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Encyclopedia > Ostsiedlung
Evolution of German linguistic area from 700 to 1950

Settlement in the East (German: Ostsiedlung), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs.[1] Ostsiedlung began around the 12th century, during the High Middle Ages, but accelerated along the Baltic with the advent of the Teutonic Order.[2] In German scholarship[citation needed], it refers especially to the reassertion of Saxon authority over Sorbian or Wendish areas, especially Brandenburg by Albert the Bear. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1248x1472, 2115 KB) The map shows the emergence of the German linguistic area in the course of the so-called German settlement of the east in the period of time from the 7th until the 19th centuries. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1248x1472, 2115 KB) The map shows the emergence of the German linguistic area in the course of the so-called German settlement of the east in the period of time from the 7th until the 19th centuries. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples have lived around the eastern coast of Mare Suebicum, or Baltic Sea (Tacitus, AD 98) since ancient times. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Map showing the Saxons homeland in traditional region bounded by the three rivers: Weser, Eider, and Elbe Src: Freemans Historical Geographys. The Saxons or Saxon people are (nowadays) part of the German people with its main areas of settlements in the German States of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Saxony... This article or section should be merged with List of Sorbian languages The Sorbian languages are members of the West Slavic branch of languages spoken in eastern Germany. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe, particularly the Sorbs living in modern-day Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Albert I (c. ...


The Medieval Ostsiedlung began when Germans settled east of the Elbe and Saale rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs. Likewise, in Styria and Carinthia, German communities took form in areas inhabited by Slovenians. The emigration of the inhabitants from the Valais canton in Switzerland to the areas that had been settled before by the Romans had to some extent the same preconditions as the colonisation of the East, for example, Romania. This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Length 413 km Elevation of the source 728  m Average discharge  ?  m³/s Area watershed  ?  km² Origin  Germany Mouth  Elbe Basin countries Germany Saale is the name of two rivers in Germany: the Saxonian Saale (German: Sächsische Saale) and the Franconian Saale (German: Fränkische Saale). ... Polabian Slavs is a collective term applied to a number of Slavic tribes living along the Elbe, between the Baltic Sea to the north, Solau to the west and Sudetes to the south. ... Styria (Steiermark in German, Štajerska in Slovenian) can refer to: Styria - a federal state of Austria Styria - an informal province in Slovenia Styria - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria-Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Carinthia (Kärnten in German, Koroška in Slovenian) can refer to: Carinthia - a federal state of Austria Carinthia - an informal province in Slovenia Carinthia - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria_Hungary Karantania - the first Slovenian state This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... The Valais (German:  ) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland in the south-western part of the country, in the Pennine Alps around the valley of the Rhone River from its springs to Lake Geneva. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In the middle of the 14th century, the settling progress slowed as a result of the Black Death; in addition, the most arable and promising regions were largely occupied. Local Slavic leaders in late Medieval Pomerania and Silesia continued inviting German settlers to their territories. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Duchy of Pomerania ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greiffen) was a semi-independent state in the 17th century. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ...


In the 19th century, recognition of this complex phenomenon coupled with the rise of nationalism in Germany led to the concepts of Pan-Germanism and Drang nach Osten, which in part gave rise to the concept of Lebensraum. During and after World War II, Germans were expelled east of the Oder-Neisse line, leaving the current German linguistic border smaller than that of the 10th century. Thus Slav and Stalin-enforced ethnic cleansing after the second World War largely reverted the settlement of Slavic or Baltic territory by Germanic people, as it had taken place during Ostsiedlung. However, some of the areas that saw resettlement were not as far eastward and as such, they are a part of the current German state. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Lebensraum (German for habitat or living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ...

Contents

Background

Aside from the more obvious reasons for necessary resettlement, Ostsiedlung also grew out of political considerations. Early eastern borders were exposed to the pressures of neighbouring peoples, such as Danes (or Normans), various Slavic people (Obotrites, Wends, Sorbs, Bohemians, Moravians), and Hungarians, in the 9th and the 10th centuries. Such conditions led to the expansion of Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire, motivated by the wish to safeguard the empire's borders with marches. Also, under the rule of King Louis the German of East Francia and of Arnulf of Carinthia, the first waves of settlement were led by Franks and Bavarii, and reached the area of present-day Slovakia and what was then Pannonia (present-day Burgenland, Hungary, and Slovenia). The pioneers were accompanied by missionaries who brought with them Roman Catholicism and German culture, albeit with varying influence. Norman conquests in red. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe, particularly the Sorbs living in modern-day Germany. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Bohemian F.C. (Irish: An Cumann Peile Bóithéimeach) is an Irish football club playing in the Football League of Ireland. ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... Eastern Francia were the lands of Louis the German after the Treaty of Verdun of 843. ... Arnulf of Carinthia (German Arnulf von Kärnten, Slovenian Arnulf KoroÅ¡ki) (850 – December 8, 899) was one of the last ruling members of the Carolingian house in the Eastern part of the Frankish Kingdom, which had been split in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Bavarii was a large and powerful tribe which emerged late in Teutonic tribal times, in what is now the Czech Republic (Bohemia). ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Burgenland (Hungarian Várvidék, Őrvidék or FelsÅ‘Å‘rvidék, Croatian Gradišće, Slovenian Gradiščansko) is the easternmost state or Land of Austria. ... A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


