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Encyclopedia > Oswald of Northumbria
Oswald of Northumbria

A twelfth century painting of St Oswald in Durham Cathedral
King and Martyr
Born c. 604, Northumbria, England
Died August 5, 641/642, Oswestry in Shropshire, England
Major shrine Bardney Abbey, Lincolnshire, England; relics later translated to Saint Oswald's church, Gloucester, England [1]
Feast August 5
Saints Portal

Oswald (c. 604August 5, 642[1]) was King of Northumbria from 634 until his death, and was subsequently venerated as a Christian saint. He was the son of Æthelfrith of Bernicia and came to rule after spending a period in exile; after defeating the British ruler Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Oswald brought the two Northumbrian kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira once again under a single ruler, and promoted the spread of Christianity in Northumbria. He was given a strongly positive assessment by the historian Bede, writing a little less than a century after Oswald's death, who regarded Oswald as a saintly king; it is also Bede who is the main source for present-day historical knowledge of Oswald. After eight years of rule, in which he was the most powerful ruler in Britain, Oswald was killed in the battle of Maserfield. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... Oswestry is a town in Shropshire, England, very close to the Welsh border. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Bardney Abbey in Lincolnshire was a Benedictine monastery founded in 697 by King Æthelred of Mercia who was to become the first abbott. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... Northumbria, an kingdom of Angles in northern England, was initially divided into two kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Æthelfrith (d. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now the South-East of Scotland, and the North-East of England. ... Deira (which later absorbed the Brythonic kingdom of Ebrauc) was a kingdom in Northern England during the 6th century AD. It extended from the Humber to the Tees, and from the sea to the western edge of the Vale of York. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Maserfield (or Maserfeld) was fought on August 5, 642, between the Anglo-Saxon kings Oswald of Northumbria and Penda of Mercia, ending in Oswalds defeat, death, and dismemberment. ...

Contents

Background, youth, and exile

Oswald's father Æthelfrith was a successful Bernician ruler who, after some years in power in Bernicia, also became king of Deira, and thus was the first to rule both of the kingdoms which would come to be considered the constituent kingdoms of Northumbria (Bernicia in the northern part and Deira in the southern part); it would, however, be anachronistic to refer to a "Northumbrian" people or identity at this early stage, when the Bernicians and the Deirans were still clearly distinct peoples.[2] Oswald's mother, Acha, was a member of the Deiran royal line who Æthelfrith apparently married as part of his acquisition of Deira or consolidation of power there.[3] Oswald was apparently born in or around the year 604, since Bede says that he was killed at the age of 38 in 642;[4] Æthelfrith's acquisition of Deira is also believed to have occurred around 604.[5] Events April 13 - Sabinianus becomes Pope, succeeding Gregory I. September 13 - Pope Sabinianus is consecrated. ...


Æthelfrith, who was for years a successful war-leader, especially against the native British, was eventually killed in battle around 616 by Raedwald of East Anglia at the River Idle. This defeat meant that an exiled member of the Deiran royal line, Edwin (Acha's brother), became king of Northumbria; Oswald and his brothers fled to the north. Oswald thus spent the remainder of his youth in the Irish kingdom of Dál Riata in northern Britain, where he was converted to Christianity.[6] He may also have fought in Ireland during this period of exile.[7] Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... Rædwald (d. ... The River Idle is a river in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ...


