Operation Eisenfaust in Germany, was a military operation in October 1944 by the German military. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of Germany which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ... The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of Germany which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... The Paladin Group was a far-right organisation created in 1970 by ex-Nazi Otto Skorzeny. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... SS-Standartenführer insignia Standartenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was used in both the SA and the SS. First created as a title in 1925, in 1928 the rank became one of the first commissioned Nazi ranks and was bestowed upon those SA and SS officers... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “False colors” redirects here. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Ratlines were systems of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists fleeing Europe at the end of World War II. These escape routes mainly led toward safe havens in South America, particularly Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Chile. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Spanish Civil War officially ended... The Paladin Group was a far-right organisation created in 1970 by ex-Nazi Otto Skorzeny. ... “Franco” redirects here. ...

Contents

Before the war

Otto Skorzeny was born in Vienna into a middle-class Austrian family which had a long history of military service. He naturally spoke German, as well as excellent French and English.[3] He was a noted fencer as a student in Vienna in the 1920s. He engaged in fifteen personal duels. The tenth resulted in a wound that left a dramatic scar (known in academic fencing as a schmiss) on his cheek. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Academic fencing or Mensur fencing is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and recently to a minor extent in Latvia and Flanders as well. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Academic fencing or Mensur fencing is the traditional kind of fencing practiced by some student corporations (Studentenverbindungen) in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and recently to a minor extent in Latvia and Flanders as well. ...


He joined the Austrian Nazi Party in 1931 and soon he joined the Nazi SA. A charismatic figure, Skorzeny played a minor role in the Anschluss on March 12, 1938, when he saved the Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas from being shot by Nazi roughnecks. Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ... For other uses, see Charisma (disambiguation). ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Born October 15th, 1872 Wilhelm Miklas studied history and geography at the University of Vienna while serving in his role for the Christian Social Party. ... Lewis Hines 1920 Power house mechanic working on steam pump. ...


The Eastern Front

After the 1939 invasion of Poland, Skorzeny, then working as a civil engineer, volunteered for service in the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) but was turned down because he was over the age of 30. Failing that, he turned to the Waffen-SS. On February 21, 1940, Skorzeny went off to war with the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler and fought with distinction in the campaigns against the Soviet Union in 1941 and 1942 before being wounded and returning to Germany in December of 1942, a winner of the Iron Cross for bravery under fire. Polish Defensive War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign or Defensive War of 1939 (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) was the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany, the Soviet... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (Lifeguard Standarte of the SS Adolf Hitler) was a Waffen SS guard and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during the Second World War. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... For other uses, see Courage (disambiguation). ...


Operations

The daring rescue of Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... The Raid on Drvar (code-named Operation Rösselsprung -Knights Leap, by the Germans) was a World War II operation by the Germans in April and May 1944, whose goal was to capture Josip Broz Tito alive and disrupt the leadership of the communist Partisan movement in Yugoslavia. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Operation Panzerfaust, also known as Operation Eisenfaust in Germany, was a military operation in October 1944 by the German military. ... Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya II (in Hungarian, Horthy Miklós; February 14, 1907 – March 28, 1993) was the younger son of Hungarian regent Admiral Miklós Horthy and, until the end of World War II, a politician. ... Horthy redirects here. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... “False colors” redirects here. ... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

The liberation of Mussolini

After Skorzeny had recovered from his wounds, Ernst Kaltenbrunner recommended him as a possible leader of "commando" forces which German dictator Adolf Hitler wanted to create. In July 1943, he was personally selected by Hitler from among six German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) special agents to lead the operation to rescue Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, who had been overthrown and imprisoned by the Italian government. [4] Ernst Kaltenbrunner (October 4, 1903 – October 16, 1946) was a senior Nazi official during World War II. He was the highest ranking SS leader to face trial. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