In order to safeguard their unstable eastern borders, the Ottonians and Salians commenced short military campaigns against their neighbors and established defensive marches under allied or trusted princes. These princes settled their new territories with settlers (usually Germans or Dutch) from the Holy Roman Empire, and granted them estates and privileges (such as the inheritable position of village elder). Settlement was usually organised by so-called lessors. The advanced agricultural, legal, administrative, and technical methods of the immigrants, as well as their successful proselytising of the native inhabitants, led to a gradual transformation of the marches. At the same time, linguistically and culturally Slavic areas became affiliated with the Empire as German lands and the original princes of such territories became princes of the Empire. Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ... The Salian Franks were a subgroup of the Franks who had separated from the original Franks, gone to the Dutch coastal area and migrated throughout Belgium and to northern France, then formed a kingdom in northern France and on coasts north of it. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Lessor is the name of two places in the United States: Lessor, Wisconsin Lessor Township, Minnesota This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


Beside the marches which were adjacent to the Empire, German settlement occurred in areas farther away, such as the Carpathians, Transylvania, and along the Gulf of Riga. German cultural and linguistic influence lasted in some of these areas right up to the present day. The East colonisation was predominantly a peaceful process; the rulers of Hungary, Bohemia, Silesia, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, and Poland encouraged German settlement to promote the development of the less populated portions of the land, and promote the motivated populations who wished to till it. The Transylvanian Saxons and Baltic Germans were corporately combined and privileged. In Silesia the Germans, without receiving special privileges as a group, became integral parts of both state and society. Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or Ердељ / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... The Gulf of Riga The Gulf of Riga (or Bay of Riga, Latvian Rīgas jūras līcis, Estonian Liivi Laht) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Duchy of Pomerania ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greiffen) was a semi-independent state in the 17th century. ... The great coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western-Pommerania Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Romanian: Saşi, Hungarian: Szászok) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania from the 12th century onwards. ... The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ...


The people in the regions at the east of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation were still pagan (at least at the beginning), so that German settlers frequently accompanied monks as missionaries. The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ...


Historical development of a few marches and regions

In northern Germany the Ostsiedlung led to conflicts between the pagan Saxons and Charlemagne as he secured the borders of his empire. The Obotrites, who entered into various coalitions and after 800 fought against the Empire, stood in Charlemagne's way at that time; the Saxons could trust the support of the *Borussen and the Danes. In 804, it was decided that the zones to the west of the Elbe river became parts of the Carolingian Empire. For the time being, the land to the east of the Elbe river stayed outside the boundaries of the later Holy Roman Empire (see Limes Saxoniae). The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The Limes Saxoniae (Latin for Limit of Saxony; see Limes), also known as the Sachsenwall (Saxon Wall) was a border established c. ...


Harald Bluetooth, who at that time was a seignory of Otto I, took shelter from his son by the Baltic Sea near to the Oder river in the zone, which, as from 1050, has been called Pomerania. The dioceses of Brandenburg and Havelburg were destroyed in the rebellion of Slavic peoples in 983. Harald Bluetooth Gormson (Danish: Harald Blåtand, Old Norse: Haraldr blátönn, Norwegian: Harald Blåtann), was born around 935, the son of King Gorm the Old, king of Jutland (that is, peninsular Denmark) and of Thyra (also known as Thyre Danebod) a supposed daughter of Harald Klak, Jarl...


Nordalbingen

The Nordalbingen March, occupying the territory between Hedeby and the Danish fortress of Dannevirke in the north and the Eider River in the south, was part of the Empire during the reign of Charlemagne. The border was later fixed at the Eider River. Hedeby (Haithabu in Old Norse; Heidiba in Latin; in Germany the name Haithabu is frequently used) was a Danish settlement and trading centre on the southern Baltic Sea coast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet, the Schlei (Danish: Slien) in the province of Schleswig... // For the town in New Zealand, see Dannevirke. ... The Eider (-German; Danish: Ejderen; Latin: Egdor or Egdore) is the longest river of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ...


