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Encyclopedia > Othello
Facsimile of the first page of Othello, The Moor of Venice from the First Folio, published in 1623
Facsimile of the first page of Othello, The Moor of Venice from the First Folio, published in 1623

Othello, The Moor of Venice is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in approximately 1603. The work revolves around four central characters: Othello, his wife Desdemona, his lieutenant Cassio, and his trusted advisor Iago. Attesting to its enduring popularity, the play appeared in 7 editions between 1622 and 1705. Because of its varied themes — racism, love, jealousy and betrayal — it remains relevant to the present day and is often performed in professional and community theatres alike. The play has also been the basis for numerous operatic, film and literary adaptations. Othello is a play by William Shakespeare and the name of its title protagonist. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Othello is the title character of William Shakespeares Othello. ... Desdemona by Frederic Leighton Desdemona is a fictional character in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Michael Cassio is a fictional character in William Shakespeares tragedy Othello. ... For other uses, see Iago (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Jealous redirects here. ... Betrayal, as a form of deception or dismissal of prior presumptions, is the breaking or violation of a presumptive social contract (trust, or confidence) that produces moral and psychological conflict within a relationship amongst individuals, between organizations or between individuals and organizations. ...

Contents

Source

Desdemona by Frederic Leighton.
Desdemona by Frederic Leighton.

The plot for Othello was developed from a story in Cinthio's collection, the Hecatommithi, which it follows closely. The only named character in Cinthio's story is "Desdemona", which means "unfortunate" in Greek; the other characters are identified only as "the standard-bearer", "the captain", and "the Moor". In the original, the standard-bearer lusts after Desdemona and is spurred to revenge when she rejects him. Unlike Othello, the Moor in Cinthio's story never repents the murder of his beloved, and both he and the standard-bearer escape Venice and are killed much later. Cinthio also drew a moral (which he placed in the mouth of the lady) that European women are unwise to marry the temperamental males of other nations.[1] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Giovanni Battista Giraldi (November, 1504 - December 30, 1573), surnamed Cynthitus, Cinthio or Cintio, was an Italian novelist and poet. ...


Othello's character, in particular, is believed to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England at the beginning of the 17th century.[2] Or he could be Leo Africanus.[3] Othello is the title character of William Shakespeares Othello. ... This article is about the handing of a task from a superior to a subordinate. ... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... Leo Africanus was the Christianised name of Hasan bin Muhammed al-Wazzan al-Fasi (Hasan, son of Muhammed, the Weigher from Fez) (Granada 1488? – 1554?). A former inhabitant of Granada, his family left the city sometime after the Christian conquest of the Muslim kingdom in 1492. ...


Date and text

Title page of the first quarto edition of Othello, published in 1622
Title page of the first quarto edition of Othello, published in 1622

The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on October 6, 1621 by Thomas Walkley, and was first published in quarto format by him in 1622, printed by Nicholas Okes, under the title The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice. Its appearance in the First Folio (1623) quickly followed. Later quartos followed in 1630, 1655, 1681, 1695, and 1705; on stage and in print, it was a popular play. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (536x825, 258 KB) Title page of the first quarto of Othello, published 1622 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (536x825, 258 KB) Title page of the first quarto of Othello, published 1622 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of... Quarto has several meanings: In bookbinding and publishing, quarto indicates the book size which results when four leaves of the book are created from a standard size sheet of paper. ... The Stationers Register was a journal maintained by the Stationers Company of London. ... The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Walkley (fl. ... The size of a specific book is measured from the head to tail of the spine, and from edge to edge across the covers. ... Nicholas Okes (died 1645) was an English printer in London of the Jacobean and Caroline eras, remembered for printing works of English Renaissance drama. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ...


Characters

Persons represented:

  • Duke of Venice.
  • Brabantio, also written Brabanzio, a Venetian Senator, father of Desdemona.
  • Other Senators.
  • Gratiano, Brother to Brabantio.
  • Lodovico, Kinsman to Brabantio.
  • Othello, A noble Moor in the service of the Republic of Venice; the protagonist of the play.
  • Cassio, Othello's Lieutenant.
  • Iago, his Ancient and ensign (standard bearer), the villain of the play.
  • Roderigo, a Venetian gentleman. Harbours unrequited love for Desdemona.
  • Montano, Othello's Venetian predecessor in the government of Cyprus.
  • Clown, Servant to Montano.
  • Desdemona, Daughter to Brabantio, and Wife to Othello.
  • Emilia, Iago's wife, maid to Desdemona.
  • Bianca, Cassio's Courtesan.
  • Lodovico, Venetian Nobleman, Desdemona's cousin
  • Miscellaneous: Officers, Gentlemen, Messenger, Musicians, Herald, Sailor, Attendants, servants etc

Grand Procession of the Doge, 16th century For about a thousand years, the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice was styled the Doge, a rare but not unique Italian title derived from the Latin Dux, as the major Italian parallel Duce and the English Duke. ... Brabantio is a character in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. ... Othello is the title character of William Shakespeares Othello. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Michael Cassio is a fictional character in William Shakespeares tragedy Othello. ... For other uses, see Iago (disambiguation). ... Desdemona by Frederic Leighton Desdemona is a fictional character in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. ... Emilia is a character in William Shakespeares Othello. ... Bianca is a character in William Shakespeares Othello, whose name is Italian for white. She is the mistress of Michael Cassio, but is used by Shakespeare as more than just that. ...