Victory over Cadwallon

After Cadwallon ap Cadfan, the king of Gwynedd, in alliance with the pagan Penda of Mercia, killed Edwin of Deira in battle at Hatfield Chase in 633 (or 632, depending on when the years used by Bede are considered to have began), Northumbria was split between its constituent kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira. Oswald's brother Eanfrith became king of Bernicia, but he was killed by Cadwallon in 634 (or 633) after attempting to negotiate peace. Subsequently, Oswald, at the head of a small army[6] (possibly with the aid of allies from the north, the Scots and/or the Picts[8]), met Cadwallon in battle at Heavenfield, near Hexham. Before the battle, Oswald had a wooden cross erected; he knelt down, holding the cross in position until enough earth had been thrown in the hole to make it stand firm. He then prayed and asked his army to join in.[9] Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Stained glass window from the cloister of Worcester Cathedral showing the death of Penda of Mercia. ... The Battle of Hatfield Chase was fought in Anglo-Saxon England between the Northumbrians under Edwin and the allied Welsh of Gwynedd under Cadwallon ap Cadfan and Mercians under Penda. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Eanfrith of Bernicia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Battle of Heavenfield was fought in 633 or 634 between a Northumbrian army under Oswald of Bernicia and a Welsh army under Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd. ... St. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ...


Adomnán in his Life of Saint Columba offers a longer account, which Abbot Ségéne had heard from Oswald himself. Oswald, he says, had a vision of Columba the night before the battle, in which he was told: Iona Abbey Saint Adomnán of Iona (627/8-704) was abbot of Iona (679-704), hagiographer, statesman and clerical lawyer; he was the author of the most important Vita of Saint Columba and promulgator of the Law of Innocents. A popular anglicised form of his name is Saint Eunan... See Columba (disambiguation) and St Columb for other uses. ... Ségéne of Iona was the fifth abbot of Iona (623-652). ...

Be strong and act manfully. Behold, I will be with thee.[10] This coming night go out from your camp into battle, for the Lord has granted me that at this time your foes shall be put to flight and Cadwallon your enemy shall be delivered into your hands and you shall return victorious after battle and reign happily.

Oswald described his vision to his council and all agreed that they would be baptised and accept Christianity after the battle.[11] In the battle that followed, the British were routed despite their superior numbers; Cadwallon himself was killed.[6]

Overlordship

A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600
A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600

Following the victory at Heavenfield, Oswald reunited Northumbria and re-established the Bernician supremacy which had been interrupted by Edwin. Bede says that Oswald held imperium for the eight years of his rule (both Bede and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle say that Oswald's reign was actually considered to be nine years, the ninth year being accounted for by assigning to Oswald the year preceding his rule, "on account of the heathenism practised by those who had ruled that one year between him and Edwin"[12]), and was the most powerful king in Britain. In the 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle he is referred to as a Bretwalda. Adomnán describes Oswald as "ordained by God as Emperor of all Britain".[13] Download high resolution version (944x1104, 59 KB) Drawn by iMeowbot. ... Download high resolution version (944x1104, 59 KB) Drawn by iMeowbot. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ...


He seems to have been widely recognized as overlord, although the extent of his authority is uncertain. Bede makes the claim that Oswald "brought under his dominion all the nations and provinces of Britain", which, as Bede notes, was divided by language between the English, British, Scots, and Picts; however, he seems to undermine his own claim when he mentions at another point in his history that it was Oswald's brother Oswiu who made tributary the Picts and Scots.[14] An Irish source, the Annals of Tigernach, records that the Anglo-Saxons banded together against Oswald early in his reign; this may indicate an attempt to put an end to Oswald's overlordship south of the Humber, which presumably failed.[15] The Annals of Tigernach (abbr. ... River Hull tidal barrier. ...


The Mercians, who participated in Edwin's defeat in 633, seem to have presented an obstacle to Oswald's authority south of the Humber, although it has been generally thought that Oswald dominated Mercia to some degree after Heavenfield. It may have been to appease Oswald that Penda had Eadfrith, a captured son of Edwin (and thus a dynastic rival of Oswald), killed, although it is also possible that Penda had his own motives for the killing.[16] The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ...


