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Encyclopedia > Ostrich
Ostrich
Male Masai Ostrich(Struthio camelus massaicus)
Male Masai Ostrich
(Struthio camelus massaicus)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Struthioniformes
Family: Struthionidae
Vigors, 1825
Genus: Struthio
Linnaeus, 1758
Species: S. camelus
Binomial name
Struthio camelus
Linnaeus, 1758
Distribution of Ostriches.
Distribution of Ostriches.
Subspecies

see text Image File history File links Strauss_m_Tanzania. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – October 26, 1840) was an Irish zoologist and politician. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1038x1270, 30 KB) Summary Ostrich distribution map Struthio camelus Update of diagram in PNG format Map source: Brion VIBBERs blank map of Africa - http://leuksman. ... This article is about the zoological term. ...

The Ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird native to Africa (and formerly the Middle East). It is the only living species of its family, Struthionidae, and its genus, Struthio. Ostriches share the order Struthioniformes with emus, kiwis, and other ratites. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at speeds of about 65 km/h (40 mph), the top land speed of any bird.[2] The Ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest egg of any bird species. Flightless birds evolved from flying ancestors; there are about forty species in existence today. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... For other uses, see EMU. Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in orange. ... Species See text. ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... The General Sherman, a Giant Sequoia, is generally considered to be the largest (by volume of its trunk) tree in the world The largest organism found on earth can be measured using a variety of methods. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


The diet of the Ostrich mainly consists of seeds and other plant matter, though it eats insects. It lives in nomadic groups which contain between five and 50 birds. When threatened, the Ostrich will either hide itself by lying flat against the ground, or will run away. If cornered, it can cause injury and death with a kick from its powerful legs. Mating patterns differ by geographical region, but territorial males fight for a harem of two to seven females.


The Ostrich is farmed around the world, particularly for its feathers, which are decorative and are also used for feather dusters. Its skin is used for leather and its meat marketed commercially. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A feather duster dusting a table. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Taxonomy

The Ostrich was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae under its current binomial name.[3] Its scientific name is derived from the Greek words for "camel sparrow" alluding to its long neck.[4] Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is a standard convention used for naming species. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sparrow (disambiguation). ...


The Ostrich belongs to the Struthioniformes order of (ratites). Other members include rheas, emus, cassowaries and the largest bird ever, the now-extinct Elephant Bird (Aepyornis). However, the classification of the ratites as a single order has always been questioned, with the alternative classification restricting the Struthioniformes to the ostrich lineage and elevating the other groups. Presently, molecular evidence is equivocal[citation needed] while paleobiogeographical and paleontological considerations are slightly in favor of the multi-order arrangement. Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... Species R. americana R. pennata The Rhea, also known as ñandú (pronounced ) in Spanish, or ema in Portuguese, is a large flightless ratite bird native to South America. ... For other uses, see EMU. Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in orange. ... Species Casuarius casuarius Casuarius unappendiculatus Casuarius bennetti Cassowaries (genus Casuarius) are very large flightless birds native to the tropical forests of New Guinea and northeastern Australia. ... Genera Aepyornis Mullerornis Elephant birds are an extinct family of flightless birds comprising the genera Aepyornis and Mullerornis. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ...


Subspecies

Five subspecies are recognized: This article is about the zoological term. ...

  • S. c. australis in Southern Africa, called the Southern Ostrich. It is found south of the Zambezi and Cunene rivers. It was once farmed for its feathers in the Little Karoo area of Cape Province.[5]
  • S. c. camelus in North Africa, sometimes called the North African Ostrich or Red-necked Ostrich. It is the most widespread subspecies, ranging from Ethiopia and Sudan in the east throughout the Sahel to Senegal and Mauritania in the west, and at least in earlier times north to Egypt and southern Morocco, respectively. It is the largest subspecies, at 2.74 m (9 ft) 154 kilograms (340 lb).[6] The neck is red, the plumage of males is black and white, and the plumage of females is grey.[7]
  • S. c. massaicus in East Africa, sometimes called the Masai Ostrich. It has some small feathers on its head, and its neck and thighs are bright orange. During the mating season, the male's neck and thighs become brighter. Their range is essentially limited to most of Kenya and Tanzania and parts of Southern Somalia.[8]
  • S. c. syriacus in the Middle East, sometimes called the Arabian Ostrich or Middle Eastern Ostrich, was a subspecies formerly very common in the Arabian Peninsula, Syria, and Iraq; it became extinct around 1966.
  • S. c. molybdophanes in Somalia, Ethiopia, and northern Kenya, is called the Somali Ostrich. The neck and thighs are grey-blue, and during the mating season, the male's neck and thighs become bright blue. The females are more brown than those of other subspecies.[9] It generally lives in pairs or alone, rather than in flocks. Its range overlaps with S. c. massaicus in northeastern Kenya.[10]
Struthio camelus mounted skull and neck.
Struthio camelus mounted skull and neck.

