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Encyclopedia > Osteopathy
Alternative medical systems - edit
NCCAM classifications
  1. Category:Alternative medical systems
  2. Category:Mind-body interventions
  3. Biologically based therapy
  4. Manipulative and body-based methods
  5. Energy therapy
See also

Osteopathy is an approach to healthcare that emphasizes the role of the musculoskeletal system in health and disease. In most countries osteopathy is a form of complementary medicine, emphasizing a holistic approach and the skilled use of a range of manual and physical treatment interventions (osteopathic manipulative medicine, or OMM in the United States) in the prevention and treatment of disease. In practice, this most commonly relates to musculoskeletal problems such as back and neck pain. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Complementary medicine refers to a group of therapeutic and diagnostic disciplines that exist largely outside the institutions where conventional health care is taught and provided. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... This is a glossary for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), an umbrella term for a large number of practices that fall outside the scope of conventional medicine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Alternative medicine. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Complementary medicine refers to a group of therapeutic and diagnostic disciplines that exist largely outside the institutions where conventional health care is taught and provided. ... This is a glossary for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), an umbrella term for a large number of practices that fall outside the scope of conventional medicine. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... The musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives animals the ability to physically move using the muscles and skeletal system. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Complementary medicine refers to a group of therapeutic and diagnostic disciplines that exist largely outside the institutions where conventional health care is taught and provided. ... The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... Treatment may refer to: // Health Therapy - the act of remediation of a health problem. ... Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (abbreviated as OMM) is a manual modality of treatment used to improve the impaired or altered function of the musculo-skeletal system (somatic dysfunction). ...


Many osteopaths see their role as facilitating the body's own recuperative powers by treating musculoskeletal or somatic dysfunction. According to the American Osteopathic Association, the difference between an osteopath and an osteopathic physician is often confused.[1] In the United States, Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.s) are fully licensed medical physicians and surgeons, practicing in all clinical specialties along with their M.D. colleagues. Just like M.D.s, D.O.s practice the full scope of medicine. The term somatic refers to the body, as distinct from some other entity, such as the mind. ... American Osteopathic Association Founded in 1898 in Kirksville, MO, the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) is the representative organization for osteopathic physicians in the United States. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... D.O. redirects here. ... Licensure refers to the granting of a license (in the US, whilst, elsewhere the term registration is used), usually to work in a particular profession. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ...


In the United Kingdom, courses in Osteopathy have recently become integrated into the university system. Instead of receiving a Diploma in Osteopathy (D.O.), with or without a Diploma in Naturopathy (N.D.), graduates now become Bachelors of Osteopathy or Bachelors of Osteopathic Medicine, or Bachelors of Science in either Osteopathy or Osteopathic Medicine, according to the institution attended:[2] but these degrees do not lead to prescribing rights and in this case Osteopathy and Osteopathic Medicine are synonymous. There is one "cross-over" institution, the London College of Osteopathic Medicine[3], which teaches osteopathy only to those already qualified in medicine. Before using the title of "osteopath," graduates have to register with the UK regulatory body by statute; the General Osteopathic Council.

Contents

History

The practice of osteopathic medicine began in the United States in 1874. The term "osteopathy" was coined by Andrew Taylor Still, M.D., who was born in 1828 in Virginia. Still was a free state leader who lived near Baldwin City, Kansas at the time of the American Civil War, and it was here he developed the practice of osteopathy.[4] Still was trained by apprenticeship, as were most physicians of the day, and was employed as an army doctor during the American Civil War in the U.S. Army. The horrors of battlefield injury and the subsequent death of his wife and several children from infectious diseases left him totally disillusioned with the traditional practice of medicine. Still perceived the medical practices of his day to be ineffective, even barbaric. Troubled by what he saw as problems in the medical profession, Still founded osteopathic practice. Using an alternative philosophical approach, he opposed the use of drugs and surgery as remedial agents, reserving their use for cases in which he considered them to be the cure for the condition, such as an antidote for a poison or amputation for gangrene. He saw the human body as being capable of curing itself, and the duty of the physician to remove any impediments to the healthy function of each person. He promoted healthy lifestyle, nutrition, abstinence from alcohol and drugs, and used manipulative techniques which he believed, improved physiological function. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Dr. Andrew Taylor Still (1828-1917) is considered the father of osteopathic medicine. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the term free state as it arises in United States history, see: Free state. ... Baldwin City is a city located in Douglas County, Kansas, south of Lawrence. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Partial hand amputation Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... Gangrene is the necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis. ... Joint manipulation is a type of passive movement of a skeletal joint. ...