Oswald apparently controlled Lindsey, given the evidence of a story told by Bede regarding the moving of Oswald's bones to a monastery there; Bede says that the monks rejected the bones initially because Oswald had ruled over them as a foreign king (see below). To the north, it may have been Oswald who conquered the Gododdin. Irish annals record the siege of Edinburgh, thought to have been the royal stronghold of the Gododdin, in 638, and this seems to mark the end of the kingdom; that this siege was undertaken by Oswald is suggested by the apparent control of the area by his brother Oswiu in the 650s.[17] Lindsey was a unit of local government until 1974 in Lincolnshire, England, covering the northern part of the county. ... Gododdin (pronounced god-o-th-in), or Guotodin (Votadini in Latin), refers to both the people and to the region of a Dark Ages Brythonic kingdom south of the Firth of Forth, extending from the Stirling area to the Northumberland kingdom of Brynaich, and including what are now the Lothian... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


Oswald seems to have been on good terms with the West Saxons: he stood as sponsor to the baptism of their king, Cynegils, and married Cynegils' daughter.[18] Her name is reported by only one source, Reginald of Durham's 12th century Vita S. Oswaldi, which says that it was Kyneburga.[19] Although Oswald had one known son, Æthelwald, it is uncertain whether this was a son from his marriage to Cynegils' daughter or from an earlier relationship—since Æthelwald began ruling in Deira in 651, it has been argued that a son from this marriage would have been too young at the time to be trusted with this position, and therefore may have been older, the product of a relationship Oswald had during his exile.[8] For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Cynegils of Wessex (died 643) (Means roughly Royal Arrow Shaft) was King of Wessex (611-643). ... Reginald of Durham (fl. ... Aethelwald (d. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ...


Christianity

Oswald in The Little Lives of the Saints, illustrated by Charles Robinson in 1904.
Oswald in The Little Lives of the Saints, illustrated by Charles Robinson in 1904.

Although Edwin had previously converted to Christianity in 627, it was Oswald who did the most to spread the religion in Northumbria. Shortly after becoming king, he asked the Irish of Dál Riata to send a bishop to facilitate the conversion of his people, and they sent Aidan for this purpose; initially, the Irish sent an "austere" bishop who was unsuccessful in his mission, and Aidan, who proposed a gentler approach, was subsequently sent instead. Oswald gave the island of Lindisfarne to Aidan as his episcopal see, and Aidan achieved great success in spreading Christianity; Bede mentions that Oswald acted as Aidan's interpreter when the latter was preaching, since Aidan did not know English well and Oswald had learned Irish during his exile.[20] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... Augustine was the Apostle of Kent, but Aidan was the Apostle of the English. ... Map of the UK showing the location of Lindisfarne at 55. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ...


Bede puts a clear emphasis on Oswald being saintly as a king; although he could be interpreted as a martyr for his subsequent death in battle, Bede portrays Oswald as being saintly for his deeds in life and does not focus on his martyrdom as being primary to his sainthood—indeed, it has been noted that Bede never uses the word "martyr" in reference to Oswald. In this respect, as a king regarded as saintly for his life while ruling—in contrast to a king who gives up the kingship in favour of religious life, or who is venerated because of the manner of his death—Bede's portrayal of Oswald stands out as unusual.[21] Bede recounts Oswald's generosity to the poor and to strangers, and tells a story highlighting this characteristic: on one occasion, at Easter, Oswald was sitting at dinner with Aidan, and had "a silver dish full of dainties before him", when a servant, whom Oswald "had appointed to relieve the poor", came in and told Oswald that a crowd of the poor were in the streets begging alms from the king. Oswald, according to Bede, then immediately had his food given to the poor and even had the dish broken up and distributed. Aidan was greatly impressed and seized Oswald's right hand, stating: "May this hand never perish." Accordingly, Bede reports that the hand and arm remained uncorrupted after Oswald's death.[22] Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ... St. ...


Downfall

It was a conflict with the pagan Mercians under Penda that proved to be Oswald's undoing. He was killed by the Mercians at the Battle of Maserfield, at a place generally identified with Oswestry (although other candidates for the location of the battle have been suggested)[23] in 642,[1] and his body was dismembered. Bede mentions the story that Oswald "ended his life in prayer": he prayed for the souls of his soldiers when he saw that he was about to die. Oswald's head and limbs were placed on stakes.[24] The Battle of Maserfield (or Maserfeld) was fought on August 5, 642, between the Anglo-Saxon kings Oswald of Northumbria and Penda of Mercia, ending in Oswalds defeat, death, and dismemberment. ... Oswestry is a town in Shropshire, England, very close to the Welsh border. ...