Analyses indicate that the Somali Ostrich may be better considered a full species. mtDNA haplotype comparisons suggest that it diverged from the other Ostriches not quite 4 mya due to formation of the Great Rift Valley. Subsequently, hybridization with the subspecies that evolved southwestwards of its range, S. c. massaicus, has apparently been prevented from occurring on a significant scale by ecological separation, the Somali Ostrich preferring bushland where it browses middle-height vegetation for food while the Masai Ostrich is, like the other subspecies, a grazing bird of the open savanna and miombo habitat.[11] Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Provinces of Angola ... The Little Karoo is part of the semi-desert Karoo in South Africa. ... Under the Union of South Africa and after that under the Republic of South Africa, the old Cape Colony became the Cape of Good Hope Province (though it was commonly known as the Cape Province). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Trinomial name Struthio camelus syriacus Rothschild, 1919 The Middle Eastern Ostrich or Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) is an extinct subspecies of the ostrich which once lived on the Arabian Peninsula and in the Near East. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (905x759, 51 KB) Photo by David Stang. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (905x759, 51 KB) Photo by David Stang. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... A haplotype is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Distribution of miombo forests (the dotted area), according to Campbell et al. ...


The population from Río de Oro was once separated as Struthio camelus spatzi because its eggshell pores were shaped like a teardrop and not round, but as there is considerable variation of this character and there were no other differences between these birds and adjacent populations of S. c. camelus, it is no longer considered valid.[12] This population disappeared in the later half of the 20th century. In addition, there have been 19th century reports of the existence of small ostriches in North Africa; these have been referred to as Levaillant's Ostrich (Struthio bidactylus) but remain a hypothetical form not supported by material evidence.[13] Given the persistence of savanna wildlife in a few mountainous regions of the Sahara (such as the Tagant Plateau and the Ennedi Plateau), it is not at all unlikely that ostriches too were able to persist in some numbers until recent times after the drying-up of the Sahara. Río de Oro (Spanish for Gold River, Arabic: wādÄ«-ð-ðahab, often transliterated as Oued Edhahab), is, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tagant Plateau lies in eastern Mauritania, forming a stony part of the Sahara Desert. ... The Ennedi Plateau, located in the North-East of Chad, in the Bourkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region, is a sandstone bulkwark in the middle of the Sahara. ...


Evolution

Farmed ostrich
Farmed ostrich
Wild ostriches at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
Wild ostriches at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

The earliest fossil of ostrich-like birds is the Central European Palaeotis from the Middle Eocene, a middle-sized flightless bird that was originally believed to be a bustard. Apart from this enigmatic bird, the fossil record of the ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio which are known from the Early Miocene onwards. While the relationship of the African species is comparatively straightforward, a large number of Asian species of ostrich have been described from very fragmentary remains, and their interrelationships and how they relate to the African ostriches is very confusing. In China, ostriches are known to have become extinct only around or even after the end of the last ice age; images of ostriches have been found there on prehistoric pottery and as petroglyphs. There are also records of ostriches being sighted out at sea in the Indian Ocean and when discovered on the island of Madagascar the sailors of the 18th century referred to them as Sea Ostriches, although this has never been confirmed. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 798 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,797 × 1,350 pixels, file size: 749 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 798 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,797 × 1,350 pixels, file size: 749 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 511 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 575 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 511 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 575 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Cape of Good Hope (disambiguation). ... Palaeotis is a large neognath bird from the Eocene epoch Categories: | ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Genera See text. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... This article or section should be merged with Wisconsinan glaciation The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 Before Present (BP). ... For other uses, see Petroglyph (disambiguation). ...


Several of these fossil forms are ichnotaxa (that is, classified according to the organism's footprints or other trace rather than its body) and their association with those described from distinctive bones is contentious and in need of revision pending more good material.[14] An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as a taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism. Ichnotaxa are names used to identify and distinguish morphologically distinctive trace fossils. ...

