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Encyclopedia > Oslo accords
Part of Israeli-Palestinian conflict
and Arab-Israeli conflict series
Israeli-Palestinian peace process
      Israel
      The West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights1
Negotiating parties
Palestinians
Israel
History of the peace process

Camp David Accords Madrid Conference Oslo Accords Oslo II Hebron Agreement Wye River Memorandum Sharm e-Sheikh memorandum • Camp David 2000 Summit Taba Summit Road map Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 374 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1428 × 2289 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords (1978): Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. ... The Madrid Conference of 1991 was an early attempt by the international community to start a peace process through negotiations with Israel and the Palestinians. ... The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip or Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement, or simply the Interim Agreement, also known as Oslo 2 (or Oslo II), and alternately known as Taba, was a key and complex agreement about the future of the Gaza Strip and the West... Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as The Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, began January 7 and was concluded from January 15 to January 17, 1997 between Israel, represented by Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), represented by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum, full name: The Sharm el Sheikh Memorandum on Implementation Timeline of Outstanding Commitments of Agreements Signed and the Resumption of Permanent Status Negotiations was a memorandum signed on September 4, 1999 by Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat at Sharm... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Primary negotiation concerns

Antisemitic incitements East Jerusalem Israeli settlements Israeli West Bank barrier Jewish state Palestinian political violence Palestinian refugees Palestinian state Places of worship This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... Palestinian political violence refers to acts of violence committed for political reasons by Palestinians or Palestinian militant groups. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians... It has been suggested that State of Palestine be merged into this article or section. ...

Palestinian flag     Current Leaders      Flag of Israel

Mahmoud Abbas Salam Fayyad Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Dr. Salam Fayyad (Arabic: ; b. ...

Ehud Olmert Tzipi Livni Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney meets with Israeli Minister of Foreign Affairs, Tzipi Livni, at the White House. ...

International brokers

Diplomatic Quartet  · Egypt
Flag of the United Nations Flag of Europe Flag of Russia Flag of the United States Flag of Egypt The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ...

Other proposals

Beirut Summit Elon Peace Plan Lieberman Plan Geneva Accord Hudna Israel's unilateral disengagement plan and Realignment plan Projects working for peace Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The Elon Peace Plan is a solution for the Arab-Israeli conflict proposed in 2002 by Rabbi Binyamin Elon, who was the Israeli tourism minister at the time he put forward his proposal. ... // The Lieberman Plan is named after Avigdor Lieberman, the leader of the Israeli political party Yisrael Beytenu. ... This article is about the proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... The realignment plan (Hebrew: ) (originally known as the convergence plan) is a plan that was formulated and introduced to the Israeli public by prime minister Ehud Olmert, in a number of media interviews during the election campaign for the 17th Knesset in 2006. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ...


1 The Golan Heights are not part of Israeli-Palestinian track The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ...


v  d  e
Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993.
Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993.

The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP) was a milestone in Israeli-Palestinian relations. US government photo. ... US government photo. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Accords were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the Palestine Liberation Organization and Shimon Peres signing for the State of Israel. It was witnessed by Warren Christopher for the United States and Andrei Kozyrev for Russia, in the presence of US President Bill Clinton and Israel's Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin with the PLO's Chairman Yasser Arafat. County District Østlandet Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... Andrey Vladimirovich Kozyrev (born March 27, 1951) was the foreign minister of Russia under Boris Yeltsin from October 1990 until his dismissal in January 1996. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ...


The Oslo Accords were a framework for the the future relations between the two sworn enemies. The Accords provided for the creation of a Palestinian Authority. The Palestinian Authority had responsibility for the administration of the territory under its control. It also called for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


It was anticipated that this arrangement would last for a five year interim period during which a permanent agreement would be negotiated (beginning no later than May 1996). Permanent issues such as Jerusalem, refugees, Israeli settlements in the area, security and borders were deliberately left to be decided at a later stage. Interim self-government was to be granted in phases.


After a coordinated assault against the parts of the Fatah movement loyal to the Palestinian Authority, Hamas has since assumed de facto state power in the Gaza Strip, leading Israel and the West to cut off funding. It is unclear how this shift in control will affect the Oslo Accords' long-term effectiveness. Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...

Contents

Background

From the Rhodes conference in 1949 [1] to the Madrid Conference of 1991[2] there were many failed attempts for a settlement to bring about a lasting peace. However, what made the Oslo’s negotiations different was the decision to hold direct, face to face talks, between Israel and the PLO. The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...


A renewal for the Israeli-Palestinian quest for peace began at the end of the Cold War, and it was no coincidence; as the United States would now try to take the lead in international affairs and marshal the strength of the international community behind its renewed diplomacy. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Also, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, optimism was high, as Francis Fukuyama wrote in an article, titled "the end of history". Hope was that the end of the Cold war had heralded the beginning of a new international order. President George H. W. Bush in a speech on 11 September 1990 spoke of a "rare opportunity" to move toward a "New world order" in which "the nations of the world, east and west, north and south, can prosper and live in harmony," adding that "today the new world is struggling to be born." [3] [4] Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (b. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term new world order has been used to refer to a new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power. ...