Still named his new school of medicine "osteopathy," reasoning that "the bone, osteon, was the starting point from which [he] was to ascertain the cause of pathological conditions." The object of osteopathy was to "improve upon the present systems of surgery, midwifery, and the treatment of general diseases."[citation needed] Its scientific foundation was the discipline of anatomy.[citation needed] Its philosophy was based on the understanding of the integration between body, mind and spirit[citation needed], the interrelatedness of structure and function, and the posited ability of the body to heal itself when mechanically sound. Osteopathic treatment emphasises comprehensive patient care with a focus on the neuromusculoskeletal system as an integral part of health and disease processes. Over time Still and his students and faculty developed a complete medical school curriculum which included a series of specialized physical treatments, now called Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT). Still founded the American School of Osteopathy (now the Andrew Taylor Still University, Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine) in Kirksville, Missouri, for the teaching of osteopathic medicine on May 10, 1892. While the state of Missouri, recognizing the equivalency of the curriculum, was willing to grant him a charter for awarding the M.D. degree, he remained dissatisfied with the limitations of conventional medicine and instead chose to retain the distinction of the D.O. degree. Medical school in the United States is a four year graduate institution with the purpose of educating physicians in the field of medicine. ... A.T. Still University, based in Kirksville, Missouri, is a combination of four schools which educate health care professionals based on the principles of osteopathic medicine, first devised by American doctor Andrew Taylor Still, M.D. While its main campus in Kirksville, Missouri is the home of Kirksville College of... Kirksville is a city in Adair County, Missouri, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ...


In the late 1800s Still taught that "dis-ease" was caused when bones were out of place and disrupted the flow of blood or the flow of nervous impulses; he therefore concluded that one could cure diseases by manipulating bones to restore the interrupted flow. Still stimulated his students to investigate these postulates. Research began in the 1890s at Kirksville and has continued there and at other osteopathic institutions ever since. The A.T. Still Research Institute was founded in 1913 and Louisa Burns, D.O. and others developed a rigorous series of scientific investigations of the relationships between musculoskeletal dysfunctions and health and disease. Still's critics point out that he never personally ran any controlled experiments to test his hypothesis; his supporters point out that many of Still's writings are philosophical rather than scientific in nature. He questioned the drug practices of his day and regarded surgery as a last resort. // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


By the 1960s, osteopathic medicine had become integrated into the American mainstream, and the reliance on manipulative therapies had fallen into less common usage. The osteopathic profession has evolved independently outside the US, where it has remained essentially a drug-free system based on manipulative techniques - a scope of practice similar to chiropractors. Chiropractic is a distinct manipulative profession that originated around 1895 in the US. Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Osteopathic principles

These are the eight major principles of osteopathy and are widely believed throughout the International osteopathic community. [5]

  1. The body is a unit.
  2. Structure and function are reciprocally inter-related.
  3. The body possesses self-regulatory mechanisms.
  4. The body has the inherent capacity to defend and repair itself.
  5. When the normal adaptability is disrupted, or when environmental changes overcome the body’s capacity for self maintenance, disease may ensue.
  6. The movement of body fluids is essential to the maintenance of health.
  7. The nerves play a crucial part in controlling the fluids of the body.
  8. There are somatic components to disease that are not only manifestations of disease, but also are factors that contribute to maintenance of the disease state.