  • Struthio coppensi (Early Miocene of Elizabethfeld, Namibia)
  • Struthio linxiaensis (Liushu Late Miocene of Yangwapuzijifang, China)
  • Struthio orlovi (Late Miocene of Moldavia)
  • Struthio karingarabensis (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of SW and CE Africa) - oospecies(?)
  • Struthio kakesiensis (Laetolil Early Pliocene of Laetoli, Tanzania) - oospecies
  • Struthio wimani (Early Pliocene of China and Mongolia)
  • Struthio daberasensis (Early - Middle Pliocene of Namibia) - oospecies
  • Struthio brachydactylus (Pliocene of Ukraine)
  • Struthio chersonensis (Pliocene of SE Europe to WC Asia) - oospecies
  • Asian Ostrich, Struthio asiaticus (Early Pliocene - Late Pleistocene of Central Asia to China)
  • Struthio dmanisensis (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene of Dmanisi, Georgia)
  • Struthio oldawayi (Early Pleistocene of Tanzania) - probably subspecies of S. camelus
  • Struthio anderssoni - oospecies(?)

Trace fossil classification is ostensibly based upon a similar framework to the classification of organisms. ... Trace fossil classification is ostensibly based upon a similar framework to the classification of organisms. ... Trace fossil classification is ostensibly based upon a similar framework to the classification of organisms. ... Trace fossil classification is ostensibly based upon a similar framework to the classification of organisms. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dmanisi is a site in eastern Georgia approximately 85 km southwest of Tbilisi in the Mashavera River Valley. ... Trace fossil classification is ostensibly based upon a similar framework to the classification of organisms. ...

Description

Ostrich foot
Ostrich foot

Ostriches usually weigh from 93 to 130 kg (200 to 285 lb),[15] although some male ostriches have been recorded with weights of up to 155 kg (340 lb). The feathers of adult males are mostly black, with white at the ends of the wings and in the tail. Females and young males are greyish-brown and white. The head and neck of both male and female Ostriches is nearly bare, but has a thin layer of down.[16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 496 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My own photo. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 960 pixels, file size: 496 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) My own photo. ... The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. ...


The strong legs of the Ostrich lack feathers. The bird has just two toes on each foot (most birds have four), with the nail of the larger, inner one resembling a hoof. The outer toe lacks a nail.[17] This is an adaptation unique to Ostriches that appears to aid in running. The wings are not used for flight, but are still large, with a wingspan of around two metres (over six feet),[18] despite the absence of long flight feathers. The wings are used in mating displays, and they can also provide shade for chicks. The feathers, which are soft and fluffy, serve as insulation, and are quite different from the flat smooth outer feathers of flying birds (the feather barbs lack the tiny hooks which lock them together in other birds). The ostrich's sternum is flat, lacking the keel to which wing muscles attach in flying birds.[19] The beak is flat and broad, with a rounded tip.[20] Like all ratites, the Ostrich has no crop,[21] and it also lacks a gallbladder.[22] Rear hooves of a horse Rear hoof of a giraffe A hoof (plural: hooves) is the foot of an ungulate, all of which walk more or less on their toes and have toes with a horny (keratin) covering. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into bird skeleton. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that can accomodate up to 60 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ...


At sexual maturity (two to four years old), male Ostriches can be between 1.8 and 2.7 m (6 and 9 ft) in height, while female Ostriches range from 1.7 to 2 m (5.5 to 6.5 ft). During the first year of life, chicks grow about 25 cm (10 in) per month. At one year of age, ostriches weigh around 45 kg (100 lb). An Ostrich can live up to 75 years.

A man kills Red-Necked ostriches in a 2nd-century Roman mosaic at Zliten on the Libyan coast.
A man kills Red-Necked ostriches in a 2nd-century Roman mosaic at Zliten on the Libyan coast.

Zliten is located on the coast between Al-Khoms and Misrata Zliten (Arabic: زليطن) is a small town in the Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. ...

Distribution and habitat

Ostriches are native to savannas and the Sahel of Africa, both north and south of the equatorial forest zone.[23] The Arabian Ostriches in the Near and Middle East were hunted to extinction by the middle of the 20th century. Savannah redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Trinomial name Struthio camelus syriacus Rothschild, 1919 The Middle Eastern Ostrich or Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) is an extinct subspecies of the ostrich which once lived on the Arabian Peninsula and in the Near East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Behavior

Male and female ostriches "dancing".
Male and female ostriches "dancing".