Synopsis

The play opens with Roderigo, a rich and foolish gentleman, complaining to Iago, a high-ranking soldier, that Iago didn't tell him about the secret marriage between Desdemona, daughter of a Senator named Brabantio, and Othello, a black general of the Venetian army. He is upset by this development because he loves Desdemona and has previously asked her father for her hand in marriage. Iago is upset with Othello for promoting a younger man named Cassio above him, and tells Roderigo that he is simply using Othello for his own advantage. Iago's argument against Cassio is that he is a scholarly tactician and has no real battle experience from which he can draw. By emphasizing this point, and his dissatisfaction with serving under Othello, Iago convinces Roderigo to wake Brabantio and tell him about his daughter's marriage. After Roderigo rouses Brabantio, Iago makes an aside that he has heard rumors that Othello has had an affair with his wife, Emilia. This acts as the second explicit motive for Iago's actions. Later, Iago tells Othello that he overheard Roderigo telling Brabantio about the marriage and that he (Iago) was angry because the development was meant to be secret. This is the first time in the play that we see Iago blatantly lying. Desdemona by Frederic Leighton Desdemona is a fictional character in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. ... Emilia is a character in William Shakespeares Othello. ...


News arrives in the Senate that the Turks are going to attack Cyprus and Othello is summoned to advise. Brabantio arrives and accuses Othello of seducing Desdemona by witchcraft, but Othello defends himself successfully before an assembled Senate. Witch redirects here. ...


By order of the Duke, Othello leaves Venice to command the Venetian armies against invading Turks on the island of Cyprus, accompanied by his new wife, his new lieutenant Cassio, his ensign Iago and Emilia, Iago's wife, who works as a maid to Desdemona. When they arrive, they find that a storm has destroyed the Turkish fleet, and all break out in celebration. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... For other uses, see Iago (disambiguation). ... Emilia is a character in William Shakespeares Othello. ...


Iago, who resents Othello for favoring Cassio, takes the opportunity of Othello being away from home to manipulate his superiors and make Othello think that his wife has been unfaithful. He persuades Roderigo to engage Cassio in a fight, then gets Cassio drunk. When Othello discovers Cassio drunk and in a fight, he strips him of his ranks, and confers them upon Iago, which in turn strips Iago of his two stated reasons to exact revenge on Othello. After Cassio sobers up a bit, Iago persuades Cassio to try Desdemona as an intermediary on Othello. It is of some note that throughout the text, Othello and other characters refer to Iago as "good" and "honest." For other uses, see Iago (disambiguation). ...


Iago now works on Othello to make him suspicious of Desdemona and Cassio. As it happens, Cassio is seeing a woman named Bianca. Desdemona drops a handkerchief that was Othello's first gift to her and which he has stated holds great significance to him in the context of their relationship. Emilia obtains this for Iago, who has asked her to steal it, having decided to plant it in Cassio's lodgings as evidence of Cassio and Desdemona's affair. Emilia is unaware of what Iago plans to do with the handkerchief. After he has planted the handkerchief, Iago tells Othello to hide, and goads Cassio on to talk about his affair with his mistress Bianca, but since Bianca's name is not mentioned Othello thinks that Cassio is referring to Desdemona. Bianca, on discovering the handkerchief, leaves Cassio. Enraged and hurt, Othello decides to kill his wife and orders Iago to kill Cassio.


Iago convinces a sexually-frustrated Roderigo to kill Cassio because Cassio has just been appointed in Othello's place and, if Cassio lives to take office, Othello and Desdemona will leave Cyprus, thwarting Roderigo's plans to win Desdemona. Roderigo attacks Cassio in the street after Cassio leaves Bianca's lodgings and they fight. Both are wounded. Passers-by arrive to help and Iago joins them, pretending to help Cassio. Iago secretly stabs Roderigo to stop him talking and accuses Bianca of conspiracy to kill Cassio.


In the night, Othello confronts Desdemona, and then kills her, smothering her in bed out of intense jealousy, before Iago's wife, Emilia, arrives. At Emilia's distress Othello tries to explain himself, justifying his actions by way of her affair. Emilia calls for help. The Governor arrives, with Iago and others, and Emilia begins to explain the situation. When Othello mentions the handkerchief (distinctively embroidered) as proof, Emilia realizes what Iago has done, and she exposes him, just before he kills her. Othello, realizing Desdemona's innocence, attacks Iago but does not kill him, saying that he would rather Iago live the rest of his life in pain. Lodovico, a Venetian nobleman, apprehends both Iago and Othello, but Othello commits suicide with a dagger, holding his wife's body in his arms, before they can take him into custody. At the end, it can be assumed, Iago is taken off to be tortured and possibly executed. Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Themes and tropes

Image File history File links Ambox_emblem_question. ...

Othello's racial classification

"Othello and Desdemona in Venice" by Théodore Chassériau (1819–1856)
"Othello and Desdemona in Venice" by Théodore Chassériau (1819–1856)

There is no consensus over Othello's racial classification. Othello is referred to as a "Moor", but for Elizabethan English people, this term could refer either to the Berbers or Arabs of North Africa, or to the people now called "black" (people of sub-Saharan African descent), or to Muslims in general. In his other plays, Shakespeare had previously depicted what he called a "tawny Moor" (in The Merchant of Venice) and a black Moor (in Titus Andronicus). Othello and Desdemona in Venice by Théodore Chassériau (1819-1856) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Othello and Desdemona in Venice by Théodore Chassériau (1819-1856) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Théodore Chassériau (1819-1856), French painter, was born in Santo Domingo. ... Othello is the title character of William Shakespeares Othello. ... For other uses, see Race. ... After the Maghreb came under Muslim rule, the term Moors was transferred in European usage to refer to any non-Christian inhabitants of the area; and after North African Muslims conquered Spain, it came to refer equally to Muslims in Spain. ... Language(s) Berber languages Religion(s) Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly protestant), Judaism Imazighen(in Kabyle and other Berber languages: Imaziγen) are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ...