March of the Billungs and the Brandenburg March

The March of the Billungs and the North March were still not parts of the Empire under the Salians and the Ottonians. The Billung Family were Saxon dukes and rulers, who can be traced back to AD 500. ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... Ottonian dynasty is a name sometimes given to a ruling dynasty of German kings, sometimes regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, (though Charlemagne is commonly viewed as the original founder. ...


At the time of Albrecht von Ballenstedt (Albrecht the Bear), the North March stretched from the territory of the Askanier(Ascanians) (see also: Anhalt) to the Brandenburg Markgrafschaft and therefore became part of the Empire. In 1147, Heinrich the Lion conquered the **March of the Billungs, the later Mecklenburg as a seignory and in 1164 Pomerania, that lay further to the east of the Baltic Sea. In 1181, Mecklenburg and Pomerania officially became parts of the Roman-German Empire. The Ascanian House is a dynasty of German rulers. ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion, in German, Heinrich der Löwe) (1129 – August 6, 1195; was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, since... The great coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western-Pommerania Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. ... Seignory, or Seigniory (Fr. ... Duchy of Pomerania ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greiffen) was a semi-independent state in the 17th century. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Other parts of Poland, which were adjacent to Silesia, remained for the time, strong enough to repell any further eastward expansion of the Empire.

Saxony

In the later duchy of Saxony, several Markgrafschaften (Lausitz, Meißen, Thuringian Markgrafschaft, Zeitz) were established at first.


Silesia

As of 1138, after the death of Bolesław III Wrymouth, Silesia became part of the Polish feudal fragmentation as the state of Poland declined into many autonomous partial duchies. The Silesian province in 1202 was divided into two independent duchies. Since the beginning of the 13th century, the reinforced Polish-Silesian Piast dynasty kept German settlers in the land, who in decades had founded more than 100 new towns and over 1200 villages under German law, particularly under Magdeburg law (the real numbers may be lower since German historians usually count also existing towns which simply received a new set of privileges). Many churches and hospitals came into being. For the most part, the original Slavic settlements also suited the German settlements legally, socially and linguistically. Most immigrants came from the Middle-Frankish language area (from the environment of Mainz), from Hessen and from Thuringia. Accordingly, the dialect of the Low Silesian people changed into another form, in which the Middle-Frankish, Hessian, Thuringian and Slavic features are united. BolesÅ‚aw III Wrymouth. ... Fragmentation is a term that occurs in several fields and describes a process of something breaking or being divided into pieces (fragments). ... This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ...


The population grew at least fivefold. The German settlement was initated substantially by Duke Henry the I of Silesia and his wife Hedwig of Andechs (1201-1238). This settlement also attempted to merge the duchy of Oppeln as well as the regions Greater and Lesser Poland. However, he died in 1238 and because of the Mongolian invasions from 1241 in which his successor OppelnHenry the Pious also lost, his plan failed. Henryk I the Bearded. ... This article is about 13th century Saint. ... // Events The town of Riga was chartered as a city. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Opole ( ; German: ) is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River (Odra). ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Lesser Poland (sometimes also referred to as Little Poland, Polish Małopolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Henryk II Pobożny Henry II the Pious, (Polish: Henryk II Pobożny, b. ...


From 1249, the duchy Silesia and from 1281 the duchy of Oppeln declined temporarily into more than a dozen smaller Piastian duchies that were rivalled with each other. The Bohemian and later also Poland, that has been united since 1306, attempted to go into this vacuum of power. From 1289 to 1292, the earldom of Glatz was already brought under control of the Bohemian. Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w KÅ‚odzku Mayor Roman Lipski Area 25 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30. ...


Eventually, the Piast dynasty took shelter under the duchies of Silesia and of Oppeln individually or in groups as vassals of the fiefdom of the Bohemian kings. In 1353, the Bohemians won the duchy of Herzogtum Schweidnitz-Jauer through the third marriage of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, with the heiress Anna. With the Treaty of Visegrád (1333), in comparison to Trencin (1335) as well as in the Treaty of Namslau, 1348), the Polish kings had to recognize the Bohemian power and the affiliation with the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The most important detail in those treaties is the agreement of Trencin, that was confirmed in 1339. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Visegrád (–Hungarian, German: Plintenburg) is a small town in Pest County in Hungary with a long and rich history. ... Trenčín (Hungarian: Trencsén, German: Trentschin, Latin (Roman period): Laugaricio) is a town in western Slovakia (close to the Czech border) at the Váh river. ... Namysłów (German: ) a town in Poland, in Opole Voivodship. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ...