The traditional identification of the battle site with Oswestry, probably in the territory of Powys at the time, suggests that Penda may have had British allies in this battle, and this is also suggested by surviving Welsh poetry which has been thought to indicate the participation of the men of Powys in the battle. It has also been considered that, if the traditional identification of the site as Oswestry is correct, Oswald was on the offensive, in the territory of his enemies. This could conflict with Bede's saintly portrayal of Oswald, since an aggressive war could hardly qualify as a just war, perhaps explaining why Bede is silent on the cause of the war—he says only that Oswald died "fighting for his fatherland"—as well as his failure to mention other offensive warfare Oswald is presumed to have engaged in between Heavenfield and Maserfield.[25] Oswald may have had an ally in Penda's brother Eowa, who was also killed in the battle, according to the Historia Britonnum and Annales Cambriae; while the source only mentions that Eowa was killed, not the side on which he fought, it has been speculated that Eowa was subject to Oswald and fighting alongside him in the battle, in opposition to Penda.[26] Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... The doctrine of the just war has its foundations in ancient Greek society and was first developed in the Christian tradition by Augustine in Civitas Dei, The City of God, in reaction to the absolutist pacifist strain of Christian ethics based on the doctrine of Turn the other cheek espoused... Eowa (or Eawa) was a son of the Mercian king Pybba and a brother of the Mercian king Penda; according to the Historia Brittonum1 and the Annales Cambriae,2 Eowa was a king of the Mercians himself at the time of the Battle of Maserfield (or Cogwy), in which he... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Welsh_Annals Annales Cambriae: page view from MS. A Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles deriving ultimately from a text compiled from diverse sources at St Davids in Dyfed, Wales, not...


After death

Oswald soon came to be regarded as a saint. Bede says that the spot where he died came to be associated with miracles, and people took dirt from the site, which led to a hole being dug as deep as a man's height.[4] Reginald of Durham recounts another miracle, saying that his right arm was taken by a bird (perhaps a raven) to an ash tree, which gave the tree ageless vigor; when the bird dropped the arm onto the ground, a spring emerged from the ground. Both the tree and the spring were, according to Reginald, subsequently associated with healing miracles.[27][28] Aspects of the legend have been considered to have pagan overtones or influences[28]—this may represent a fusion of his status as a traditional Germanic warrior-king with Christianity. The name of the site, Oswestry, or "Oswald's Tree", is generally thought to be derived from Oswald's death there and the legends surrounding it.[23] His feast day is August 5. The cult surrounding him even gained prominence in parts of continental Europe. A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Species See text. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bede mentions that Oswald's brother Oswiu, who succeeded Oswald in Bernicia, retrieved Oswald's remains in the year after his death.[24] In writing of one miracle associated with Oswald, Bede gives some indication of how Oswald was regarded in conquered lands: years later, when his niece Osthryth tried to move his bones to a monastery in Lindsey, its inmates initially refused to accept them, "though they knew him to be a holy man", because "he was originally of another province, and had reigned over them as a foreign king", and thus "they retained their ancient aversion to him, even after death". It was only after Oswald's bones were the focus of an awe-inspiring miracle—in which, during the night, a pillar of light appeared over the wagon in which the bones were being carried and shined up into the sky—that they were accepted into the monastery: "in the morning, the brethren who had refused it the day before, began themselves earnestly to pray that those holy relics, so beloved by God, might be deposited among them."[29] Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Lindsey was a unit of local government until 1974 in Lincolnshire, England, covering the northern part of the county. ...


His bones resided either at Lindsey in what became Viking Northumbria, or Bamburgh. But in an exploratory five-week attack on Lindsey in 909 by the Mercian king, Oswald's remains were captured and taken away for reburial at Gloucester. This article is for the year 909. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... This article is about the city of Gloucester in England; for other uses see Gloucester (disambiguation). ...


