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Encyclopedia > Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis
Classifications and external resources
ICD-10 M86.
ICD-9 730
DiseasesDB 9367
MedlinePlus 000437
eMedicine ped/1677 
MeSH C01.539.160.495

Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone, usually caused by pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria. It can be usefully subclassifed on the basis of the causative organism, the route, duration and anatomic location of the infection. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // M00-M99 - Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (M00-M25) Arthropathies (M00-M03) Infectious arthropathies (M00) Pyogenic arthritis (M01) Direct infections of joint in infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere (M02) Reactive arthropathies (M023) Reiters disease (M03) Postinfective and reactive arthropathies in diseases classified elsewhere (M05-M14... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... For other uses, see Bone (disambiguation), including Bones which redirects here. ... Pyogenic refers to bacterial infections that make pus. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Species see text Mycobacterium is the a genus of actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. ...

Contents

Presentation

Generally microorganisms may be disseminated to bone hematogenously (i.e., via the blood stream), spread contiguously to bone from local areas of infection, such as cellulitis, or be introduced by penetrating trauma including iatrogenic causes such as joint replacements or internal fixation of fractures. Leukocytes then enter the infected area, and in their attempt to engulf the infectious organisms, release enzymes that lyse bone. Pus spreads into the bone's blood vessels, impairing the flow, and areas of devitalized infected bone, known as sequestra, form the basis of a chronic infection. On histologic examination, these areas of necrotic bone are the basis for distinguishing between acute osteomyelitis and chronic osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is an infective process which encompasses all of the bone (osseous) components, including the bone marrow. When it is chronic it can lead to bone sclerosis and deformity. In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... An iatrogenic (pronounced , IPA) condition is a state of ill health or adverse effect caused by medical treatment, usually due to mistakes made in treatment. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis, in which these cells ingest and kill offending cells by a process analogous to cellular digestion, usually using lysosomes which carry potent enzymes that digests cell components such... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance produced during inflammatory responses of the body that can be found in regions of pyogenic bacterial infections. ... Sequestra is the pleural of sequestrum. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


Because of the particulars of their blood supply, the tibia, the femur, the humerus, and the vertebral bodies are especially prone to osteomyelitis. This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the human body. ... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...


Etiology

Acute osteomyelitis almost invariably occurs in children. when adults are affected it may be because of compromised host resistance due to debilitation, intravenous drug abuse, disease or drugs (e.g. immunosuppressive therapy). Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


Treatment

Osteomyelitis often requires prolonged antibiotic therapy, lasting a matter of weeks or months, and may require surgical debridement. Severe cases may lead to the loss of a limb. Initial first line antibiotic choice is determined by the patient's history and regional differences in common infective organisms. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Debridement is a medical term referring to the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. ...


Causes

The vast predominance of hematogenously seeded osteomyelitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and streptococci are other common pathogens. In some subpopulations, including intravenous drug users and splenectomized patients, Gram negative bacteria, including enteric bacilli, are significant pathogens. Binomial name Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause illnesses ranging from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Streptococcus, a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... A splenectomy is a procedure that involves the removal of the spleen by operative means. ... Gram-negative bacteria are those that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol. ...


Staphylococcus aureus is also the most common organism seen in osteomyelitis seeded from areas of contiguous infection, but here Gram negative organisms and anaerobes are somewhat more common, and mixed infections may be seen. An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ...


In osteomyelitis involving the vertebral bodies, about half the cases are due to Staphylococcus aureus, and the other half are due to tuberculosis (spread hematogenously from the lungs). Tubercular osteomyelitis of the spine was so common before the initiation of effective antitubercular therapy that it acquired a special name, Pott's disease, by which it is sometimes still known. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine. ...


References


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Osteomyelitis : Article by Randall W King, MD (3387 words)
Hematogenous osteomyelitis is an infection caused by bacterial seeding from the blood.
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is characterized by an acute infection of the bone caused by the seeding of the bacteria within the bone from a remote source.
Direct inoculation (contiguous-focus) osteomyelitis is an infection in the bone secondary to the inoculation of organisms from direct trauma, spread from a contiguous focus of infection, or sepsis after a surgical procedure.
Osteomyelitis: Bone and Joint Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition (1216 words)
Osteomyelitis occurs most commonly in young children and in older people, but all age groups are at risk.
Osteomyelitis usually occurs in the ends of leg and arm bones in children and in the spine (vertebrae) in adults, particularly in older people.
Osteomyelitis may also occur where a piece of metal has been surgically attached to a bone, as is done to repair hip or other fractures.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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