Ostriches live in nomadic groups of 5 to 50 birds that often travel together with other grazing animals, such as zebras or antelopes.[24] They mainly feed on seeds and other plant matter; occasionally they also eat insects such as locusts. Lacking teeth, they swallow pebbles that help as gastroliths to grind the swallowed foodstuff in the gizzard. An adult ostrich typically carries about 1 kg of stones in its stomach. Ostriches can go without water for a long time, living off the moisture in the ingested plants.[25] However, they enjoy water and frequently take baths.[26] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1853x1729, 873 KB) Summary Photo taken by me in July, 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1853x1729, 873 KB) Summary Photo taken by me in July, 2004. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the herbivorous mammals. ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Locust nymph from the Philippines Egyptian grasshopper Anacridium aegyptum Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Gastroliths (stomach stones or gizzard stones) are rocks, which are or have been held inside the digestive tract of an animal. ... Duck gizzards The gizzard , also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ in the digestive tract found in birds, reptiles, earthworms, some fish, and other creatures. ...


With their acute eyesight and hearing, they can sense predators such as lions from far away. When being pursued by a predator, Ostriches have been known to reach speeds in excess of 65 km per hour (40 miles per hour), and can maintain a steady speed of 50 km/h (30 mph), which makes the ostrich the world's fastest two-legged animal.[27] This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


Ostriches are known to eat almost anything (dietary indiscretion), particularly in captivity where opportunity is increased. Dietary indiscretion is the tendency or act, specifically by an animal, of eating items that should not be eaten. ...

Thermographic image of two ostriches in winter showing high heat retention in the body.
Thermographic image of two ostriches in winter showing high heat retention in the body.

Ostriches can tolerate a wide range of temperatures. In much of its habitat, temperature differences of 40°C between night- and daytime can be encountered. Their temperature control mechanism is more complex than in other birds and mammals, utilizing the naked skin of the upper legs and flanks which can be covered by the wing feathers or bared according to whether the bird wants to retain or lose body heat. Image File history File links Wiki_ostrich. ... Image File history File links Wiki_ostrich. ...


When lying down and hiding from predators, the birds lay their head and neck flat on the ground, making them appear as a mound of earth from a distance. This even works for the males, as they hold their wings and tail low so that the heat haze of the hot, dry air that often occurs in their habitat aids in making them appear as a nondescript dark lump. When threatened, Ostriches run away, but they can cause serious injury and death with kicks from their powerful legs.[28] Their legs can only kick forward.[29]


Reproduction

An ostrich's nest
An ostrich's nest

Ostriches become sexually mature when 2 to 4 years old; females mature about six months earlier than males. The species is iteroparous, with the mating season beginning in March or April and ending sometime before September. The mating process differs in different geographical regions. Territorial males will typically use hisses and other sounds to fight for a harem of two to seven females (which are called hens).[30] The winner of these fights will breed with all the females in an area, but will only form a pair bond with the dominant female. The female crouches on the ground and is mounted from behind by the male. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ... Iteroparity (adjective iteroparous) describes a form of reproduction. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... In Zoology, the term Harem is used for the social organization of certain species, such as those in the Hominidae and Equidae families, in groups of females surrounding a single dominant male. ...

An ostrich egg.
An ostrich egg.

Ostriches are oviparous. The females will lay their fertilized eggs in a single communal nest, a simple pit, 30 to 60 cm (12-24 in) deep, scraped in the ground by the male. Ostrich eggs are the largest of all eggs (and by extension, the yolk is the largest single cell[citation needed]), though they are actually the smallest eggs relative to the size of the bird[citation needed]. The nest may contain 15 to 60 eggs, which are, on average, 15 cm (6 in) long, 13 cm (5 in) wide, and weigh 1.4 kg (3 lb). They are glossy and cream in color, with thick shells marked by small pits.[31] The eggs are incubated by the females by day and by the male by night.[32] This uses the coloration of the two sexes to escape detection of the nest, as the drab female blends in with the sand, while the black male is nearly undetectable in the night.[33] The gestation period is 35 to 45 days. Typically, the male will defend the hatchlings, and teach them how and on what to feed. Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1428 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1428 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The Gestation period in a viviparous animal refers to the length of its pregnancy. ...


The life span of an Ostrich is from 30 to 70 years, with 50 being typical. Life span is one of the most important parameters of any living organism. ...