Almost two months of cat-and-mouse followed as the Italians moved Mussolini from place to place in order to frustrate any would-be rescuers. Information on Mussolini's location and its topographical features were finally found by Herbert Kappler and air reconnaissance by Skorzeny himself. On September 12, Skorzeny took part in "Operation Oak" (Unternehmen Eiche), a daring glider-based assault on the Campo Imperatore Hotel at Gran Sasso. Mussolini was rescued without firing a single bullet. Skorzeny escorted Mussolini to Rome and later to Berlin. The exploit earned Skorzeny fame, promotion to Major and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. Herbert Kappler (23 September 1907 - 9 February 1978) was an SS-Obersturmbannführer of Nazi Germany. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The daring rescue of Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. ... Gliders or Sailplanes are heavier-than-air aircraft primarily intended for unpowered flight. ... Gran Sasso dItalia is a 30 kilometer massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy . ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For non-military meanings, see major (disambiguation). ... The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of Germany which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ...


Mussolini created a new Fascist regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana). Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by...


Operation Rösselsprung

On May 25, 1944, he was assigned to Operation Rösselsprung, a commando operation aimed at capturing Yugoslav Partisan leader Tito at his headquarters near Drvar. Hitler knew that Tito was getting allied support and was aware that either British or American troops might land in Dalmatia with support of the communist NOVJ, the partisan People's Liberation Army Of Yugoslavia. Hence, killing or capturing Tito would not only have hindered this scenario, but also given a badly needed morale boost to the Axis forces in the Balkans. Skorzeny was involved in the planning of Rösselsprung and was supposed to command it but argued against it after visiting Zagreb and becoming aware that the operation was compromised due to the incompetence of German partners in NDH or the Independent State of Croatia. The Operation was attempted, and was a complete disaster. The first wave of paratroopers, following heavy bombardment by the Luftwaffe, jumped between Tito's hideout in a cave and the town of Drvar. They landed on open ground and many were gunned down by members of the partisan HQ Escort Battalion, a company numbering less than 100 soldiers. The second wave of paratroopers missed their target and landed several miles out of town. Tito was long gone when the paratroopers reached the cave. At the cave's exit was a path leading to a railroad where Tito boarded a train that took him to safety in the town of Jajce. In the meantime, the partisan 3rd Lika Brigade arrived after 12 miles of forced march and took on the Brandenburg Waffen SS battalion, destroying it almost completely and out of all german paratroopers only around dozen survived. is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Raid on Drvar (code-named Operation Rösselsprung -Knights Leap, by the Germans) was a World War II operation by the Germans in April and May 1944, whose goal was to capture Josip Broz Tito alive and disrupt the leadership of the communist Partisan movement in Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... Drvar is a town and a municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina, located on the road between Bosansko Grahovo and Bosanski Petrovac, also near Glamoč. It is administratively part of the West Bosnia Canton of the Federation. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ... Drvar is a town and a municipality in western Bosnia and Herzegovina, located on the road between Bosansko Grahovo and Bosanski Petrovac, also near Glamoč. It is administratively part of the West Bosnia Canton of the Federation. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ...


The July 20 1944 plot against Hitler

On July 20, 1944, Skorzeny was in Berlin when an attempt on Hitler's life was made, with German officials trying to seize control of Germany's main decision centers before Hitler recovered from his injuries. Skorzeny helped put down the rebellion in Berlin, spending 36 hours in charge of the German army's central command center before being relieved. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ...