These principles are not held by osteopathic physicians to be empirical laws; they are thought to be the underpinnings of the osteopathic philosophy on health and disease. Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... A scientific law, is a law-like statement that generalizes across a set of conditions. ...


Techniques of Osteopathic Treatment

The goal of OMM is the resolution of what many osteopaths's call somatic dysfunction in an attempt to aid the body's own recuperative faculties. Osteopathic manual treatment of the musculoskeletal system employs a diverse array of techniques. These are normally employed together with dietary, postural, and occupational advice, as well as counseling in an attempt to help patients recover from illness and injury, in an attempt to minimise or manage pain and disease. Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (abbreviated as OMM) is a manual modality of treatment used to improve the impaired or altered function of the musculo-skeletal system (somatic dysfunction). ... Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (abbreviated as OMM) is a manual modality of treatment used to improve the impaired or altered function of the musculo-skeletal system (somatic dysfunction). ... In osteopathic medicine, somatic dysfunction is the impaired or altered function of the musculo-skeletal system treated by osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). ... Human position refers to a position of a human body. ...


Scope of manual therapies

Osteopathy employs manual therapies for the treatment of many neuromusculoskeletal pain syndromes, such as low back pain and tension headache, alongside exercise and other rehabilitative techniques. Many osteopaths also attempt to manage (or, more often, co-manage) organic or Type-O disorders conditions, such as asthma and middle ear infections in children,[6] menstrual pain, and pulmonary infection. See also back pain Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder which affects the lumbar segment of the spine. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ...


Cranial osteopathy

Main article: Craniosacral therapy

Cranial osteopathy is a well-established branch of medicine based on working with what is known as the cranial rhythm.[7] Cranial osteopaths/osteopathic physicians are trained to feel a very subtle, rhythmic pattern of movement or shape changes while holding a patient's head. Outside the profession this is a contested phenomenon; also it is not known what proportion of osteopaths or osteopathic physicians are practitioners nor is it known what portion of practitioners have formal osteopathic training. Cranial osteopathy is based on the subtle involuntary mechanisms or rhythms which can be felt with a very finely developed sense of touch and, generally, through the use of an elaborate adjustable "lift" massage table which allows the practitioner to position the hands, arms and shoulders of the practitioner with a sufficiently relaxed angle (attitude) that the rhythms can be felt. From the experienced cranial osteopath, pulses in hydrostatic pressure can be initiated by pulsing the pressure of the practitioner's palms and fingers on the head and neck of the patient. The practitioner's own neurotransmitters are said by many practitioners to be somehow "activated" as the practitioner's fingers and palms find and settle in on locations on the patient's head which have an electrostatic presence. Treatments are generally weekly and continue until cranial osteopathy has re-established the rhythmic movement of the plates which together form the skull. Generally the patient begins with the plates locked into a single unit by calcification. This rhythm was first described in the early 1900s by Dr. William G. Sutherland.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Osteopathic medicine (also known as osteopathy) is a branch of medicine which views the human body holistically, and emphasizes the prevention and treatment of illness and injury through the use of manual and physical therapies (OMM), along with traditional medical practices such as drugs and surgery. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Cranial osteopathy. ... Attitude may refer to: Aircraft attitude Attitude (magazine) Attitude, a song by American pop and jazz singer Suede Attitudes (band) Attitude Adjustment (Hardcore/Crossover/Thrash metal band) Attitude, song from Metallica on their album Reload. ... Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid due to its weight. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ...


The theory underlying cranial osteopathy is rejected by many physicians. It is believed by most modern osteopathic physicians working within the cranial field, that the spheno-basilar symphysis (a large joint in the skull base) ossifies (turn to bone). Cranial osteopathic teaching refers to movement remaining within the thin bone of the sutures, and that flexibility within living bone occurs, in contrast to dried specimen bones. Research suggests that examiners are unable to measure craniosacral motion reliably, as indicated by a lack of interrater agreement among examiners.[9]The authors of this research suggest that this "measurement error may be sufficiently large to render many clinical decisions potentially erroneous".