Ostriches and people

Hunting and farming

Hat decorated with ostrich plumes.
Hat decorated with ostrich plumes.

In Roman times, there was a demand for ostriches to use in venatio games or cooking. They have been hunted and farmed for their feathers, which at various times in history have been very popular for ornamentation in fashionable clothing (such as hats during the 19th century). Their skins were also valued to make goods out of leather. In the 18th century, they were almost hunted to extinction; farming for feathers began in the 19th century. The market for feathers collapsed after World War I, but commercial farming for feathers and later for skins, became widespread during the 1970s. Image File history File links Kinson_MacMahon. ... Image File history File links Kinson_MacMahon. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Another form of entertainment in Roman amphitheaters involved the hunting and slaying of wild animals, call the venatio, or hunt. ... Such styles may change quickly, and fashion in the more colloquial sense refers to the latest version of these styles. ... A hat is an item of clothing which is worn on the head; a kind of headgear. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Ostriches are farmed in over 50 countries, including climates as cold as that of Sweden and Finland, though the majority are in Southern Africa. They will prosper in climates between 30 and −30 °C[citation needed].


Since they also have the best feed to weight gain ratio of any land animal in the world (3.5:1 whereas that of cattle is 6:1)[citation needed], they are attractive economically to raise for meat or other uses. Although they are farmed primarily for leather and secondarily for meat, additional by-products are the eggs, offal, and feathers. Scrapple sandwich at the Delaware state fair Offal is the entrails and internal organs of a butchered animal. ...

Male and female ostriches on a farm in New Zealand.
Male and female ostriches on a farm in New Zealand.

It is claimed that ostriches produce the strongest commercially available leather.[34] Ostrich meat tastes similar to lean beef and is low in fat and cholesterol, as well as high in calcium, protein and iron.[35]Uncooked, it is a dark red or cherry red color, a little darker than beef.[36] Download high resolution version (792x799, 267 KB)This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... Download high resolution version (792x799, 267 KB)This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ...


The town of Oudtshoorn in South Africa has the world's largest population of ostriches. Farms and specialized breeding centres have been set up around the town such as the Safari Show Farm and the Highgate Ostrich Show Farm. The CP Nel Museum is a museum that specializes in the history of the ostrich. Oudtshoorn is the largest town in in the Little Karoo region of South Africa. ... Ostrich The Safari Show Farm is an ostrich farm located 5 kilometres outside of Oudtshoorn in South Africa. ... Hatching ostriches The Highgate Ostrich Show Farm is an ostrich farm located 10 kilometres south of Oudtshoorn in South Africa. ... CP Nel Museum is a ostrich museum on 3 Baron van Rheede Street in the town of Oudtshoorn in South Africa. ...


Ostriches are classified as dangerous animals in Australia, the US and the UK.[citation needed] There are a number of incidents of people being attacked and killed. Big males can be very territorial and aggressive.


Ostrich racing

Ostrich pulling a cart for racing.
Ostrich pulling a cart for racing.

Ostriches are large enough for a small person to ride them, typically while holding on to the wings for grip, and in some areas of northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula Ostriches are trained as racing mounts. There is little possibility of the practice becoming more widespread, due to the irascible temperament and the difficulties encountered in saddling the birds. Ostrich races in the United States have been criticized by animal rights organizations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1088x678, 290 KB) Ostrich drawn cart, Jacksonville, Florida Background notes: Struthio camelus Edit Info:Struthio camelus Scanned from a period postcard. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1088x678, 290 KB) Ostrich drawn cart, Jacksonville, Florida Background notes: Struthio camelus Edit Info:Struthio camelus Scanned from a period postcard. ... This article is about the speed competition. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ...


Cultural depictions

In popular mythology, the Ostrich is famous for hiding its head in the sand at the first sign of danger.[37] The Roman writer Pliny the Elder is noted for his descriptions of the ostrich in his Naturalis Historia, where he describes the Ostrich and the fact that it hides its head in a bush. He adds that it can eat and digest anything. This is embellished in the Physiologus which reports Ostriches can swallow iron and hot coals. The last belief persisted and evolved in heraldry, where the Ostrich is represented with a horseshoe in its mouth, symbolic of its iron-eating ability.[38] It was a positive symbol in Ancient Egypt; the deity Shu is portrayed in art as wearing an ostrich feather, while Ma'at, goddess of law and justice, bore one on her head.[39] For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... The Physiologus was a predecessor of bestiaries (books of beasts). ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, Shu (meaning dryness and he who rises up) is one of the primordial gods, a personification of air, one of the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ...


