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Encyclopedia > Otolaryngology

Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. The full name of the specialty is otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Practitioners are called otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons, or sometimes otorhinolaryngologists (ORL). A commonly used term for this speciality is ENT (ear, nose and throat). medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... A pierced human ear. ... For the article about nose in humans, see human nose Human nose in profile Elephants have prehensile noses Dogs have very sensitive noses Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the mouth. ... Look up Throat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Explanation

Otolaryngologists are medical doctors who complete at least five years of surgical residency training. Currently, this comprises one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery; in the past it varied between two and three years of each. Otolaryngology is considered to be one of the most competitive residency fields to match into.


Following residency training, some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality "fellowship" training which can range from one to three years in duration.


Subspecialties

(*Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)

Head and Neck Facial plastics* Otology Neuro-otology* Rhinology/Sinus Laryngology Pediatrics* Sleep*
Surgical oncology Facial cosmetics Ear Middle and inner ear Sinusitis Voice therapy VeloPalatine-Insufficiency
Reconstruction Maxillofacial Hearing Temporal bone Allergy Phono-surgery Cleft Lip and Palate
Endocrine surgery Trauma Skull base Anterior skull base Airway
Dizziness Apnea and snoring Vascular Malformations
Cochlear Implant/BAHA

Topics in Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

Contributors please visit the new Current Otorhinolaryngology WikiBook project[1] before posting your academic topics here. High-level professional-quality material needed!

General Otolaryngology

A deviated septum is a common physical disorder of the nose, most frequently caused by impact trauma, such as by a blow to the face. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid glands. ... Pharyngitis (far-in-jī tis) is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. ... Snoring is the act of breathing through the open mouth in such a way as to cause a vibration of the uvula and soft palate, thus giving rise to a sound which may vary from a soft noise to a loud unpleasant sound. ... Sleep apnea or sleep apnoea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. ... Inflamed tonsils Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ...

Head and Neck Surgery

Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... Oncology is the branch of medicine that studies tumors (cancer) and seeks to understand their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Chemotherapy regimens are often identified with acronyms, identifying the agents used in combination. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. ...

Otology/Neuro-Otology

// Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) (or Benign paroxysmal vertigo) is a condition caused by problems in the inner ear. ... Labyrinthitis is a balance disorder that usually follows an upper respiratory tract infection (URI). ... Vestibular Neuronitis is a paroxysmal, single attack of vertigo. ... Ménières disease (or syndrome, since its cause is unknown) is named after the French physician Prosper Ménière, who first reported that vertigo was caused by inner ear disorders in an article published in 1861. ... Acoustic neuroma (or Vestibular Schwannoma) is a benign primary intracranial tumor of the myelin forming cells called Schwann cells (Schwannoma) of the 8th cranial nerve --- also known as the acoustic nerve, (or more properly the vestibulocochlear nerve). ... Hearing impairment or deafness is decreased or absent ability to perceive auditory information. ... Mastoiditis is an infection of the mastoid process, the portion of the temporal bone of the skull that is behind the ear. ... The outer ear is the external portion of the ear and includes the eardrum. ... The ear canal (external auditory meatus, external acoustic meatus), is a tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear. ... Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear: the space behind the ear drum. ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... Otitis interna (Internal otitis) is an inflammation of the inner ear. ... The inner ear comprises both: the organ of hearing (the cochlea) and the labyrinth or vestibular apparatus, the organ of balance located in the inner ear that consists of three semicircular canals and the vestibule. ... The tympanic membrane, colloquially known as the eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. ...

Rhinology (Sinus diseases and anterior skull base)

This article needs cleanup. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Right nasal airway passage Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a medical condition that is caused when too much inner nasal mucus-producing tissue (the turbinates) is cut out of the nose, leaving the nasal cavities too empty and wide, with severely diminished capabilities to perform their functions of conducting and...

Pediatrics

Laryngomalacia (literally, soft larynx) is a very common condition of infancy, in which the soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing airway obstruction. ... Throat after tonsillectomy A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils are removed. ... Location of the adenoid Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of the adenoids. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Myringotomy. ...

Laryngology

Lisp may mean: Lisp programming language Lisp (speech) This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Reinkes Edema is swelling of the vocal folds due to fluid collection (edema). ... A vocal fold nodule (or Nodules of vocal cords) is a nodule or mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds (vocal cords). ... Spasmodic dysphonia (or laryngeal dystonia) is a voice disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx (vocal folds or voice box) during speech. ... Tracheotomy is a surgical procedure used to cut a hole in the trachea through which a small tube is inserted. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ...

Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery

Rhinoplasty (Greek: , Nose + , to shape) is a type of plastic surgery that is used to improve the function (reconstructive surgery) or appearance (cosmetic surgery) of a persons nose. ... Septoplasty is a corrective surgical procedure done to straighten the nasal septum - the partition between the two nasal cavities. ... A facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy (literally, surgical removal of wrinkles), is a procedure used in plastic surgery to give a more youthful appearance. ... Blepharoplasty is a cosmetic plastic surgical procedure intended to reshape the upper eyelid or lower eyelid by the removal and/or repositioning of excess tissue as well as by reinforcement of surrounding muscles and tendons. ... Otoplasty cosmetic surgery to change the appearance of a persons external ears. ... Genioplasty/Mentoplasty is a type of cosmetic surgery that is used to improve the appearance of a persons chin. ...

Societies

External links

  • On-Line ENT Journal Club (via JournalReview.org)
  • ENT Journal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Department of Otolaryngology at University of Pittsburgh (866 words)
The administrative, research, and a portion of the clinical activities of the Department of Otolaryngology are housed in The Eye & Ear Institute, one of very few centers in the United States dedicated solely to the specialties of Otolaryngology and Ophthalmology.
As of 2005, Otolaryngology residency training programs, approved by the residency review committee (RRC) of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are five years in length, with the first year of Otolaryngology training replacing the traditional surgical internship.
In other words, a resident in their first year of training (PGY1), would now be designated as a Otolaryngology one resident, where as a resident in their last year of traditional five year training program would be designated as Otolaryngology five resident.
ent_header_01.jpg (172 words)
Subspecialty care in the fields of Otology/Neurotology, Allergy/Sinonasal diseases, Laryngology/Care of the professional voice, Pediatric Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Oncology, Facial cosmetic and reconstructive Surgery are available by its experienced faculty.
Charles M. Johnson, III is joining the VCU Medical Center Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery faculty as Director of Pediatric Otolaryngology.
Johnson was a charter member of the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology, and has practiced Pediatric Otolaryngology for over twenty-seven years, as faculty at the University of Chicago and The University of Virginia, and in private practice in Charlottesville, Virginia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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