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Encyclopedia > Osnabrück

Osnabrück is a city in the Westphalian half of Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80km NNW of Dortmund, 45km NNW of Münster, and some 100km due West of Hanover. It lies in a valley penned between the Wiehengebirge and the northern tip of the Teutoburg Forest, which is a series of parallel ridges running SE towards Bielefeld and beyond to Detmold, that makes the generally pretty area attractive to bicycle riders, amongst others. As of June 30, 2002, its population was 163,919, making it the third largest city in Lower Saxony. Osnabrück coat of arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Westphalia (in German, Westfalen) is a (historic) region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and now included in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia (and the (south-)west of Lower Saxony). ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Map of Germany showing Dortmund Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... The Wiehengebirge is a low mountain range in North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony in Germany. ... View over the Teutoburg Forest The Teutoburg Forest (German: Teutoburger Wald) is a range of low, forested mountains in the German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia, which is believed to be the environ of a decisive battle in AD 9. ... Map of Germany showing Bielefeld Bielefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...

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History

Osnabrück was founded in 780 by Charlemagne, king of the Franks, although the date is not entirely certain. Some time before 803, the city became a bishopric. This date is also uncertain, but it makes Osnabrück the oldest bishopric in Saxony. In 889 it was given merchant, customs, and coinage privileges by King Arnulf of Carinthia. It is first mentioned as a "city" in records in 1147. Shortly afterwards, in 1157, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa granted the city fortification privileges (Befestigungsrecht). Most of the towers that were part of the medieval fortification are still visible in the city. Osnabrück became a member of the Hanseatic League in the 12th century, as well as a member of the Westphalian Federation of Cities. Events Constantine VI becomes Byzantine Emperor with Irene as guardian. ... A Frankish king, like Charlemagne, (center) depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870) Charlemagne (c. ... The Franks were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany, forming the historic kernel of both these two modern... Events Nicephorus I and Charlemagne settle their imperial boundaries. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Events End of Strathclyde as a fully independent kingdom. ... Arnulf of Carinthia (German Arnulf von Kärnten, Slovenian Arnulf Koroški) (850 - December 8, 899) was one of the last ruling members of the Carolingian house in the Eastern part of the Frankish Kingdom, which had been split in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... Events Births 8 September - Richard I of England Deaths August 21 - Alfonso VII, king of Castile (b. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...

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Theater in Osnabrück

Still being a bishopric today, the city has a fairly sized cathedral in late romanesque style. While nothing is left of the original cathedral from the city's foundation, excavations have traced the oldest parts of today's building to the 10th century. Most of it stems from the 12th and 13th centuries though, with the choir being a later gothic addition. Quite curiously, the southwestern tower that was also added later in gothic style consumes four times the ground space of the older nothwestern one. The plan of reerecting the second tower also was never executed, making the two towers look very much out of proportion (see the external links below). Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 522 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 522 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ... Romanesque St. ... Gothic architecture characterizes any of the styles of European architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, in use throughout Europe during the high and late medieval period, from the 12th century onwards. ...


Since the citizens elected to follow the course of the Protestant reformation, this led to an ongoing conflict with the Catholic bishop that was not resolved until the 17th century. Probably the most significant event in the city's history was then the negotiations from 1643 to 1648 that led to the Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years' War. Since the Catholic and the Protestant delegations refused to be negotiate in person, the Catholics were seated in Münster, while the Protestants resided in Osnabrück. The Friedenssaal where the negotiations took place can be seen in the city's impressive Town Hall building from 1517. For the city, the Westphalian Peace led to the unique regulation that it would be governed in alternation by a Catholic and a Protestant bishop. Still today, the population of the city is vaguely half-half between the two confessions. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century (although out of earlier roots) as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...

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The Heger Tor

In the course of secularization that preceded the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the bishopric of Osnabrück was appropriated into the Kingdom of Hanover in 1803. This was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Not until 1858 was the diocese reerected as a church entity, while the city continued to belong to Hanover and thus also became part of Prussia with the annexation of Hanover in 1866. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 636 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 636 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Secularization, as understood by sociologists of religion, is a varied term with multiple definitions and levels of meaning. ... The crown of the Holy Roman Empire (2nd half of the 10th century), now held in the Vienna Schatzkammer. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from October 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and...


Osnabrück suffered very much from the bombings at the end of World War II, but selected parts of the historic buildings were reerected. Today's Altstadt thus may not be entirely original, but still delivers the impression of a medieval city. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Osnabrück remains an important British Army garrison as part of British Forces Germany (BFG). The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British military. ... The British Forces Germany (BFG) is the successor of the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR) and Royal Air Force Germany (RAFG), which were disbanded due to the end of the Cold War as well as cuts in the armed forces due to HM Governments Options for Change. ...


Famous people from Osnabrück

Personalities from Osnabrück include the writer Erich Maria Remarque and the painter Felix Nussbaum, for whom the city erected a very modern museum designed by Daniel Libeskind that opened in 1998. This looks like a scaled-down version of the same architect's well-known Jewish Museum in Berlin. British King George I was born and raised here, and the poet and scholar Johann Ernst Hanxleden was born in Osnabrück as well as the current Prime Minister of Lower Saxony Christian Wulff. Erich Maria Remarque (June 22, 1898 - September 25, 1970) was the pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, a German author. ... Felix Nussbaum (December 11, 1904-1944) was a Jewish Austrian painter. ... The aluminium clad east face of the Imperial War Museum North in Manchester. ... The Jewish Museum Berlin (Jüdisches Museum Berlin) is a museum in Berlin covering two millennia of German Jewish history. ... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... George I King of Great Britain and Ireland George I (George Ludwig von Guelph-dEste) (28 May 1660–11 June 1727) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ... Johann Ernst Hanxleden (b. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Christian Wulff (born June 19, 1959 in Osnabrück) is a German politician (CDU) and Ministerpräsident (Premier) of Lower Saxony since March 4, 2003. ...


Academic Education in Osnabrück

In addition to the "Universität Osnabrück" (University of Osnabrück) and the "Fachhochschule Osnabrück" (College of Applied Science), the "Katholische Fachhochschule Norddeutschland" (Catholic College of North Germany) has some of its faculties in the city of Osnabrück. The University of Osnabrück is a public university located in the city of Osnabrück in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


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