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Encyclopedia > Osmanli

The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osmani, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. Before that the tribe/dynasty might have been known as Söğüt but was renamed Osmanli in honour of Osman. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire was founded as an autonomous state (Beylik) in present day Bilecik, Turkey, by Osman Bey. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sultan Osman I Osman I (1258–1326) (Ottoman عُثمَان ʿUthmān) was the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... ErtuÄŸrul (1198-1281), also ErtoÄŸrul, was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Sultan Murat I Murad I (1319 (or 1326) – 1389; nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-like one) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ...


The sultan was the sole regent and government of the empire, at least officially. The sultan enjoyed many titles such as Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, following the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmet II and his coronation as the Roman Emperor, Kayser-i Rùm (Roman Caesar), and, from 1517 to 1924, the head of the House of Osman was also Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, i.e. Caliph, and the Ottoman Empire was synonymous with the Caliphate, the Islamic State. Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481; nicknamed el-Fatih, the Conqueror) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... A prophet is a person who is believed to communicate with God, or with a deity. ... This article is on the highest religious and/or temporal title, aspiring universal authority, in Islam; for lower, notably gubernatorial, uses of the Arabic title khalifa, see that article Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Note that the first rulers never called themselves sultans, but rather beys. See the article on state organisation of the Ottoman Empire for further information on the sultan and the structure of power. Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. ...


A coup d’état happened in 1453 after the conquest of Constantinople. Due to the popularity the Sultan earned at the conquest, he felt safe in ordering his Grand Vizier killed.


In the beginning, all the sons were given governing experience and any of them could be chosen to lead. Later in Ottoman history, the eldest son would become the next ruler.


List of the Heads of the House

Pre-imperial heads of the House
Süleyman (-1227) (bey)
Ertugrul (1227-1281) (bey)
Imperial heads of the House
Osman I (12811326) (bey)
Orhan I (13261359; bey) Ibrahim I (16401648)
Murad I (13591389; Sultan from 1383) Mehmed IV (16481687)
Bayezid I (13891402) Suleiman II (16871691)
Interregnum (14021413) Ahmed II (16911695)
Mehmed I (14131421) Mustafa II (16951703)
Murad II (14211444) (14451451) Ahmed III (17031730)
Mehmed II (the Conqueror) (14441445, 14511481) Mahmud I (17301754)
Bayezid II (14811512) Osman III (17541757)
Selim I (15121520; Caliph from 1517) Mustafa III (17571774)
Suleiman I (the Magnificent) (15201566) Abd-ul-Hamid I (17741789)
Selim II (15661574) Selim III (17891807)
Murad III (15741595) Mustafa IV (18071808)
Mehmed III (15951603) Mahmud II (18081839)
Ahmed I (16031617) Abd-ul-Mejid (18391861)
Mustafa I (16171618) Abd-ul-Aziz (18611876)
Osman II (16181622) Murad V (1876)
Mustafa I (16221623) Abd-ul-Hamid II (18761909)
Murad IV (16231640) Mehmed V (Reşad) (19091918)
Continued on the right Mehmed VI (Vahideddin) (19181922)
Post-imperial heads of the House
Abdul Mejid II (1926-1944)
Ahmed IV Nihad (1944-1954)
Osman IV Fu'ad (1954-1973)
Mehmed Abd-ul-Aziz II (1973-1977)
Ali Vâsib (1977-1983)
Mehmed VII Orhan (1983-1994)
Ertuğrul Osman V (1994-)