E.A.J. Honigmann, the editor of the Arden edition, concludes that Othello's race is ambiguous. Various uses of the word 'black' (for example, "Haply for I am black") are insufficient evidence, Honigmann argues, since 'black' could simply mean 'swarthy' for Elizabethans.[4] Moreover, Iago twice uses the word 'Barbary' or 'Barbarian' to refer to Othello, seemingly referring to the Barbary coast inhabited by the "tawny" Moors. Roderigo calls Othello 'the thicklips', which seems to refer to African physiognomy, but Honigmann counters that since these comments are all insults, they need not be taken literally.[5] Furthermore, Honigmann notes a piece of external evidence: an ambassador of the Arab King of Barbary with his retinue stayed in London in 1600 for several months and occasioned much discussion. Honigmann wonders whether Shakespeare's play, written only a year or two afterwards, might have been inspired by the ambassador.[6] For other meanings, see Barbary Coast (disambiguation). ...


However, Michael Neill, editor of the Oxford Shakespeare edition, disagrees, arguing that the earliest references to Othello's colour (Thomas Rymer's 1693 critique of the play, and the 1709 engraving in Nicholas Rowe's edition of Shakespeare) assume him to be a black man, while the earliest known North African interpretation was Edmund Kean's production of 1814.[7] Modern-day readers and theatre directors now normally lean towards the "black" interpretation, and North African Othellos are rare.[8] One exception is Patrick Stewart, who had wanted to play the title role since the age of 14, so he (along with director Jude Kelly) inverted the play so Othello became a White man in a Black society. Thomas Rymer (1641 - December 14, 1713), English historiographer royal, was the younger son of Ralph Rymer, lord of the manor of Brafferton in Yorkshire, described by Clarendon as possessed of a good estate, and executed for his share in the Presbyterian rising of 1663. ... Nicholas Rowe Guilt is the source of sorrow, tis the fiend, Th avenging fiend, that follows us behind, With whips and stings Nicholas Rowe (1674 – 1718), English dramatist, poet and miscellaneous writer, was selected Poet Laureate in 1715. ... Edmund Kean (March 17, 1787 – May 15, 1833) was an English actor, regarded in his time as the greatest ever. ... This article is about the actor. ...


Iago / Othello

Although the title suggests that the tragedy belongs primarily to Othello, Iago is also an important role, with more lines than the title character. In Othello, it is Iago who manipulates all other characters at will, controlling their movements and trapping them in an intricate net of lies. A. C. Bradley — and more recently Harold Bloom — have been major advocates of this interpretation. Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851 - 1935) was an English literary scholar. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ...


Other critics, most notably in the later twentieth century (after F. R. Leavis), have focused on Othello. Apart from the common question of jealousy, some argue that his honour is his undoing, while others address the hints of instability in his person (in Act IV Scene I, for example, he falls "into a trance"). Frank Raymond Leavis (July 14, 1895 - April 14, 1978) was an influential British literary critic of the early-to-mid-twentieth century. ... For other uses, see Honour (disambiguation). ...


It might also be noted that there is additional internal evidence in the play, as well as the "trance" reference above, to suggest that Shakespeare wanted to imply that Othello was an epileptic. That disease was seen in Shakespeare's time as caused by a choleric excess, an excess of the red humour that produced passionate personalities given to emotional extremes. Othello's obsessive love of, need for control of, and jealously of Desdemona plus his horrenduous temper would all be explained by his epileptic predisposition.


Furthermore, his inside personality is also shown as responsible for his fate, with an inside combat between "the noble Moor" and the "malignant and turbaned Turk" (act V scene II), his moorishness brings up in himself. Othello is the victim of two opposite sides fighting inside his body and soul, which would then result in the dramatic ending that takes place.


Sexuality

At the beginning of the 21st century, several critics inferred that the relationship between the Moor and his Ancient is one of Shakespeare's characteristic subtexts of repressed homosexuality or him being gay. Most notably David Somerton, Linford S. Haines and JP Doolan-York in their 2006 publication "Notes for Literature Students on the Tragedy of Othello," devote several chapters to arguing the case for 'Sexuality and Sexual Imagery' in the play. They analyze in great depth the play's climax, Act III Scene III, with its oaths, vows and formal, semi-ritualistic declarations of love and commitment as being a dark parody of a heterosexual wedding ceremony; they continue by saying that Iago replaces Desdemona in Othello's affections. Linford S. Haines (born Simon Linford Haines on March 11, 1967) is a contemporary literary critic, author, lecturer, as well as a former actor and musician. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ...


Somerton, Haines and Doolan-York come to the conclusion that Iago is a pre-Jungian expression of Shakespeare's shadow, his repressed homosexuality (which remains the subject of much heated debate among today's scholars). This also would explain why the anti-protagonist of this tragedy is so much more appealing and developed as a character than in any of Shakespeare's other plays. The discourse concludes with the speculation that Shakespeare has drawn on the androphilia of Classical society and that Iago's unrequited love for the General is the explanation for his otherwise motiveless but passionate loathing. Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In the context of male homosexuality, androphilia is the mutual attraction of adult men. ...