Hungary and Operation Panzerfaust

In October 1944, Hitler sent Skorzeny to Hungary when he received word that Hungary's Regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, was secretly negotiating with the Red Army. The surrender of Hungary would have cut off a million German troops fighting in the Balkan peninsula. Skorzeny, in another daring "snatch" codenamed Operation Panzerfaust (also known as Operation Eisenfaust in Germany), kidnapped Horthy's son Miklós Horthy, Jr. and forced his father to abdicate as Prime Minister. A pro-German, pro-Nazi government under Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi was then installed in Hungary. In April 1945, even after the German and Hungarian forces were driven out of Budapest and Hungary, Szálasi and his Arrow Cross Party-based forces continued to fight in Austria and Slovakia. For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Horthy redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Operation Panzerfaust, also known as Operation Eisenfaust in Germany, was a military operation in October 1944 by the German military. ... Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya II (in Hungarian, Horthy Miklós; February 14, 1907 – March 28, 1993) was the younger son of Hungarian regent Admiral Miklós Horthy and, until the end of World War II, a politician. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Ferenc Szálasi Ferenc Szálasi (January 6, 1897-March 12, 1946) was a Fascist and the Prime Minister of Hungary during the final days of Hungarys participation in World War II. Born the son of a soldier in Kassa, Szálasi followed in his fathers footsteps and... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party Senior members of the Arrow Cross Party. ...


Operation Greif and Eisenhower

On October 21, Hitler, inspired by an American subterfuge which had put three captured German tanks flying German colours [citation needed] to devastating use at Aachen, summoned Skorzeny to Berlin and assigned him to lead a panzer brigade. As planned by Skorzeny in Operation Greif, about two dozen German soldiers, most of them in captured American army Jeeps and disguised as American soldiers, penetrated American lines in the early hours of the Battle of the Bulge and sowed disorder and confusion behind the Allied lines. A handful of his men were captured by the Americans and spread a rumour that Skorzeny was leading a raid on Paris to kill or capture General Eisenhower. The effect of this disinformation had Eisenhower confined to his headquarters for weeks and Skorzeny was labelled "the most dangerous man in Europe". is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2,000 dead, 3,000 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded, 5,600 captured The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, that took place in October 1944 in World War... Panzer IV Ausf. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The 1st SS Panzer Divisions Dash Westward, and Operation Greif Operation Greif was a special false flag operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ...


Skorzeny spent January and February 1945 commanding regular troops in the defence of the German provinces of Prussia and Pomerania as an acting major general. Fighting at Schwedt on the Oder River, he also received orders to sabotage a bridge on the Rhine at Remagen, but his frogmen failed. For his actions there, primarily in the defence of Frankfurt, Hitler awarded him one of Germany's highest military honours, the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Pommern redirects here. ... Schwedt (or Schwedt/Oder) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Remagen is a city in Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. ... For the Wizard of Oz series character, see Frogman (Oz character). ... Frankfurt (Oder) ( Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord ) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of Germany which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ...


Werewolves and Surrender

With German defeat inevitable, Skorzeny trained recruits for a stay-behind Nazi organisation, the Werewolves to engage in guerrilla warfare against the Allies. However, Skorzeny quickly realized that the Werewolves were too few in number to become an effective fighting force. Instead, they were used for the Nazi "ratlines", a secret "Underground railroad" which helped Nazis escape after Germany's surrender. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Werwolf (German for werewolf, the spelling Wehrwolf is incorrect) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out guerrilla attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Ratlines were systems of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists fleeing Europe at the end of World War II. These escape routes mainly led toward safe havens in South America, particularly Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Chile. ... This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... The German Instrument of Surrender, 1945 refers to the legal instrument of World War II in which the High Command of Nazi Germany surrendered simultaneously to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force and to the Soviet High command. ...


Besides this organisation of the "ratlines," which would form the basis of the supposed ODESSA network after the war, Skorzeny had been employed since August 1944 by high-ranking Nazis and German industrialists to hide money and to loot property, documents, etc., some of which were buried in the mountains of Bavaria, and others shipped overseas. The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


Skorzeny surrendered to the Allies in May 1945, feeling that he could be of use to the Americans in the forthcoming Cold War. On May 16, 1945, he emerged from the Austrian woods near Salzburg and surrendered to a lieutenant of the US Thirtieth Infantry Regiment. He was held as a prisoner of war for more than two years before being tried as a war criminal at the Dachau Trials for his false flag actions in the Battle of the Bulge. However, Skorzeny was acquitted because although he had ordered his men to use American uniforms as a ruse, it could not be proven that he had given orders to fight in them.[5] Nevertheless he was detained until he escaped from a prison camp on July 27, 1948. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Dachau Trials were proceedings against minor war criminals found in the United States sectors of occupation in Germany and Austria, and those accused of committing war crimes against American citizens and military personnel. ... “False colors” redirects here. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After World War II