Note: Although Abdul Mejid II was chosen as caliph in 1922, he was not a sultan, as the National Assembly had abolished the sultanate. The caliphate was abolished in turn in 1924. Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ... ErtuÄŸrul, also ErtoÄŸrul, (1198-1281) was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ... Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire was founded as an autonomous state (Beylik) in present day Bilecik, Turkey, by Osman Bey. ... Sultan Osman I Osman I (1258–1326) (Ottoman عُثمَان ʿUthmān) was the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire was founded as an autonomous state (Beylik) in present day Bilecik, Turkey, by Osman Bey. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Orhan I Orhan, Orhan Gazi or Orkhan (died 1359)was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Sultan Ibrahim I Ibrahim I (November 5, 1615 – August 12, 1648) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1640–1648. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... Sultan Murat I Murad I (1319 (or 1326) – 1389; nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-like one) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Beyazid I Bayezid I (in Turkish Bayezıt, nicknamed Yıldırım, the Thunderbolt; ca 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Suleiman II (April 15, 1642 – 1691) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Mongol warlord Tamerlane. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... // Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. ... Sultan Ahmed II Ahmed II (February 25, 1643 – 1695) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... Events January 27 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed II to Mustafa II (1695-1703) July 17 - The Bank of Scotland is founded by an Act of Parliament of the old Scottish Parliament. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... // Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. ... Events March 21 - Battle of Beaugé. A small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... Sultan Mustafa II Mustafa II (February 6, 1664 – December 28, 1703) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703. ... Events January 27 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed II to Mustafa II (1695-1703) July 17 - The Bank of Scotland is founded by an Act of Parliament of the old Scottish Parliament. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Murad II Murad II (1404 – February 3, 1451) was the sultan from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Events March 21 - Battle of Beaugé. A small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... Events March 1 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Sultan Ahmed III Köçeks at a fair Köçek troupe dancing at Sultan Ahmed IIIs 14-day celebration of his sons circumcision in 1720. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II, Mehmet II, or Muhammed II, (also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmed) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was first the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later... Events March 1 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Sultan Mahmud I Mahmud I (August 2, 1696 – December 13, 1754) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1730 to 1754. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sultan Beyazid II Beyazid II (1447/48 – May 26, 1512) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. ... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... Events April 11 - Battle of Ravenna. ... Sultan Osman III Osman III (January 2, 1699 – October 30, 1757) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1754 to 1757. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Selim Bulut. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ravenna. ... Events January 18 - King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde. ... Sultan Mustafa III Mustafa III (January 28, 1717 – January 21, 1774) was the sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1757 to 1774. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494 – 5/6 September 1566), known in Europe as the Magnificent and in the Islamic world as the Lawgiver (in Turkish Kanuni; Arabic: , al-QānÅ«nÄ«), was the tenth Osmanli sultan of the Ottoman Empire... Events January 18 - King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid I Abd-ul-Hamid I (March 20, 1725 – April 7, 1789), also known as Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid or Abdul-Hamid, was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Selim II Selim II (May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Murad III Murad III (July 4, 1546 – January 15, 1595) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death. ... Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Sultan Mustafa IV Mustafa IV (September 8, 1779 – November 15, 1808) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Mehmed III Mehmed III (May 26, 1566 – December 22, 1603) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April... Sultan Mahmud II Mahmud II (in Arabic محمودالثانى ) (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Sultan Ahmed I Ahmed I (April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Sultan Abdul Mejid I Abd-ul-Mejid (Arabic: عبد المجيد الأول ) (April 23, 1823 – June 25, 1861) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Mustafa I Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (Arabic: عبد العزيز ) (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Sultan Murad V Sultan Mehmed Murad V (September 21, 1840 – August 29, 1904) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from May 30, 1876 to August 31 of the same year. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Mustafa I Mustafa I (1592 – January 20, 1639) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd_ul_Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid, Abd al_Hamid II, or Abdul_Hamid (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sultan Murad IV Murad IV (June 16, 1612 – February 9, 1640) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... Sultan Mehmed V Mehmed V (sometimes also Mahommed V; known as Mehmed V ReÅŸad (or ReÅŸat) or Reshid Effendi) (November 2, 1844 – July 3, 1918) was the 39th Ottoman Sultan. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Sultan Mehmed VI Mehmed VI, original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Abd-ul-Mejid II (lived May 29, 1868 – August 23, 1944, reigned November 19, 1922 – March 3, 1924). ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Ertugrul Osman V (born August 18, 1912) is the head of the House of Osmanli, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, when Turkey became a republic. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Abd-ul-Mejid II (lived May 29, 1868 – August 23, 1944, reigned November 19, 1922 – March 3, 1924). ... This article is on the highest religious and/or temporal title, aspiring universal authority, in Islam; for lower, notably gubernatorial, uses of the Arabic title khalifa, see that article Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Also notable among the Osmanlis are the pretender Cem and the numerous wives of the sultans (for example Roxelana), though they were not really considered as being a part of the Imperial House. A Pretender is a claimant to an abolished or already occupied throne. ... Possible meanings: Center for Empirical Macroeconomics Center for Energy Management Centre for Environmental Modelling Certified Energy Manager College of Estate Management Customer experience management This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... Anastasia Lisovska (c. ...


When Mehmed II took over Constantinople on May 29, 1453, he took the title Emperor of the Roman Empire and protector of Orthodox Christianity. He let himself be crowned Emperor by the Patriarch of Constantinople Gennadius Scholarius, whom he protected and whose stature he elevated into leader of all the Eastern Orthodox Christians. As emperor of the Romans he laid claim to all Roman territories, which at the time before the Fall of Constantinople, however, extended to little more than the city itself, plus some areas in Morea (Peloponnesos) and the Empire of Trebizond. Mehmed II Mehmed II, Mehmet II, or Muhammed II, (also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmed) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was first the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later... Map of Constantinople. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions which descend from the Catholic Church. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Gennadius II (lay name Georgios Scholarios) (died circa 1473), patriarch of Constantinople from 1454 to 1464, philosopher and theologian, was one of the last representatives of Byzantine learning, and a strong advocate of Aristotelian philosophy in the Church. ... ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, Pelops Island, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... // Foundation The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond was a successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 immediately before the fall of Constantinople. ...


From 1517 onwards, the Ottoman Sultan was also Caliph, which theoretically also gave him overlordship over other Muslim rulers around the world. For example, among the Mughal Emperors of India, only Aurangzeb had the Khutba read in his own name. This article is on the highest religious and/or temporal title, aspiring universal authority, in Islam; for lower, notably gubernatorial, uses of the Arabic title khalifa, see that article Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Abu Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (Persian: ابو مظف محی الدین محمد اورنگزیب علام گیر) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), usually known as Aurangzeb, but also sometimes as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Khutba is an Islamic sermon delivered after or before Salah. ...


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