It should be stressed that though there are arguments for this reading of the play's central relationship, it is a reading currently adopted only by a minority of critics. It can be concluded that Othello's own actions led to his own downfall. One may argue that it was the diabolical character of Iago that released the "green-eyed monster" in Othello, for he was his right hand man, his "ancient". F.R Leavis accounts for how Othello's "Self-pride became stupidity. A Dangerous stupidity. An insane self-consuming passion".


Critical analysis

There have been many differing views on the character of Othello over the years. They span from describing Othello as a hero to an egotistical fool. A.C Bradley calls Othello the "most romantic of all of Shakespeare's heroes" and "the greatest poet of them all". On the other hand, F.R. Leavis describes Othello as "egotistical". There are those who also take a less critical approach to the character of Othello such as William Hazlitt. Hazlitt makes a statement saying that "the nature of the Moor is noble...but his blood is of the most inflameable kind". // William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer remembered for his humanistic essays and literary criticism, often esteemed the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson. ...


Laurence Olivier in his book, On Acting offers a comical fiction of how Shakespeare came to write Othello. He imagined Richard Burbage and Shakespeare getting drunk one night together and, as drunken colleagues are wont to do, both begin bragging about their greatness until finally he imagined Burbage to shout, "I'm the best actor and there's nothing you can write that I can't perform!" Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... On Acting is a book by Laurence Olivier. ... Unknown artist: Portrait of Richard Burbage, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London Richard Burbage (July 7, 1568 – March 13, 1619) was an actor and theatre owner. ...


Performance history

The seminal Russian actor and theatre practitioner Constantin Stanislavski as Othello in 1896.
The seminal Russian actor and theatre practitioner Constantin Stanislavski as Othello in 1896.

Othello possesses an unusually detailed performance record. The first certainly-known performance occurred on November 1, 1604, at Whitehall Palace in London. Subsequent performances took place on Monday, April 30, 1610 at the Globe Theatre; on November 22, 1629; and on May 6, 1635 at the Blackfriars Theatre. Othello was also one of the twenty plays performed by the King's Men during the winter of 1612-13, in celebration of the wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Frederick V, Elector Palatine.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 375 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (825 × 1318 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Constantin Stanislavski File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 375 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (825 × 1318 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Constantin Stanislavski File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Theatre practitioner is a modern term to describe someone who both creates theatre performance and who produces a theoretical discourse that informs their practical work. ... Young Stanislavski Stanislavski in Carlo Goldonis La locandiera (The Innkeeper Woman, 1753), in 1898. ... The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... This article is about the original Globe Theatre of Shakespeare and the modern reconstruction in London known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... Blackfriars Theatre was the name of two separate theatres in the City of London, built on grounds previously belonging to a Dominican monastery. ... It has been suggested that Lord Chamberlains Men be merged into this article or section. ... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


At the start of the Restoration era, on October 11, 1660, Samuel Pepys saw the play at the Cockpit Theatre. Nicholas Burt played the lead. Soon after, on December 8, 1660, Thomas Killigrew's new King's Company acted the play at their Vere Street theatre, with Margaret Hughes as Desdemona—probably the first time a professional actress appeared on a public stage in England. For other uses, see Restoration. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... These plans, drawn by Inigo Jones probably around 1616 to 1618, may be for the Cockpit Theatre. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Thomas Killigrew (1612 - March 19, 1683), was an English dramatist. ... The Kings Company was one of two enterprises granted the rights to mount theatrical productions in London at the start of the English Restoration. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


It may be one index of the play's power that Othello was one of the very few Shakespearean plays that was never adapted and changed during the Restoration and the eighteenth century.[9] Famous nineteenth century Othellos included Edmund Kean, Edwin Forrest, Ira Aldridge, and Tommaso Salvini, and outstanding Iagos were Edwin Booth and Henry Irving. Edmund Kean (March 17, 1787 – May 15, 1833) was an English actor, regarded in his time as the greatest ever. ... This photograph of Edwin Forrest was taken by Matthew Brady. ... Ira Aldridge as Mungo in The Padlock, 1820s or 1830s Ira Frederick Aldridge (July 24, 1807 New York City – 7 August 1867 Łódź) was an American stage actor who made his career largely on the London stage. ... Tommaso Salvini Tommaso Salvini (born January 1st, 1829 in Milan - died December 31st, 1915 in Florence), Italian actor. ... Edwin Booth as Hamlet. ... Sir Henry Irving, as Hamlet, in an 1893 illustration from The Idler magazine John Henry Brodribb (February 6, 1838 – October 13, 1905), knighted in 1895, as Sir Henry Irving, was one of the most famous stage actors of the Victorian era. ...

The 1943 run of Othello — starring Paul Robeson and Uta Hagen — holds the record for the most performances of any Shakespeare play ever produced on Broadway.
The 1943 run of Othello — starring Paul Robeson and Uta Hagen — holds the record for the most performances of any Shakespeare play ever produced on Broadway.