No scientific links have been found between this mechanism and health/disease. Some osteopathic physicians believe that healing dysfunctional cranial rhythmic impulses enhances cerebral spinal fluid flow to peripheral nerves, thereby enhancing metabolic outflow and nutrition inflow.


Craniosacral therapy is based on the same principles but the practitioners have not attended medical school and are therefore not osteopathic medical physicians. Chiropractor and osteopathic physician, M.B. Dejarnette further developed craniopathic techniques inside of a complete Chiropractic system known as Sacro-Occipital Technique or simply "S.O.T."[10][11] It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Cranial osteopathy. ...


Visceral osteopathy

Proponents of visceral osteopathy state that the visceral systems (the internal organs: digestive tract, respiratory system, etc.) rely on the interconnection synchronicity between the motion of all the organs and structures of the body, and that at optimal health this harmonious relationship remains stable despite the body's endless varieties of motion. The idea is that both somato-visceral and viscero-somatic connections exist, and manipulation of the somatic system can affect the visceral system (and vice-versa). A term often used in usability enginering or user interface design Often conected with the Emotional feelings in a product signifies the WOW feeling when seeing a new product. ... Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events which occur in a meaningful manner, but which are causally inexplicable to the person or persons experiencing them. ...


Practitioners contend that visceral osteopathy relieves imbalances and restrictions in the interconnections between the motion of all the organs and structures of the body--namely, nerves, blood vessels, and fascial compartments. During the 1940s, osteopaths like H.V. Hoover and M.D. Young built on the work of Andrew Taylor Still to create this method of assessment and manipulation. The efficacy and basis of this treatment remains controversial even within the osteopathic profession.


Osteopathy around the world

Osteopathy & Osteopathic medicine
Osteopathy in Australia
Osteopathy in Canada
Osteopathy in the European Union
Osteopathic medicine in the United Kingdom
Osteopathic medicine in the United States
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The osteopathic profession has evolved into two branches, practioners in the United States and practioners in European and Commonwealth countries. These groups have have grown so distinct that in practice they function as separate professions, though there have been attempts in the recent years to enhance exchange and dialogue between them.[12] Osteopathy may refer to: Osteopathy: alternative medicine, as practiced by osteopaths outside the United States Osteopathic medicine: as applied by osteopathic physicians in the United States Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM), Manual medicine Look up osteopathy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


In Europe, commonwealth countries and elsewhere, osteopaths rely on non-surgical, non-pharmaceutical approaches, and see themselves as a complete school of manual medicine or NMS specialists, complementary to most mainstream medical practices. Commonwealth osteopathic students may spend up to ten times as many hours training in osteopathic diagnosis and technique as their American counterparts. Because of this specialization, they have traditionally remained as an alternative to mainstream healthcare alongside naturopaths and chiropractors. In commonwealth countries, osteopaths have also had to compete with physiotherapists, many of whom have integrated manipulative therapy into their practice. Nevertheless, osteopathic medicine is growing in size in many countries of the Commonwealth and Europe. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... Physical therapy can help restore lost functionality in many people. ... Manipulative therapy involves the use of body work or massage therapy and other physical manipulation of the body for healing, such as those techniques used in osteopathy, chiropractic, and physical therapy. ...


Osteopathy in the United States

Main articles: Osteopathic medicine in the United States and Medical school in the United States

In the United States, osteopathic medicine has diverged significantly from traditional osteopathy. U.S. "osteopathic physicians" (D.O.s) are licensed medical doctors who who have completed conventional medical training, and in most cases are licensed to practice medicine as physicians or surgeons. Medical school in the United States is a four year graduate institution with the purpose of educating physicians in the field of medicine. ...