He settled in Spain under a passport issued by Francisco Franco and resumed his prewar occupation as an engineer. In 1952, he was declared entnazifiziert (denazified) in absentia by a German government arbitration board, which let him travel abroad. Before the declaration, he could have been interned in Germany or Austria until he had convinced the authorities that he had seen the error of his beliefs. He spent part of his time in Ireland between 1959-1969 where he bought Martinstown House, a 200 acre farm in County Kildare. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2006) 186,075 Website: www. ...


Protected by Franco, Otto Skorzeny was a key figure in the organisation of the secret ex-Nazi escape network ODESSA. According to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, he was a key figure in organizing one of ODESSA's largest bases, which was located in Spain.[6] According to El Mundo, some of his men helped Aribert Heim (aka "Doctor Death", found to be living in Spain in October 2005) escape from justice. Ex-Nazis are those who were once Nazis and resigned from the party. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... El Mundo can refer to: El Mundo (Spain), Spanish newspaper El Mundo (Puerto Rico), Puerto Rican newspaper El Mundo (Argentine), Argentine newspaper El Mundo (game), four player tables game described in the Alfonso X manuscript This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Aribert Heim Aribert Heim (born June 28, 1914) is an Austrian doctor and one of the worlds most wanted Nazi war criminals. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in October 28: Richard Smalley 26: Emil Kyulev 24: José Azcona del Hoyo 24: Rosa Parks 23: Stella Obasanjo 22: Liam Lawlor 22: Shirley Horn 20: Endon Mahmood 17: Ba Jin 10: Milton Obote 7: Charles...


He also founded the Paladin Group in 1970, a neo-fascist organisation which gathered former French members of the OAS, of the SAC, etc., to be the spearhead of the anti-Communist struggle. Later, he worked as a consultant to Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser and Argentine President Juan Peron. In 1963, he was allegedly recruited by the Mossad to gather information about German scientists in the Egyptian missile program[1]. The Paladin Group was a far-right organisation created in 1970 by ex-Nazi Otto Skorzeny. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... Created in 1959 by Jacques Foccart, French President de Gaulles spindoctor for African matters, and Charles Pasqua, part of the Gaullist movement, the SAC (Service dAction Civique) had as first aim to counter the terrorist actions of the OAS during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine military officer and the President of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ...


Death

In 1970, a tumor was discovered on Skorzeny's spine. Two cancerous tumors were removed in Hamburg, leaving him paralyzed from the waist down. Vowing to walk again, Skorzeny spent long hours with a physical therapist, and within six months was back on his feet. The years following therapy were hard for Skorzeny, as the cancer reminded him that his final days were fast approaching [7]. Otto Skorzeny finally succumbed to the cancer on 7 July 1975 in Madrid, a few months before Franco himself. He was cremated, his ashes were later brought to Vienna and interred in the Skorzeny family grave at Döblinger Friedhof. Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