The play has maintained its popularity into the 21st century. The most famous American production may be Margaret Webster's 1943 staging starring Paul Robeson as Othello and Jose Ferrer as Iago. This production was the first ever in the United States of America to feature a black actor playing Othello with an otherwise all-white cast (there had been all-black productions of the play before). It ran for 296 performances, almost twice as long as any other Shakespearean play ever produced on Broadway. Although it was never filmed, it was the first nearly complete performance of a Shakespeare play released on records. Robeson had first played the role in London in 1931 opposite a cast that included Peggy Ashcroft as Desdemona and Ralph Richardson as Roderigo, and would return to it in 1959 at Stratford on Avon. Image File history File links Robeson_Hagen_Othello. ... Image File history File links Robeson_Hagen_Othello. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, fellow traveler, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin Peace Prize laureate. ... Uta Hagen with Paul Robeson in the Theatre Guild production of Othello, which ran on Broadway from 1943 to 1945. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Margaret Webster (1905-1972) was an important United States born theater actress, producer and director. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, fellow traveler, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin Peace Prize laureate. ... José Vicente Ferrer de Otero y Cintron, known as José Ferrer (January 8, 1912-January 26, 1992), was an actor and director, born in Santurce, Puerto Rico. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Dame Peggy Ashcroft DBE (22 December 1907 – 14 June 1991) was an acclaimed Academy Award-winning English actress. ... Sir Ralph David Richardson (19 December 1902 – 10 October 1983) was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, did their best to make the transition to film. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ...


Another famous production was the 1982 Broadway staging with James Earl Jones as Othello and Christopher Plummer as Iago, who became the only actor to receive a Tony Award nomination for a performance in the play. For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... James Earl Jones (born January 17, 1931) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of film and stage well known for his deep basso voice. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... What is popularly called the Tony Award (formally, the Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre) is an annual award celebrating achievements in live American theater, including musical theater, primarily honoring productions on Broadway in New York. ...


When Laurence Olivier played his legendary and wildly acclaimed performance of Othello at the Royal National Theatre in 1964, he had developed a case of stage fright that was so profound that when he was alone onstage, Frank Finlay (who was playing Iago) would have to stand offstage where Olivier could see him to settle his nerves.[10] This performance was recorded complete on LP, and filmed by popular demand in 1965 (according to a biography of Olivier, tickets for the stage production were notoriously hard to get). The film version still holds the record for the most Oscar nominations for acting ever given to a Shakespeare film - Olivier, Finlay, Maggie Smith (as Desdemona) and Joyce Redman (as Emilia, Iago's wife) were all nominated for Academy Awards. Olivier was among the last white actors to be greatly acclaimed as Othello, although the role continued to be played by such performers as Paul Scofield at the Royal National Theatre in 1980 and Anthony Hopkins in the BBC Shakespeare film (1981). Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... The Royal National Theatre from Waterloo Bridge The Royal National Theatre is a building complex and theatre company located on the South Bank in London, England immediately east of the southern end of Waterloo Bridge. ... Francis Frank Finlay, CBE (born 6 August 1926) is a British stage, film and television actor. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Dame Margaret Natalie Smith, DBE (born 28 December 1934), better known as Dame Maggie Smith, is a two-time Academy Award, and Emmy-winning English film, stage, and television actress. ... Joyce Redman (born December 9, 1918) is a British actress. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... David Paul Scofield, CH, CBE (born 21 January 1922) is a British actor who was born in Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, England. ... The Royal National Theatre from Waterloo Bridge The Royal National Theatre is a building complex and theatre company located on the South Bank in London, England immediately east of the southern end of Waterloo Bridge. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For the composer, see Antony Hopkins. ... The BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


When Patrick Stewart played Othello at the Shakespeare Theater Company in Washington D. C., he portrayed the Moor as a white man with the other characters played by black actors. This article is about the actor. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the...


Actors have alternated the roles of Iago and Othello in productions to stir audience interest since the nineteenth century. Two of the most notable examples of this role swap were William Charles Macready and Samuel Phelps at Drury Lane (1837) and Richard Burton and John Neville at the Old Vic Theatre (1955). When Edwin Booth's tour of England in 1880 was not well attended, Henry Irving invited Booth to alternate the roles of Othello and Iago with him in London. The stunt renewed interest in Booth's tour. James O'Neill also alternated the roles of Othello and Iago with Booth, with the latter’s complimentary appreciation of O'Neill’s interpretation of the Moor being immortalized in O'Neill’s son Eugene’s play Long Day's Journey Into Night. William Charles Macready (March 3, 1793 - April 27, 1873), English actor, was born in London, and educated at Rugby. ... Samuel Phelps (1804-1878) was an English actor, born in Devonport. ... Drury Lane is a street in the Covent Garden area of London, running between Aldwych and High Holborn. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... John Neville as the Well Manicured Man in the TV-series The X-Files John Neville, C.M., OBE (born May 2, 1925) is an English theatre and film actor who moved to Canada in 1972. ... The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... Edwin Booth as Hamlet. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sir Henry Irving, as Hamlet, in an 1893 illustration from The Idler magazine John Henry Brodribb (February 6, 1838 – October 13, 1905), knighted in 1895, as Sir Henry Irving, was one of the most famous stage actors of the Victorian era. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... James ONeill (born November 15, 1849, Kilkenny, Ireland; died August 10, 1920, New London, Connecticut) was an actor and the father of the American playwright Eugene ONeill. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Long Days Journey Into Night is a dramatic play in four acts by Eugene ONeill, widely considered to be his masterwork. ...