Osteopathy in the United Kingdom

The first osteopathic college was established in the UK in 1917 by Littlejohn, a Scot who had studied under Dr Andrew Taylor Still. Littlejohn altered the osteopathic curriculum to include the study of physiology. The UK school he founded, the British School of Osteopathy, was the first osteopathic education institution outside the USA, and it still exists today. British osteopaths use manipulative techniques based on the philosophy of Dr Andrew Taylor Still, but are not medical doctors. Some medical doctors do undertake osteopathic training as a postgraduate interest. The profession is subject to statutory regulation following the passing of the Osteopathy Act in 1993. The General Osteopathic Council (GOsC) was established by the act to regulate the profession. Most medical services in the UK are delivered through the state funded National Health Service, osteopathy is largely excluded from this with most osteopaths working in private practice. Several large studies in the UK have produced evidence that demonstrates positive clinical and cost effectiveness of manipulation in the management of low back pain, the latest being the UK Back pain Exercise And Manipulation (UK BEAM) trial.[13] [14] The physical manipulation condition of the UK BEAM trial involved "... a package of techniques representative of those used by the UK chiropractic, osteopathic, and physiotherapy professions." NHS redirects here. ...


Many UK osteopaths are also naturopaths, with one osteopathic college offering a dual training in osteopathy & naturopathy (the British College of Osteopathic Medicine) and another offering a post-graduate programme (the College of Osteopaths). Naturopathic medicine is the practice of assisting in the health of patients through the application of natural remedies. ... The College of Osteopaths dates from 1948 and provides training leading to a BSc (Hons) Osteopathy. ...


In 2005 the General Medical Council of Great Britain announced that U.S.-trained D.O.s would be accepted for full medical practice rights in the United Kingdom. This decision was an important departure from the United Kingdom's long-standing tradition of exclusively manual, or "traditional" osteopathy. The General Medical Council (the GMC) is the regulator of the medical profession in the United Kingdom. ...


Osteopathy in Australia & New Zealand

In Australia the profession has developed along the same lines as in Britain, and Osteopathy celebrates 100 years in Australia in 2007. The peak body representing Osteopaths in Australia is the Australian Osteopathic Association (AOA), and in New Zealand the Osteopathic Society of New Zealand (OSNZ). Since the 1970's Australia has formally trained practitioners although many were trained less formally prior to that time. Both Australia and New Zealand require registration, and thus disallow osteopathic practice except by government registered practitioners. Workers' compensation, the various motor accident authorities, Medicare and private health insurers all recognize and reimburse osteopathic treatment. Four publicly-funded Universities now offer osteopathic medical courses in Australia - RMIT, VU, SCU and UWS. It is offered at UNITEC in New Zealand. Australian courses consist of a bachelor's degree in clinical science (Osteopathy) followed by a Master's degree. Integration into the university system has given Australian osteopaths the opportunity to access public research funding, has raised the credibility of the profession, and focused attention on refining the scope of practice through clinical trials and basic research. Australia now recognizes the USA D.O. degree for full medical practice rights within Australia. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


Osteopathy in Canada

In Canada osteopathic physicians are trained along similar lines to those in Britain and other Commonwealth countries. However, when US-trained osteopathic physicians visit or relocate to Canada or Great Britain, their parity with allopathic physicians is recognized and they have an unlimited scope of medical practice. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


There are currently over 1100 practicing manual Osteopaths (DOMP) in the country, all practicing under provincial associations and the Canadian Federation of Osteopaths.


In some countries, osteopathic medicine straddles the boundary between Conventional medicine and alternative medicine, with a variety of approaches and philosophies being brought to the practice. Osteopathic physicians are trained in standard medical differential diagnosis and have diagnostic competences similar to primary care physicians, but with a scope of practice focused mainly on musculoskeletal conditions and treatment of some other conditions by manual means[citation needed]. Osteopathic physicians in these countries, except Canada, do not have prescribing rights, although the British Government has included osteopathic medicine in the list of Allied health professions that may be granted prescribing rights in the future.[15] See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... Allied health professions are clinical healthcare professions distinct from the medical and nursing. ...


