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Encyclopedia > Oswiecim

Oświęcim (pronounce: Image:Ltspkr.png [o'ɕvȋętɕim]) (German Auschwitz, Yiddish Oshpitizin) is a town in southern Poland with about 43,000 inhabitants (2001), situated some 60 km southwest of Kraków in the Lesser Poland Voivodship since 1999, previously in Bielsko-Biala Voivodship (1975-1998). The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... The Lesser Poland Voivodship or Little Poland Voivodship (in Polish województwo małopolskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in the south of Poland that contains core areas of the historical and geographical region of Lesser Poland (Malopolska). ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Polish: wojew dztwo bielskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Silesian Voivodship and Lesser Poland Voivodship. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


The German name Auschwitz is still used when referring to the Auschwitz concentration camp built there by Nazi Germany during World War II. Auschwitz is the name loosely used to identify three main Nazi German concentration camps and 45-50 sub-camps. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

Contents

History

Arms of Oswiecim

The city was first mentioned in 1117. In 1179 it was detached from the Krakauer senior province and attached to the duchy Oppeln.. Oświęcim was organized under German law (more precisely Lwówek law, which is a flavor of Magdeburg law) in 1270. Throughout history, Germans and Poles lived here together peacefully. From 1315 Oświęcim was the capital of an independent duchy. In 1327 duke Johann of Auschwitz formed with the western part of Galicia and the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator a vassal state attached to the kingdom of Bohemia. Later the area went again to the dukes from Te and Grossglogau. In the 14th century many people moved away. The interest of the Germans in Auschwitz shrank and in 1457 the Polish king Casimir IV bought the rights to Oświęcim which was attached afterwards the Cracow Voivodship. Jews, invited by Polish kings to settle in the region, had already become the majority of the population in the 15th century. Oświęcim also became one of centres of Protestant culture in Poland. The Polish poet Łukasz Górnicki was born here in 1527. Arms of Oswiecim This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Arms of Oswiecim This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Events May 3 - Merton Priory (Thomas Becket school) consecrated. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... Events The Eighth Crusade is launched against Tunis, and ends when its leader, Louis IX of France, dies. ... Events August 13 - Louis X of France marries Clemence dAnjou. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... Zator is a town in southern Poland. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Bohemia Historical map of Bohemia Bohemia is also a place in the State of New York in the United States of America: see Bohemia, New York. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka Kazimierz Swięty Jan I Olbracht Aleksander Jagiellończyk Zofia Elżbieta Zygmunt I... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ...


The town was destroyed by Swedish troops in 1655. When Poland was divided in the late 18th century, Oświęcim became part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (an Austro-Hungarian province) in 1772 and was located close to the borders of Russia and Prussia. After World War I the town returned to Poland with that country's reemergence as an independent nation. On the eve of World War II there were about 8,000 Jews in the City. Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Concentration camp

Enlarge
Auschwitz Entrance
Enlarge
Auschwitz view of the camp by the winter

Poland was occupied by Germany in World War II, and in 1940 the Germans built the Auschwitz concentration camp by converting Polish military barracks. Later, across town, they also built the vast Auschwitz-II-Birkenau camp. Auschwitz - Work set Free sign entrance. ... Auschwitz - Work set Free sign entrance. ... Auschwitz - View of the Camp. ... Auschwitz - View of the Camp. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Auschwitz is the name loosely used to identify three main Nazi German concentration camps and 45-50 sub-camps. ...


Between 1940 and 1945, roughly 1 million people, mostly Jews, died in the Auschwitz camps: see the articles on Auschwitz concentration camp, List of subcamps of Auschwitz, Holocaust and extermination camp for a detailed account. Auschwitz is the name loosely used to identify three main Nazi German concentration camps and 45-50 sub-camps. ... Below is the list of subcamps of the Auschwitz concentration camp complex. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II, starting in 1941 and continuing through 1945. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


After the war, the Polish government took possession of the Buna-Werke, a chemical factory owned by IG Farben which had previously used Auschwitz prisoners as slave laborers. The chemical industry became the main employer of Oświęcim; in later times service and trade were emphasized. The concentration camps became museums. IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) was a German conglomerate of companies formed in 1925 and even earlier during World War I. IG Farben held nearly a total monopoly on the chemical production, later during the time of Nazi Germany. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ...


Politics

Oświęcim-Wadowice constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from this constituency This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ...

  • Bielan Adam, PiS
  • Graś Paweł, PO
  • Lisak Janusz, SLD-UP
  • Murzyn Leszek, LPR
  • Rydzoń Stanisław, SLD-UP
  • Talaga Halina, SLD-UP
  • Zieliński Leszek, PSL

Sports

The ice hockey team of Oświęcim was repeatedly Polish champion. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ...


See also:


  Results from FactBites:
 
www.um.oswiecim.pl - Content (4131 words)
Oswiecim Castle is one of the top relicts of medieval defensive architecture, it maintain medieval tower dated on XIII/XIV century and is one of the earliest made in bricks buildings in Lesser Poland.
Oswiecim as located on a crossing of main communication routs is a convenient place for rest and spending a night for many travellers, not only in commercial purposes.
KL Auschwitz - Birkenau in Oswiecim and in Brzezinka
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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