Oswald's head was interred in Durham Cathedral together with the remains of Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (a saint with whom Oswald became posthumously associated, although the two were not associated in life; Cuthbert became bishop of Lindisfarne more than forty years after Oswald's death) and other valuables in a quickly made coffin, where it is generally believed to remain, although there are at least four other claimed heads of Oswald in continental Europe.[30] One of his arms is said to have ended up in Peterborough Abbey later in the Middle Ages. The story is that a small group of monks from Peterborough made their way to Bamburgh where Oswald's uncorrupted arm was kept and stole it under the cover of darkness. They returned with it to Peterborough and in due time a chapel was created for the arm - Oswald's Chapel. This - minus the arm - can be seen to this day in the south transept of the cathedral. When creating this chapel the monks of Peterborough had thought of how they had acquired it and built into the chapel a narrow tower - just big enough for a monk to climb to the top by an internal stair and stand guard over Oswald's Arm 24 hours a day, every day of the year. The monk had to stand because the tower is not large enough for him to sit - sitting could lull him to sleep - and they knew what could happen when no-one was watching. Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Cuthbert of Lindisfarne (ca. ... Peterborough Cathedral Plan Peterborough Cathedral is dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, and is very unusual amongst mediæval cathedrals in Britain because of its triple front (dominated by the statues of the three saints) and overall asymmetrical appearance. ...


Some English place names record his reign, for example Oswaldtwistle in Lancashire, meaning the twistle of Oswald. Rhyddings Park Oswaldtwistle is a town on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Lancashire, 3 m. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


The Church of Saint Oswald stands on the location of the wooden cross left by Oswald at Heavenfield, the night before the battle. This was rebuilt in 1717. The site is visible from the B6318 Military Road. B6318, Near Harlow Hill The Military Road is a name given locally to part of the B6318 road in Northumberland, England, which runs from Heddon on the wall in the East to Greenhead in the West. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Bede gives the year of Oswald's death as 642; however, there is some question as to whether what Bede considered 642 is the same as what would now be considered 642. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) put forward the theory that Bede's years began in September, and if this theory is followed (as it was, for instance, by Frank Stenton in his notable history Anglo-Saxon England, first published in 1943), then the date of the battle of Heavenfield (and the beginning of Oswald's reign) is pushed back from 634 to 633. Thus, if Oswald subsequently reigned for eight years, he would have actually been killed in 641. Poole's theory has been contested, however, and arguments have been made that Bede began his year on December 25 or January 1, in which case Bede's years would be accurate as he gives them.
  2. ^ Stancliffe, "Oswald", p. 36.
  3. ^ Kirby, p. 60.
  4. ^ a b Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, Book III, chapter 9.
  5. ^ Kirby, p. 57.
  6. ^ a b c Bede, Book III, chapter 1.
  7. ^ Kirby, p. 73.
  8. ^ a b Ziegler.
  9. ^ Bede, Book III, chapter 2.
  10. ^ Quoting the Book of Joshua, 1:9.
  11. ^ Adomnán, Book I, Chapter 1.
  12. ^ Bede, Book III, chapter 1; ASC, manuscript E, year 634. The quote is from the ASC.
  13. ^ Adomnán, Book I, chapter I.
  14. ^ For the mention of Oswald's power over Britain, see H. E., Book III, chapter 6; for the mention of Oswiu making the Scots and Picts tributary, see Book II, chapter 5. See Kirby, , p. 70, for how this indicates Bede was defining Oswald's supremacy in excessive terms.
  15. ^ Stancliffe, "Oswald", p. 60. According to Stancliffe, "Oswald would scarcely have been remembered as an effective overlord in so many Southhumbrian kingdoms if his power had been checked this early in his career." The report is given under the year 637 in the Annals of Tigernach.
  16. ^ Stancliffe, "Oswald", pp. 54 and 71–75. Stancliffe mentions Penda's possible reasons for independently having Eadfrith killed, and expresses doubt that Bede would have regarded Oswald as such a saintly figure if he had known Oswald was responsible for Eadfrith's death.
  17. ^ Stancliffe, "Oswald", p. 58.
  18. ^ Bede, Book III, chapter 7.
  19. ^ Tudor, p. 187, note 57.
  20. ^ Bede, Book III, chapters 3 and 5.
  21. ^ Stancliffe, "Oswald", pp. 41–42.
  22. ^ Bede, Book III, chapter 6.
  23. ^ a b Stancliffe, "Where Was Oswald Killed?"
  24. ^ a b For Bede's mention of Oswald's dying prayer (which he cautiously reports as hearsay) and Oswald's dismemberment, the placing of his body parts on stakes, and their later recovery by Oswiu, see H. E., Book III, chapter 12.
  25. ^ Stancliffe, "Where Was Oswald Killed?", argues in favour of the traditional identification of the site with Oswestry. For Stancliffe's argument regarding Bede's portrayal of Oswald as fighting only just wars, Bede's attempt to portray Maserfield as being part of a just war (being fought pro patria), and his omission of previous aggressive warfare Oswald is thought to have engaged in, see p. 93.
  26. ^ Brooks.
  27. ^ Tudor, page 190.
  28. ^ a b Rollason, page 170.
  29. ^ Bede, Book III, chapter 11.
  30. ^ Bailey.