The Ostrich's behavior is also mentioned in the Bible in God's discourse to Job (Job 39.13-18). It is described as being joyfully proud of its small wings, but unwise and unmindful of the safety of its nest and harsh in the treatment of its offspring, even though it can put a horse to shame with its speed. Elsewhere, ostriches are mentioned as proverbial examples of poor parenting (see Arabian Ostrich for details). For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Trinomial name Struthio camelus syriacus Rothschild, 1919 The Middle Eastern Ostrich or Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) is an extinct subspecies of the ostrich which once lived on the Arabian Peninsula and in the Near East. ...


In the Ethiopian Orthodox religion, it is traditional to place seven large Ostrich eggs on the roof of a church to symbolize the Heavenly and Earthly Angels. The Ostrich represents light and water for the Dogon people, its undulating movement symbolic of water movement.[40] The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... The Dogon village of Banani. ...


There have been no observations of Ostriches putting their heads in the sand. A common counterargument is that a species that displayed this behavior would not survive very long. Ostriches do deliberately swallow sand and pebbles to help grind up their food; seeing this from a distance may have caused some early observers to believe that their heads were buried in sand. Also, ostriches that are threatened but unable to run away may fall to the ground and stretch out their necks in an attempt to become less visible. The coloring of an ostrich's neck is similar to sand and could give the illusion that the neck and head have been completely buried. "Don't be an ostrich and stick your head in the sand," is an old saying that means don't hide from your problems thinking they'll go away.[41]


Ostrich feather dusters

The original South African ostrich feather dusters were invented in Johannesburg, South Africa by missionary, broom factory manager, Harry S. Beckner in 1903. This article is about the city in South Africa. ...

Feather duster
Feather duster

Ostrich feather dusters were wound on broom handles using a foot powered kick winder and the same wire used to attach broom straw, then sorted for quality, color and length before being wound in three layers to the handle. The first layer was wound with the feathers curving inward to hide the head of the handle. The second two layers were wound curving outward to give it a full figure and its trademark flower shape. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... High Quality Ostrich Feather Duster One of the most useful contributions of the Ostrich feather to industry is its use in the feather duster. ...


The first Ostrich feather duster company in the United States was formed in 1913 by Harry S. Beckner and his brother George Beckner in Athol, Massachusetts and has survived till this day as the Beckner Feather Duster Company under the care of George Beckner's great granddaughter, Margret Fish Rempher. Today the largest manufacturer of Ostrich feather dusters is Texas Feathers (TxF)which is located in Arlington Texas.   Athol is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Apprentices still use the manual kick winder to learn the trade of building the hand crafted Ostrich feather duster. However, to speed up the manufacturing process, factories now allow craftsman to use electric powered winders to build the duster.


The Ostrich feather is durable, soft and flexible, which accounts for the success of the Ostrich feather duster over the last 100 years. Because the feather does not zipper together it is prone to developing a static charge which actually attracts and holds dust which can then be shaken out or washed off. Because of its similar makeup to human hair, care of the ostrich feather requires only an occasional shampoo and towel or air dry.


The farming of Ostriches for their feathers does not harm the bird. During molting season the birds are gathered in a pen, burlap sacks are placed over their heads so they will remain calm and trained pickers pluck the loose molting feathers from the birds. The birds are then released unharmed back onto the farm.[citation needed]


Footnotes

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2004)
  2. ^ Doherty (1974)
  3. ^ Linnaeus (1758)}}
  4. ^ Harper (2001)
  5. ^ Scott (2006)
  6. ^ Roots (2006)
  7. ^ Roots (2006)
  8. ^ Roots (2006)
  9. ^ Roots (2006)
  10. ^ Roots (2006)
  11. ^ Freitag & Robinson (1993)
  12. ^ Bezuidenhout (1999)
  13. ^ Fuller, (2000)
  14. ^ Bibi et al. (2006)
  15. ^ Gilman (1903)
  16. ^ Gilman (1903)
  17. ^ Fleming (1822)
  18. ^ Donegan (2002)
  19. ^ Nell (2003)
  20. ^ Gilman (1903)
  21. ^ Bels (2006)
  22. ^ Marshall (1960)
  23. ^ Donegan (2002)
  24. ^ Donegan (2002)
  25. ^ Maclean(1996)
  26. ^ Donegan (2002)
  27. ^ Mountain View Conservation and Breding Centre
  28. ^ Donegan (2002)
  29. ^ Halcombe (1872)
  30. ^ Gilman (1903)
  31. ^ Nell (2003)
  32. ^ Gilman
  33. ^ Nell (2003)
  34. ^ Best (2003)
  35. ^ Clark
  36. ^ Clark
  37. ^ O'Shea (1918)
  38. ^ Cooper (1992)
  39. ^ Cooper (1992)
  40. ^ Cooper (1992)
  41. ^ Zoological Society of San Diego (2007)