Othello is currently being performed at the Donmar Warehouse, with Chiwetel Ejiofor as Othello, Ewan McGregor as Iago and Kelly Reilly as Desdemona. Despite tickets selling as high as £2000 on web-based vendors, only Ejiofor has been praised, with McGregor and Reilly's performances negatively received. It officially opened on the 4th of December, 2007, directed by Michael Grandage. The Donmar Warehouse is a small theatre in the Covent Garden area of the West End of London. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ewan Gordon McGregor (born March 31, 1971; pronounced )[1] is a Scottish actor who has had significant success in mainstream, indie, and art house films. ... Kelly Reilly Kelly Reilly (born 1977) is a British actress who, in 2004, became the youngest ever best actress nominee at the Olivier Awards. ... Michael Grandage is a British theatre director who is currently Artistic Director at the Donmar Warehouse in London, England. ...


Adaptations and cultural references

Laurence Fishburne and Kenneth Branagh as Othello and Iago respectively, in a scene from the 1995 version of Othello.
Laurence Fishburne and Kenneth Branagh as Othello and Iago respectively, in a scene from the 1995 version of Othello.

Lawrence Fishbourne and Kenneth Brannagh as Othello and Iago. ... Lawrence Fishbourne and Kenneth Brannagh as Othello and Iago. ... Laurence John Fishburne III[1] (born July 30, 1961) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of screen and stage, as well as playwright, director, and producer. ... Kenneth Charles Branagh (born December 10, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated Northern Irish-born actor and film director. ... Othello is a 1995 film based on William Shakespeares tragedy of the same name. ...

Opera

Othello is the basis for three operatic versions: For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ...

Otello is an opera in three acts by Gioacchino Rossini to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Berio di Salsi, based on Shakespeares play Othello. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... For the Rossini opera, see Otello (Rossini) or for the eurobeat artist see Gianni Coraini. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Arrigo Boito (February 24, 1842 – June 10, 1918) was an Italian poet, journalist, novelist and composer, best known today for his opera libretti and his own opera, Mefistofele. ... Bandanna is an English language opera in a prologue and two acts by Daron Hagen, first performed by the The University of Texas at Austin opera theater in Austin, February 25, 1999. ... Daron Aric Hagen Daron Aric Hagen (born November 4, 1961, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is an American composer of contemporary classical music and opera. ...

Film

See also Shakespeare on screen (Othello).

There have been several film adaptations of Othello. These include: It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...

Emil Jannings (July 23, 1884 - January 3, 1950) was an actor and the first winner of the Academy Award for Best Actor. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... One of Welles more complicated shoots, Othello was filmed on and off over a period of three years. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Bondarchuk as Pierre Bezukhov in War and Peace Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (IPA: , Russian: Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к September 25, 1920 – October 20, 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter, and actor. ... Irina Konstantinova Skobtseva(-Bondarchuk) (Russian: , 22 August 1927- ) is a Russian/Soviet actress, wife of Sergei Bondarchuk, and mother to Yelena and Fyodor Bondarchuk. ... All Night Long is a 1961 British film directed by Basil Dearden, and starring Patrick McGoohan, Richard Attenborough, Paul Harris, Keith Michell, Bernard Braden, and Betsy Blair. ... David Warren Brubeck (born December 6, 1920 in Concord, California[1]), better known as Dave Brubeck, is a U.S. jazz pianist. ... For other article subjects named Jazz see jazz (disambiguation). ... Othello is a 1965 movie based on the Shakespeare play Othello; starring Laurence Olivier, Maggie Smith, Frank Finlay, and Joyce Redman. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Dame Margaret Natalie Smith, DBE (born 28 December 1934), better known as Dame Maggie Smith, is a two-time Academy Award, and Emmy-winning English film, stage, and television actress. ... Francis Frank Finlay, CBE (born 6 August 1926) is a British stage, film and television actor. ... Joyce Redman (born December 9, 1918) is a British actress. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For the composer, see Antony Hopkins. ... Robert William Bob Hoskins Jr. ... Othello is a 1986 film based on the Giuseppe Verdi opera based on the Shakespeare play Othello. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ... BAFTA Award The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organisation that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ... Michael Grandage is a British theatre director who is currently Artistic Director at the Donmar Warehouse in London, England. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CBE (born May 25, 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of a Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Clive Swift in his role as Richard Bucket in Keeping Up Appearances. ... Sir Willard Wentworth White CBE (b. ... Sean Baker, a native of Lawrenceburg, Kentucky, is a United States Air Force veteran and former member of the Kentucky National Guard, who served during the first Gulf War, and as a member of the 438th military police at Guantanamo Bay. ... Imogen Stubbs, Lady Nunn (born 20 February 1961) is a British actress. ... Sir Trevor King (born 14 January 1940) is a loser and film director. ... Othello is a 1995 film based on William Shakespeares tragedy of the same name. ... Kenneth Charles Branagh (born December 10, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated Northern Irish-born actor and film director. ... Laurence John Fishburne III[1] (born July 30, 1961) is an American Academy Award-nominated, Emmy- and Tony Award-winning actor of screen and stage, as well as playwright, director, and producer. ... Irène Marie Jacob (born July 15, 1966) is a French-born Swiss actress. ... English film/tv writer, born 1969 in London, England. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Suresh Gopi is an acclaimed actor in Malayalam cinema who is famous for his roles in police dramas. ... Manju Warrier (born on September 10, 1978) is an Indian actress specialising in Malayalam cinema. ... O is a 2001 teen film version of William Shakespeares Othello. ... Mekhi Phifer (born December 29, 1974 or 1975[1]) is an American actor. ... Julia OHara Stiles (born March 28, 1981) is an American stage and screen actress. ... Joshua Daniel Hartnett (born July 21, 1978) is an American actor. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... For other uses, see ITV (disambiguation). ... LWT redirects here. ... Andrew Wynford Davies (born September 20, 1936 in Rhiwbina, Cardiff, Wales) is a British screenwriter. ... Geoffrey Sax (sometimes credited as Geoff Sax) is a British film and television director, who has worked on a variety of critically-acclaimed and popular drama productions in both the UK and the United States. ... Eamonn Walker (born June 12th 1962) is a British film, television and theatre actor. ... Christopher Eccleston (born 16 February 1964) is an English stage, television and film actor. ... Keeley Hawes (born 1 January 1977 in London) is an English actress, best known for her role as Zoe Reynolds in the BBC One drama series Spooks (2002-2004). ... Omkara (Hindi: ओमकारा, Urdu: امکارا) is a 2006 Hindi film adaptation of Shakespeare’s Othello directed by Vishal Bharadwaj. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Vishal Devgan, born (April 2, 1969 in Delhi, India), popularly known as Ajay Devgan is a National Film Award-winning actor who appears in Bollywood films. ... Saif Ali Khan (Hindi: सैफ़ अली ख़ान, Urdu: سیف علی خان; IPA born 16 August 1970 in New Delhi, India) is National Film Award winning Indian actor who stars in Bollywood films. ... Kareena Kapoor, (Hindi: ; born September 21, 1980)[1] nicknamed Bebo, is an Indian film actress who appears in Bollywood movies. ... Vivek Anand Oberoi or Viveik Oberoi (Hindi:विवेक ओबेरोई),Tamil:விவேக் ஒபெராய்)(born September 3, 1976 in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India), is a Bollywood actor. ... Bipasha Basu (Bengali: বিপাশা বসু , Hindi: बिपाषा बासु) (born January 7, 1979) is a Bollywood actress and model. ... Konkona Sen Sharma is a Indian actress. ... Vishal Bharadwaj is an Indian film director, writer and musical composer. ... Maqbool (2004), directed by Vishal Bharadwaj and starring Pankaj Kapoor, Irfan Khan and Tabu is an adaptation of the play macbeth by Shakespeare Categories: Movie stubs ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... The Indian film industry is the largest in the world in terms of ticket sales and number of films produced annually (877 feature films and 1177 short films were released in the year 2003 alone). ... Eloise is a low-budget digital feature film written and directed by Australian film director Brenden Dannaher and starring Melanie Holt, Mark Jensen and Paul Parker. ... This is about the city of Sydney in Australia. ... NSW redirects here. ...