Osteopathy in the European Union

Within the EU there is no standardized training or regulatory framework for osteopaths but attempts are being made to coordinate the profession within the union. There is a conflict between the principle of free movement of labour - a cornerstone of the EU - and the right to practice osteopathic medicine in different member states as there is cross-border equivalence in training and regulation of the profession. The UK's General Osteopathic Council, a regulatory body set up under the country's 1993 Osteopaths Act has issued a position paper on European regulation of osteopathy.[16] The teaching of osteopathy in the UK, France and (European Economic Area member) Switzerland is well established - but not all European nations have yet embraced this form of medicine.


In the UK, since the Osteopaths Act, osteopathy has been a recognised profession. Some doctors within the country's National Health Service recognise osteopathy as a therapy and refer patients to its practitioners when other forms of treatment are not successful or are considered inappropriate[6] - but the NHS will not usually pay for any treatment.[17] NHS redirects here. ... NHS redirects here. ...


Criticism

Osteopathy is not supported by modern scientific evidence. A major criticism is that claims for the efficacy of the treatment are testimonial-based and not evidence-based. One placebo-controlled trial showed that osteopathy is no better than sham treatment for chronic nonspecific lower back pain, although the authors acknowledged the difficulty of providing a non-therapeutic sham treatment[18] or for pain after knee/hip surgery[19].


The practice of osteopathy in the cranial field is considered even by some within the field as lacking scientific evidence. It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Cranial osteopathy. ... The scientific method or process is fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ...


As with all medical treatments, manipulative and manual therapies carry inherent risks of injury. Direct, forceful techniques are more likely than indirect techniques to cause injury. 'Neck cracking', i.e. cervical high-velocity low-amplitude thrusting, has received particular attention in the popular media because of a risk of arterial occlusion and consequently of stroke. Although the existing data cannot provide a conclusive estimate of the cervical artery dissection risk researchers have stated that a stroke risk of about 1.3 per 100 000 chiropractic visits for individuals aged under 45 years, with a confidence interval of 0.5–16.7 per 100 000 is a relatively unbiased estimate[20]. Although this data primarily concerns chiropractic visits, both osteopaths and chiropractors may practice cervical manipulations. Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ...


See also

// Buenos Aires School of Osteopathy Chiropractic and Osteopathic College of Australasia RMIT University University of Western Sydney Victoria University Canadian College of Osteopathy Sutherland Academy of Osteopathy Centre Europeen dEnseignement Superieur de lOsteopathie UNITEC Auckland Master of Osteopathy programme Nordic Academy of Osteopathy Russian School of Osteopathic Medicine... This list of medical schools in the United States includes major academic institutions in the U.S. that award either the doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy degrees. ... D.O. redirects here. ... The term allopathic medicine is used by adherents of alternative medicine to refer to any form of mainstream medicine. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ...

