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Encyclopedia > Ostpolitik

Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the "Change through Rapprochement" principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. German politician. ... Willy Brandt (December 18, 1913 – October 8, 1992) was a German politician and Chancellor of Germany from 1969 to 1974. ... The German Democratic Republic (GDR) (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik), also commonly known as East Germany, was a communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ...


The term's name was a reflection of Germany's decision to look to the east, rather than solely to the west as was the policy since Konrad Adenauer who was the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany. Election Poster showing Adenauer Konrad Adenauer (January 5, 1876 – April 19, 1967) was a conservative German statesman. ... Chancellor (Latin: cancellarius), an official title used by most of the peoples whose civilization has arisen directly or indirectly out of the Roman empire. ...

Contents


Intention and Realisation

The goal of the Ostpolitik of the 1970s was to surmount but not to reverse the existing status quo between the two German states, which were formed in 1948 after World War II, and to ultimately lead to their reunification, while giving up the goal of immediate reunification as a prerequisite to all other decisions. Look up Status quo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present current, existing state of affairs. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ...


Among the elements of Ostpolitik was abandonment of the Hallstein Doctrine and recognition of the Oder-Neisse line as the border between Poland and East Germany. The Hallstein Doctrine, named after Walter Hallstein, was a key doctrine in the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) between 1955 and 1969. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: Oder-Neiße-Grenze; Polish: Granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej) is the border between Germany and Poland. ...


Also important was closer trading relations with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. This helped shore up the faltering communist economies, but it also made visible to the citizens of Eastern Europe the contrast between the wealth and high quality consumer goods of the west and the relative poverty of the east.


Development

Discussions between Brandt and East German leader Willi Stoph began quickly, but no formal settlement was reached as Brandt was unwilling to recognize the East as a sovereign state. In 1970 the Treaty of Moscow was signed between West Germany and the Soviets and quickly afterwards treaties with Poland (Treaty of Warsaw in 1970) and other Eastern Bloc states were signed. Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 - 13 April 1999) was Prime Minister of East Germany from 1973 to 1989. ... The Treaty of Moscow, signed on August 12, 1970, renounced the use of force between the USSR and West Germany, and recognised the post-WWII borders - specifically the Oder-Neisse Line which hived off a large portion of Germany and gave it to Poland. ... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The most controversial agreement was the Basic Treaty of 1972 that created mutual recognition between the FRG and GDR as two separate states (though explicitly not as two separate nations). This was staunchly opposed by West German conservatives who felt the policy would result in a permanent division of Germany; to assuage them, Brandt took a very tough stance at the same time against radical leftists within West Germany itself. This agreement also made it possible for the two states to become members of the United Nations soon afterwards. In common linguistic usage the Basic Treaty stands for the Treaty concerning basic relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR). There are other basic treaties as for example the European Basic Treaty or the bilateral Basic Treaty between Russia and Romania (4th July... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... The German Democratic Republic (GDR) (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik), also commonly known as East Germany, was a communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945. ...


Some elements in the United States were concerned about their ally's new policies, worried about possible Finlandization. The easing of tensions on the European continent, however, helped to produce a general D├ętente between the superpowers, and the lessening of the Eastern Bloc's siege mentality is considered by many to be one of the factors that eventually led to Gorbachev and the end of the Cold War. Détente is French for relaxation. ... A siege mentality is a shared feeling of helplessness, victimization and defensiveness. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov (Gorbachev) listen â–¶(?) (Russian: ; pronunciation: ) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ...


Current "Ostpolitik"

The word Ostpolitik was adopted by many languages and now stands for the proverbial "Change through Rapprochement" principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in his 1963 speech.


The current (as of 2005) Sunshine policy of South Korea towards the North is in many ways similar to the German Ostpolitik of the 1970s. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The sunshine policy is part of South Koreas foreign policy towards North Korea. ...


List of Treaties

December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Treaty of Moscow, signed on August 12, 1970, renounced the use of force between the USSR and West Germany, and recognised the post-WWII borders - specifically the Oder-Neisse Line which hived off a large portion of Germany and gave it to Poland. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... In common linguistic usage the Basic Treaty stands for the Treaty concerning basic relations between the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR). There are other basic treaties as for example the European Basic Treaty or the bilateral Basic Treaty between Russia and Romania (4th July... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ...

External links

  • "Change through Rapprochement", excerpt from Egon Bahrs speech
  • Ostpolitik.net, international history project at the University of Mannheim

  Results from FactBites:
 
Willy Brandt biography - his Ostpolitik policy (1403 words)
It was the beginning of the later-to-be-famous policy of Ostpolitik, which sought to overcome the effects of the division of Germany and Europe on the basis of the recognition of its reality.
Among the early results of these policies were the Berlin Senates' signing in December 1963 of the so-called pass agreement with the DDR whereby permits were made available for limited visits by West Berliners to the Eastern sector of the city.
What made Ostpolitik possible was the fact that Brandt's government recognized Europe's borders as inviolable, and furthermore that it acknowledged the existence of two states in the German nation.
Ostpolitik - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (519 words)
Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the "Change through Rapprochement" principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany.
The goal of the Ostpolitik of the 1970s was to surmount but not to reverse the existing Status Quo between the two German states, which were formed in 1948 after World War II, and to ultimately lead to their reunification, while giving up the goal of immediate reunification as a prerequisite to all other decisions.
Among the elements of Ostpolitik was abandonment of the Hallstein Doctrine and recognition of the Oder-Neisse line as the border between Poland and East Germany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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