References in literature

  • Ann Radcliffe's gothic novel, The Romance of the Forest, features an excerpt from Othello: "Trifles, light as air, / Are, to the jealous, confirmations strong / As proof of Holy Writ". In a piece of enjambment, the passage refers to Madame La Motte's growing, and unfounded, jealousy.[23]

This article is about the 19th-century author. ... Enjambement is the breaking of a linguistic unit (phrase, clause or sentence) by the end of a line or between two verses. ... Al-Tayyib Salih (Arabic: الطيّب صالح) is a noted Sudanese writer. ... Season of Migration to the North (Arabic: موسم الهجرة إلى الشمال ) is a classic post-colonial Sudanese novel by Al-Tayyib Salih. ...

Reference in television

  • In Gargoyles, the character, Coldstone, a cyborg gargoyle consisting in part of the collected remains of three gargoyles, contained the gargoyles' spirits in the one body that mirror the relationships of Othello, Desdemona and Iago. Although Scottish gargoyles do not have names, the producers informally named each personality in the script by their Shakespearean equivalent. In this case the base personality of Coldstone is Othello, the female gargoyle spirit is Desdemona (later given a robot body to inhabit called Coldfire) and the evil gargoyle is named Iago (later given a robot body to inhabit called Coldsteel). Goliath was perceived by Othello and intimiated by Iago as being the equivalent of Cassio as illustrated in the episode, "Legion." However, in this story, Iago's villainous manipulations are found out before tragedy strikes and Othello and Desedemona vow to oppose him as united lovers. This extends to when the spirits are given separate bodies in "Possession" and Coldsteel escapes while the heroic couple excuses themselves to depart in pursuit.
  • Uncle Deadly (Muppet) from The Muppet Show mentions in the "Twiggy" episode that Othello was one of his roles, shortly before he was killed by the critics.

Gargoyles is an American fantasy superhero animated series created by Greg Weisman. ... Coldstone is a character in the animated series Gargoyles. ... Goliath is the primary protagonist of the animated television series Gargoyles. ... The Muppet Show was a television program featuring a cast of Muppets (diverse hand-operated puppets, typically with oversized eyes and large moving mouths) produced by Jim Henson and his team from 1976 to 1981. ...

References

  1. ^ Hecatommithi
  2. ^ Professor Nabil Matar (April 2004), Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Stage Moor, Sam Wanamaker Fellowship Lecture, Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre (cf. Mayor of London (2006), Muslims in London, pp. 14-15, Greater London Authority)
  3. ^ Saudi Aramco World: A Man of Two Worlds
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 'Black', 1c.
  5. ^ E.A.J. Honigmann, ed. Othello. London: Thomas Nelson, 1997, p. 15.
  6. ^ Honigmann, 2-3.
  7. ^ Michael Neill, ed. Othello (Oxford University Press), 2006, p. 45-7.
  8. ^ Honigmann, 17.
  9. ^ F. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion 1564-1964, Baltimore, Penguin, 1964; pp. 346-47.
  10. ^ Laurence Olivier, Confessions of an Actor, Simon and Shuster (1982) p. 262
  11. ^ Bandanna | The opera by Daron Hagen and Paul Muldoon :: Home
  12. ^ Othello (1922)
  13. ^ The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice (1952)
  14. ^ See Отелло at the Internet Movie Database
  15. ^ All Night Long (1962)
  16. ^ Othello (1965)
  17. ^ Othello (1981) (TV)
  18. ^ Otello (1986)
  19. ^ Othello (1995)
  20. ^ Kaliyattam (1997)
  21. ^ O (2001)
  22. ^ Othello (2001) (TV)
  23. ^ Radcliffe, Ann (2005). The Romance of the Forest. Nonsuch (publisher), 96. ISBN 1845880730. 