On that account, king Casimir III of Poland stopped claiming Silesia. In 1348, Emperor Charles IV integrated Bohemia into the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. In the period following, Lower Silesia became part of the German speaking area, while Upper Silesia, comparably to the settlement of the Sorbs, remained a German – Polish mixed area. Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date...


Lesser Poland

Since the beginning of the 14/15th centuries, the Polish-Silesian Piast dynasty – (Ladislaus of Oppeln), reinforced German settlers on the land, who in decades founded more than 150 towns and villages under German town law, particularly under the law of the town Magdeburg (Magdeburg law). Ethnic Germans, along with germanspaekingAshkenazi Jews from the Rhineland, also formed a large part of the town population of Kraków. This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Opolski (1225-1282), Duke of Kalisz (1234-1244), Duke of WieluÅ„ (1234-1249), Duke of Opole and Racibórz since 1246. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Wawel Hill. ...


Literature

  • Prof. Kazimierz Tymieniecki - "Niemcy w Polsce", Poznań 1934
  • Prof. Barbara Czopek-Kopciuch - "Adaptacje niemieckich nazw miejscowych w języku polskim", Kraków 1995, ISBN 83-85579-33-8
  • Prof. Aleksandra Cieślikowa (Cieślik) - "Nazwy osobowe pochodzenia niemieckiego", Kraków 1997, ISBN 83-85579-63-X

Bohemia and Moravia

The decline of the Great Moravia

After the decline of the Great Moravia in 900, whose founder Rastislaw (also: Rastislav) wanted to submit the land to the Eastern Church with the help of the missionaries Kyrill and Methodius, who were summoned from Constantinople, Bohemian princes appeared in the Parliament, including the Přemyslidian Spitignew who came to Regensburg. They built a new following of the East Carolingian Empire that was however still highly controversial between the members of the Bohemian (Czech) aristocracy: in 929, the Premyslidian Boleslaw murdered his brother, the duke Wenceslas who was still in charge, because of his following and his Christianity supported by German missionaries. The German king Henry I, the Fowler, led his army to Prague the same year to repress the rebellion against the Empire. In 950, Duke Boleslaw realized the cruelty of the German fiefdom and organized a secession in the army, in the 955 battle on Lechfeld. In 973, the Prague diocese was founded under the aegis of Wolfgang, bishop of Regensburg. The first bishop of this diocese became the Saxonian benedictine monk Thietmar. After that Bohemia was subordinated to the archbishopric Mainz. In 983, Adalbert, a Slav who founded the benedictine monastery St. Margaret in Brewnow, became successor of Thietmar. In 997, Adalbert was killed by pagan Prussian people. Henry II, who was emperor from 1014 until 1024, dislodged the Polish duke (and later king) Bolesław Chrobry who had conquered large parts of Bohemia as well as Moravia and Silesia. Bohemia became dependent on Germany; the Bohemian dukes were obliged to visit the hostage drama and to take part in national wars. Günter, called "the Blessed", monk of the benedictine monastery Altaich and who came from princely background, became a recluse in the Bohemian forest; new connecting paths were built between Bohemia and Bavaria through the virgin forest. The foundation of the benedictine monastery Raigern goes back to Günter. Later, the Säumer paths — the Golden Path as the most important trade paths between Bohemia and Moravia —, had special meaning. Along those Säumer paths, a great number of new places on sides of the Bohemian forest. The city Prachatice (German: Prachatitz) owes its foundation and flowering time from the 14th century to the Golden Paths. Great Moravia was a Slavic empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Rastislav (?-870) was the second prince of Great Moravia. ... Rastislav (?-870) was the second prince of Great Moravia. ... Statue of Saint Cyril at Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 129,175 in 2005) in Bavaria, south-east Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. ... Events Emir Abd-ar-rahman III of Cordoba declares himself caliph. ... Boleslaus I the Cruel Boleslaus I the Cruel (Czech: ) (died July 15, 972 (or 967)), was the Duke of Bohemia from 935 to 972 (or 929 - 967). ... Statue of Saint Wenceslaus in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Heinrich I depicted as The Bamberg Knight Henry I, the Fowler (German: Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Boleslaus (also Boleslav, Boleslaw, BolesÅ‚aw) was the first name of several European monarchs of Poland and Bohemia: Boleslaus I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia (?–971/972) Boleslaus II the Pious, Duke of Bohemia (?–999) Boleslaus III the Red-haired, Duke of Bohemia (?–1037) Boleslaus I the Brave, King of... Events August 10 - Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Edwy becomes King of England. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire Magyars Commanders Otto the Great harka Bulcsú; chieftains Lél and Súr Strength 10,000 heavy cavalry 50,000 light cavalry Casualties about 3,500 about 30,000 fell in the battle about 5,000 killed by local farmers maybe 5,000 fleeing Magyars killed... Wolfgang may refer to: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang of Regensburg Dr. Wolfgang Klietmann Wolfgang Puck Wolfgang Priklopil Wolfgang Flür Wolfgang the Robot Category: ... Thietmar (modern spelling Dietmar), (969-December 1, 1019) was bishop of Merseburg and a chronologist. ... Events Hugh Capet, a distant relative of the last Carolingian king of the Franks, is crowned King of France, beginning the Capetian dynasty and, arguably, modern French history. ... Silver coffin of St. ... Several Saints Margaret exist: Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque (see Marie Alacoque) Saint Margaret of Cortona Saint Margaret of England Saint Margaret of Scotland Saint Margaret the Virgin Saint Margaret the Widow Saint Margaret of Hungary (1242–1270) See also Margaret Sainte-Marguerite This is a disambiguation page—a list of... Main entrance of St Margaret church The BÅ™evnov Monastery (Czech BÅ™evnovský klášter) is a Benedictine monastery in Prague. ... Henry II with his wife Cunigunde of Luxemburg Saint Henry II (972 – 13 July 1024), called the Holy or the Saint, was the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Reign 992 — 1025. ... Prachatice (in German Prachatitz) is a town in the South Bohemian Region, Czech Republic. ...