Sir Frank Merry Stenton (1880–September 15, 1967) was a noted 20th century historian of Anglo-Saxon England. ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...

References

  • Adomnán, Life of Saint Columba translated and edited Richard Sharpe. ISBN 0-14-044462-9
  • Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People translated Sherley-Price, edited D.H. Farmer. ISBN 0-14-044565-X
  • Bailey, Richard N., "St Oswald's Heads", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, 1996). ISBN 1-871615-51-8
  • Brooks, Nicholas, "The formation of the Mercian kingdom", in S. Bassett (ed.), The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms (1989).
  • Kirby, D.P., The Earliest English Kings (1991, 2000). ISBN 0-04-445692-1
  • Rollason, David, "St Oswald in Post-Conquest England", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, 1996).
  • Stancliffe, Clare, "Oswald, 'Most Holy and Most Victorious King of the Northumbrians'", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, 1996).
  • Stancliffe, Clare, "Where Was Oswald Killed?", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995). ISBN 1-871615-51-8
  • Tudor, Victoria, "Reginald's Life of St Oswald", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, 1996). ISBN 1-871615-51-8
  • Ziegler, Michelle, "The Politics of Exile in Early Northumbria", The Heroic Age, Issue 2, Autumn/Winter 1999.

External links

Preceded by
Eanfrith
King of Bernicia Succeeded by
Oswiu
Preceded by
Osric
King of Deira
Preceded by
Edwin of Northumbria
Bretwalda

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oswald of Northumbria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (666 words)
Oswald's father Aethelfrith was the first ruler of a united Northumbria; Northumbria consisted of two kingdoms, Bernicia (in the north) and Deira (in the south), and the king of Bernicia, Aethelfrith, came to rule Deira as well around the year 604.
Oswald seems to have been on good terms with the West Saxons: he stood as sponsor to the baptism of their king, Cynegils, and married Cyneburh, the daughter of Cynegils.
Oswald's head and limbs were placed on stakes, but according to legend, one of his arms was taken by his pet raven and dropped on a tree.
Oswald of Northumbria - definition of Oswald of Northumbria in Encyclopedia (468 words)
Oswald then returned from exile with an army and marched against Cadwallon; his ranks were bolstered by Scots sent by the king of Dalriada, Domnal Brecc.
Oswald won some successes against the British to the north, but the primary concern of his reign was Northumbria's conflict with the rising power of Mercia under Penda.
(Bede says that Oswald died in the thirty-eighth year of his age.) Oswald's head and limbs were placed on stakes, but according to legend, one of his arms was taken by his pet raven and dropped on a tree.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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