Cultural references

Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Worldwar is a series of four alternate history science fiction novels by Harry Turtledove. ... John Birmingham (born 1964) is an Australian author. ... The Axis of Time trilogy is a series of novels written by Australian journalist and author John Birmingham. ... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ... William R. Forstchen (born 1950) is an associate professor of history at Montreat College, in Montreat, North Carolina. ... Not to be confused with the novel of the same title by Robert Conroy 1945 is an alternate history co-authored by Newt Gingrich and William R. Forstchen in 1995, describing the period immediately after a World War II wherein the United States had fought only against Japan, allowing Nazi... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... Alvin York, and his army registration card Alvin Cullum York (December 13, 1887 – September 2, 1964) was a United States soldier, famous for both his being a conscientious objector and hero in World War I. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine... Brotherhood of War is a series of novels written by W.E.B. Griffin about the United States Army from the Second World War through the Vietnam War. ... W.E.B. Griffin (born William Edmund Butterworth III on November 10, 1929) is a writer of military and detective fiction with some thirty novels in five series published under that name. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mark Frost (born 25 November 1953) is an American novelist, television/film writer, director, and executive producer. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Jack Higgins is the principal pseudonym of UK novelist Harry Patterson (b. ... The Eagle Has Landed is a book by Jack Higgins first published in 1975. ... Churchill redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ "Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie", Band 9 Schmidt - Theyer, K.G. Sauer, München 1998, ISBN 3-598-23169-5
  2. ^ www.vho.org/D/DGG/Preradovich31_2.html
  3. ^ http://www.coastcomp.com/artkramer/Skorzeny.htm
  4. ^ Otto Skorzeny's Memoirs: "Skorzeny's Special Missions: The Memoirs of the Most Dangerous Man in Europe" ISBN 978-1853676840
  5. ^ Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals. United Nations War Crimes Commission. Vol. IX, 1949, pages 90-94. "The ten accused involved in this trial were all officers in the 150th Panzer Brigade commanded by the accused Skorzeny. They were charged with participating in the improper use of American uniforms by entering into combat disguised therewith and treacherously firing upon and killing members of the armed forces of the United States." "All accused were acquitted of all charges"
  6. ^ (Spanish) Martinez, Félix; Nando Garcia. "A la caza del ultimo Nazi", El Mundo, 2005-10-30. Retrieved on 2006-07-06. 
  7. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.

A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ... El Mundo is the second largest newspaper in Spain, with a circulation of 350,297 copies (2003). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Otto Skorzeny, David Johnson transl. My Commando Operations: The Memoirs of Hitler's Most Daring Commando (reprint Schiffer Publishing, 1995) ISBN 0-88740-718-8
  • Otto Skorzeny, Skorzeny's Special Missions (Greenhill Books, 1997) ISBN 1-85367-291-2
  • Charles Foley, Commando Extraordinary (Arms & Armour, 1987) ISBN 0-85368-824-9
  • Charles Whiting, Skorzeny: "The Most Dangerous Man in Europe" (DaCapo Press, 1998) ISBN 0-938289-94-2
  • Annussek, G. Hitler's Raid To Save Mussolini, De Capo Press, 2005. ISBN 0-306-81396-3

Charles Foley (1931–1998) invented Twister, together with Neil W. Rabens. ... Charles Whiting (December 18, 1926 – July 24, 2007[1]), was a British writer and military historian and with some 350 books of fiction and non-fiction to his credit, under his own name and a variety of pseudonyms. ...

External links

is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Werwolf (also Wehrwolf, a less common variation) was a Nazi plan at the end of World War II for a clandestine force which would carry out attacks against the Allies in the Allied-occupied regions of Germany. ... Unternehmen Eiche (German for Operation Oak) was the daring rescue of Benito Mussolini by German special forces in World War II. It was planned by General Kurt Student. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Otto Skorzeny (379 words)
Otto Skorzeny was born in Vienna, Austria, on June 12, 1908.
Skorzeny joined the Austrian Nazi Party in 1930 and was a strong advocate of union with Germany.
Skorzeny agreed and on September 13 he led an airbourne force of commandos by glider to a dangerous landing near the hotel where he was being held.
A Story of Otto Skorzeny and Adolf Hitler (829 words)
Otto Skorzeny was born on June 12th, 1908 to a typical middle class Viennese family.
Skorzeny participated in the invasion of Holland and France, the invasion of the Balkans, and finally in the invasion of Russia, where he was wounded in late 1941 and returned home to convalesce.
Otto Skorzeny organized the Police into the most brutal in South America and also acted as Eva Peron`s bodyguard foiling at least one attempt on her life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m