In 1030, Bretislaus united Bohemia and Moravia after those regions had come under control of Poland. Both lands were fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1038, duke Bretislaus conquered further parts of Poland and attempted to secede from the Empire that brought about preconditions with the German emperor Henry II. BÅ™etislav the Bohemian Achilles (b. ...


In 1063, duke Vratislaus founded the diocese Olomouc; in 1085 he was coronated by Henry IV in Mainz to be the King of Bohemia. Vratislaus II or Wratislaus II (Czech: Vratislav II; died January 14, 1092) was the first King of Bohemia. ...


In 1142, the monatery Strahov opposite the Hradčany, was founded by the monks of the Prämonstratens monastery Steinfeld in Cologne. The "white monks" advanced to the position of the most important German mission foundations in Bohemia and Moravia. In 1117, duchess Richsa summoned benedictine monks from Zweifalten (Württemberg) to Kladruby. Strahov may refer to: Strahov Monastery in Prague Strahov Stadium in Prague Strahov in Horní Kozolupy Category: ... Hradčany from the Petřín Tower Hradčany (   listen[?]), the Castle District, is the Prague district surrounding the Prague Castle. ... Steinfeld can refer to: Steinfeld, Lower Saxony, a municipality in the district of Vechta, Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Kladruby (German Kladrau) is a village in the Czech Republic, in the region of Plzeň, near the town Stříbro. ...


See also

This does not cite its references or sources. ... Below is list of German language exonyms for places in non-German-speaking areas of Europe : // Links to more extensive lists Belgium List of German exonyms for places in Belgium Czech Republic List of German exonyms for places in the Czech Republic Crostia List of German exonyms for places in...

References

  • Charles Higounet (1911–1988) "les allemands en Europe centrale et oriental au moyen age"
    • German translation: "Die deutsche Ostsiedlung im Mittelalter",
    • Japanese translation: "ドイツ植民と東欧世界の形成", 彩流社, by Naoki Miyajima

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ostsiedlung - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2173 words)
Settlement in the East (German: Ostsiedlung), also known as German eastward expansion, refers to the eastward migration and settlement of Germans into regions inhabited since the Great Migrations by the Balts, Romanians, Hungarians and, since about the 8th century, the Slavs.
The Medieval Ostsiedlung began when Germans settled east of the Elbe and Saale rivers, regions largely inhabited by Polabian Slavs.
In northern Germany the Ostsiedlung led to conflicts between the pagan Saxons and Charlemagne as he secured the borders of his empire.
OSTSIEDLUNG (4316 words)
The fundamental cause of the Ostsiedlung was the existence of a surplus population in the lands west of Slavia.
The Ostsiedlung did not mean the death of the Wends, but it did spell the end of their culture.
Even as the Ostsiedlung was undercutting the culture of the Wends, it was creating an alternative so that they did not have to die along with their culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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