References

  1. ^ D.O.s Around the World. American Osteopathic Association.[1]
  2. ^ General Osteopathic Council [2]
  3. ^ London College of Osteopathic Medicine [3]
  4. ^ Baldwin City, Kansas "Among Free State leaders was Dr. Andrew T. Still, founder of osteopathy, whose theory of healing developed here."
  5. ^ Extracted from the curriculum of the Andrew Taylor Still University Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine
  6. ^ Mills M, Henley C, Barnes L, Carreiro J, Degenhardt B (2003). "The use of osteopathic manipulative treatment as adjuvant therapy in children with recurrent acute otitis media". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157 (9): 861-6. PMID 12963590.
  7. ^ See The Cranial Academy (US)
  8. ^ What Is Osteopathy In The Cranial Field (OCF)? Osteohome website (Accessed 2nd Aug 2006
  9. ^ Wirth-Pattullo V, Hayes KW. Interrater reliability of craniosacral rate measurements and their relationship with subjects' and examiners' heart and respiratory rate measurements. Phys Ther. 1994 Oct;74(10):908-16; discussion 917-20. PMID 8090842
  10. ^ Sacral Occipital Technique Organization USA [4]
  11. ^ Blum CL, Cuthbert S, Cranial Therapeutic Care: Is There any Evidence?, Journal of Chiropractic and Osteopathy, 2006; 14(10). [5]
  12. ^ Wickless, Larry. "The Osteopathic International Alliance: Unification of the Osteopathic Profession" (PDF). Osteopathic International Alliance Steering Committee. Retrieved on 2006-09-19.
  13. ^ UK Back pain Exercise And Manipulation (UK BEAM) Trial Team. United Kingdom back pain exercise and manipulation (UK BEAM) randomised trial: effectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care." BMJ. 2004 Dec 11;329(7479):1377.
  14. ^ UK Back pain Exercise And Manipulation (UK BEAM) Trial Team. United Kingdom back pain exercise and manipulation (UK BEAM) randomised trial: cost effectiveness of physical treatments for back pain in primary care." BMJ. 2004 Dec 11;329(7479):1381.
  15. ^ Health & Social Care Act 2001
  16. ^ European Public Health Alliance UK GOsC Position paper on pan-European regulation. Accessed 2nd August 2006
  17. ^ The British School of Osteopathy, Nicola Sturzaker, Education Guardian, 2 November 2004.Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  18. ^ >Licciardone JC, Stoll ST, Fulda KG, Russo DP, Siu J, Winn W, Swift J (2003). "Osteopathic manipulative treatment for chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial". Spine 28 (13): 1355-62. PMID 12838090.
  19. ^ Licciardone JC, Stoll ST, Cardarelli KM, Gamber RG, Swift JN, Winn WB (2004). "A randomized controlled trial of osteopathic manipulative treatment following knee or hip arthroplasty". J Am Osteopath Assoc 104 (10): 193-202. PMID 15176518.
  20. ^ Moira K. Kapral and Susan J. Bondy (Oct 2001). "Cervical manipulation and risk of stroke". Canadian Medical Association Journal 165: 907-908.

American Osteopathic Association Founded in 1898 in Kirksville, MO, the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) is the representative organization for osteopathic physicians in the United States. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Science in the Art of Osteopathy: Osteopathic Principles and Models, Caroline Stone, Nelson Thornes, 1999, paperback, 384 pages, ISBN 0-7487-3328-0
  • An Osteopathic Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment , Eileen DiGiovanna, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004, hardback, 600 pages, ISBN 0-7817-4293-5

External links

For links related to Osteopathic medicine in the Unites States, see U.S. Osteopathic medicine, External links.

Associations and regulatory bodies

International
United Kingdom
Other countries

Journals

BioMed Central (BMC) is a UK-based scientific publisher specializing in open access publication. ...

Other links


  Results from FactBites:
 
osteopathy: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (3449 words)
Osteopathy is a theory of disease and method of cure founded on the assumption that deformation of some part of the skeleton and consequent interference with the adjacent nerves and blood-vessels are the cause of most diseases.
Proponents of visceral osteopathy state that the visceral systems (the internal organs: digestive tract, respiratory system, etc.) rely on the interconnected synchronicity between the motion of all the organs and structures of the body, that at optimal health this harmonious relationship remains stable despite the body's endless varieties of motion.
Visceral osteopathy is said to relieve imbalances and restrictions in the interconnections between the motion of all the organs and structures of the body.
ACS :: Osteopathy (1159 words)
Osteopathy is a form of physical manipulation that is used to restore the structural balance of the musculoskeletal system (bone and muscles).
Osteopathy is a form of physical manipulation (moving the joints and muscles) used to restore the structural balance of the body’s system of bones and muscles.
Osteopathy is promoted as an alternative method to ease pain, improve quality of life, minimize the side effects of treatment, enhance other types of treatments, and extend the life of some cancer patients.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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