References

  • Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos (1999) Studies of the population structure and genetic diversity of domesticated and ‘wild’ ostriches (Struthio camelus). PhD thesis .
  • Bels, Vincent L. (2006). Feeding in Domestic Vertebrates: From Structure to Behaviour. CABI Publishing, 136. ISBN 1845930630.
  • Best, Brendan (2003). Ostrich Facts. The New Zealand Ostrich Association. Downloaded 2007-10-17.
  • Bibi, Faysal; Shabel, Alan B.; Kraatz, Brian P. & Stidham, Thomas A. (2006): New Fossil Ratite (Aves: Palaeognathae) Eggshell. Discoveries from the Late Miocene Baynunah Formation of the United Arab Emirates, Arabian Peninsula. Palaeontologia Electronica 9 (1): 2A. PDF fulltext
  • BirdLife International (2004). Struthio camelus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  • Clark, Bob. Ostrich Meat: Cooking Tips Canadian Ostrich Association. Downloaded 2007-10-17.
  • Cooper, JC (1992). Symbolic and Mythological Animals. Aquarian Press, 170-71. ISBN 1-85538-118-4.
  • Doherty, James G. (1974) Natural History Magazine, March 1974. The American Museum of Natural History; The Wildlife Conservation Society.
  • Donegan, K (2002). Struthio camelus. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Downloaded 2007-10-17.
  • Fleming, John (1822). The Philosophy of Zoology. The University of California, 258.
  • Freitag, Stefanie & Robinson, Terence J. (1993): Phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial DNA of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Auk 110: 614 – 622. PDF fulltext.
  • Fuller, Errol (2000): Extinct Birds (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York. ISBN 0-19-850837-9.
  • Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T. & Colby, F. M. (1903). The New International Encyclopædia. Dodd, Mead and Company, 497.
  • Halcombe, John Joseph (1872). Mission life, ed. by J.J. Halcombe. Oxford University, 304.
  • Harper, Douglas (2001). Ostrich. Online Etymology Dictionary. Downloaded 2007-10-17.
  • Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii)., 155. "S. pedibus didactylis".(Latin)
  • Maclean, Gordon Lindsay (1996). Ecophysiology of Desert Birds. Springer, 26. IBSN 3540592695
  • O'Shea, Michael Vincent; Foster, Ellsworth D.& Locke, George Herbert (1918). The World Book: Organized Knowledge in Story and Picture. Hanson-Roach-Fowler, 4423.
  • Marshall, Alan John (1960). Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds. Academic Press, 446.
  • Nell, Leon (2003). The Garden Route and Little Karoo. New Holland Publishers, 164. ISBN 1868728560.
  • Roots, Clive (2006). Flightless Birds. Greenwood Press, 26. ISBN 0313335451.
  • Scott, Thomas A. (1996). Concise Encyclopedia Biology. Walter de Gruyter, 1149. ISBN 3110106612.
  • Zoological Society of San Diego (2007). Ostrich. San Diego Zoo. Downloaded 2007-10-17.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology was founded in 1940 for individuals with an interest in vertebrate paleontology. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Web content. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up ostrich in
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ostrich - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1661 words)
The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a flightless bird native to Africa.
Ostrich eggs can weigh 1.3 kg and are the largest of all eggs (and the largest single cells), though they are actually the smallest eggs relative to the size of the bird.
Ostrich races in the United States have been criticized by animal rights organizations, however there is little possibility of this becoming a widespread practice due to the fact that the animals are difficult to saddle (and ostriches are known to have a rather irascible temper).
Ostrich (3005 words)
Ostriches are fast runners, and their first instinct upon being frightened is to run.
Ostriches may be purchased at any age from day-old through mature birds, at prices ranging from $1,500 to $30,000 depending on bird sex and age.
Ostriches are generally purchased on a private treaty from ostrich breeders.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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