Sam Wanamaker (born Samuel Watenmaker) (June 14, 1919, Chicago – December 18, 1993, London, England) was an American actor and director. ... This article is about the original Globe Theatre of Shakespeare and the modern reconstruction in London known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre. ... Look up Cf. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... This article is about the 19th-century author. ...

External links

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Title page of the first quarto (1598) Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ... Henry IV part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare, first published as part of Shakespeares First Folio. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V, also known as The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... The First Part of King Henry the Sixth is one of Shakespeares history plays. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Katherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets Dedication page from The Sonnets Shakespeares sonnets, or simply The Sonnets, is a collection of poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... Title page of the first quarto (1593) Venus and Adonis is one of Shakespeares three longer poems. ... The Earl of Southampton, painted in 1594, aged 21, the year that Shakespeare dedicated The Rape of Lucrece to him The narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece is the graver work promised by English dramatist-poet William Shakespeare in his dedication to his patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton... The Passionate Pilgrim is a collection of poems, first published in 1599, attributed on the title-page to William Shakespeare. ... The Phoenix and the Turtle is a poem by William Shakespeare. ... A Lovers Complaint is a narrative poem usually attributed to William Shakespeare, although the poems authorship is a matter of critical debate. ... The Shakespeare Apocrypha is the name given to a group of plays that have sometimes been attributed to William Shakespeare, but whose attribution is questionable for various reasons. ... The Reign of King Edward III is a play attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Playtext from the 2005 Royal Shakespeare Company production. ... Publicity poster for the 2002 Los Angeles production of The Second Maidens Tragedy as The History of Cardenio is a lost play, known to have been performed by the Kings Men, a London theatre company, in 1613. ... Loves Labours Won, alternatively written Loves labours wonne, is the name of a play written by William Shakespeare before 1598. ... The Birth of Merlin, or, The Child Hath Found his Father is a Jacobean play, written in 1622. ... Locrine is an Elizabethan play depicting the legendary Trojan founders of the nation of England and of Troynovant (London). ... The London Prodigal is a city comedy set in London in which a prodigal son learns the error of his ways. ... Title page of the 1607 quarto The Puritan is a Jacobean comedy, published in 1607, generally considered to be written by Thomas Middleton. ... The Second Maidens Tragedy is a Jacobean play that survives only in manuscript. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sir John Oldcastle is an Elizabethan play about John Oldcastle, a controversial 14th-15th century rebel and Lollard who was seen by some of Shakespeares contemporaries as a proto-Protestant martyr. ... Thomas Lord Cromwell is an Elizabethan play, published in 1602. ... A Yorkshire Tragedy is an early Jacobean era stage play, a domestic tragedy printed in 1608. ... Fair Em, the Millers Daughter of Manchester, is an Elizabethan comedy written ca. ... Mucedorus is a play at one time claimed to be one of Shakespeares. ... The Merry Devil of Edmonton is an Elizabethan comedy about a magician, Peter Fabel, nicknamed the Merry Devil. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edmund Ironside is an anonymous Elizabethan play that depicts the life of Edmund II of England; however, at least two critics have suggested it is an early work by Shakespeare. ... Vortigern and Rowena, or Vortigern, an Historical Play is a play that was touted as a newly discovered work by William Shakespeare when it first appeared in 1796. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985. ... The following is a partially complete list of titles of works based on Shakespearean phrases. ... In Shakespeare studies, the term problem plays normally refers to three comedies that William Shakespeare wrote between the late 1590s and the first years of the seventeenth century: Alls Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure and The Merchant of Venice, although some critics would extend the term to... This list contains the biographies of historical figures who appear in the plays of William Shakespeare. ... In playwriting, a ghost character is a character that is mentioned as appearing on stage but neither says nor does anything but enter, and possibly exit. ...

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Reversi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1647 words)
Reversi and Othello are names for a strategic boardgame which involves play by two parties on an eight-by-eight square grid with pieces that have two distinct sides.
Later it adopted Othello's rules, which state that the game begins with four markers placed in a square in the middle of the grid, two facing light-up, two pieces with the dark side up.
Mathematically, Othello still remains unsolved– that is we don't know the result of the game with perfect play on both sides.
Paper on Shakespeare's OTHELLO (1446 words)
Othello is a Moor, one of the North Africans remaining in Spain after the overthrow of the Islamic governments there (note he possesses "a sword of Spain, the ice-brook's temper" (V.ii.250)).
Othello would have Desdemona's blood lying before him even as he bloodlessly strangled her (though this idea may be unmerited, since he makes no mention of the stain).
Othello must wage an inner struggle between the two, and overcomes his sinister side, the Aleppine Turk -- but only at the expense of his honor, his family, and his life, the traditional sacrifices of a Shakespearean tragedy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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