Despite that the hope of a New World Order was short-lived; for Israelis the optimism of the moment appealed to them, as some had become tired of the constant violence of the Intifada (1987), and started to look at realizing the economic benefits in the new global economy and many were willing to take risks for peace.[5]


Furthermore, the Gulf War (1990-1991) did much to persuade Israelis that the defensive value of territory had been overstated, and that indeed the Iraq Invasion of Kuwait, psychologically, reduced the sense of security of both Israelis and Palestinians.[6] Also the Gulf War had shown that a supreme air force and superior technology was more important than territory in winning a war. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Iraq State of Kuwait Commanders Ali Hassan al-Majid N/A Strength 100,000[1] 16,000[2] Casualties 37+ aircraft (est. ...


As a result of these and other factors, as much as sixty percent of Israelis supported the Oslo accords when it was first presented. [7]


For the Palestine Liberation Organization, the breaking up of the Soviet Union in 1989 presented them with the loss of their most important diplomatic patron along with a failing relationship between Moscow and Arafat.


Another event which pushed the PLO to the accords was the fall out from the Gulf War, which was the cutting off of financial assistance from the Arab Gulf states as a result of Arafat taking a pro-Iraqi stand. This culminated with the PLO not being invited to the Madrid Conference of October 1991 at which Israel discussed peace with Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinian Arabs who were not associated with the PLO. The talks leading to the agreement were initially held in London, and was originally planned to be held in Zagreb, but then later moved to Oslo. Main architects behind the plan were Johan Jørgen Holst (the Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs), Terje Rød-Larsen and Mona Juul. The negotiations were reportedly conducted in total secrecy. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country Croatia RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - City 641. ... County District Østlandet Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Johan Jørgen Holst Bust by Per Ung 1999 Johan Jørgen Holst (November 29, 1937 - January 13, 1994) was a Norwegian politician, best known for his involvement with the Oslo Accords. ... Terje Rød-Larsen (born November 22, 1947) is a Norwegian diplomat and sociologist. ... Mona Juul is an official in the Norwegian Foreign Affairs Ministry. ...


Principles of the Accords

In essence, the accords called for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank and affirmed a Palestinian right of self-government within those areas through the creation of a Palestinian Authority. Palestinian rule would last for a five year interim period during which a permanent agreement would be negotiated (beginning no later than May 1996). Permanent issues such as Jerusalem, refugees, Israeli settlements in the area, security and borders were deliberately excluded from the Accords and left to be decided. The interim self-government was to be granted in phases. Until a final status accord was established, West Bank and Gaza would be divided into three zones: The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

  • Area A - full control of the Palestinian Authority.
  • Area B - Palestinian civil control and Israeli security control.
  • Area C - full Israeli control, except over Palestinian civilians. These areas were Israeli settlements and security zones without a significant Palestinian population.

Together with the principles the two groups signed Letters of Mutual Recognition - The Israeli government recognized the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people while the PLO recognized the right of the state of Israel to exist and renounced terrorism, violence and its desire for the destruction of Israel. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... Israel-Palestine Liberation Organization letters of recognition (or Israel-PLO Recognition or Letters of Mutual Recognition) were a series of official letters of recognition between the government of Israel and its Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the Palestine Liberation Organizations Chairman Yasser Arafat dated September 9, 1993. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...


The aim of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations was to establish a Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority, an elected Council, for the Palestinian people in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, for a transitional period not exceeding five years, leading to a permanent settlement based on Resolution 242 and Resolution 338, an integral part of the whole peace process.


In order that the Palestinians should govern themselves according to democratic principles, free and general political elections would be held for the Council.


Jurisdiction of the Palestinian Council would cover the West Bank and Gaza Strip, except for issues that would be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations. The two sides viewed the West Bank and the Gaza Strip as a single territorial unit.


The five-year transitional period would commence with the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area. Permanent status negotiations would begin as soon as possible between Israel and the Palestinians. The negotiations would cover remaining issues, including: Jerusalem, refugees, settlements, security arrangements, borders, relations and cooperation with other neighbors, and other issues of common interest.


There would be a transfer of authority from the IDF to the authorized Palestinians, concerning education and culture, health, social welfare, direct taxation, and tourism.


The Council would establish a strong police force, while Israel would continue to carry the responsibility for defending against external threats.


An Israeli-Palestinian Economic Cooperation Committee would be established in order to develop and implement in a cooperative manner the programs identified in the protocols.


A redeployment of Israeli military forces in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip would take place.


The Declaration of Principles would enter into force one month after its signing. All protocols annexed to the Declaration of Principles and the Agreed Minutes pertaining to it, should be regarded as part of it.


Annexes of the accords

Annex 1: Conditions of Elections

Election agreements, system of elections, rules and regulations regarding election campaign, including agreed arrangements for the organizing of mass media, and the possibility of licensing a broadcasting and TV station. (Source: Reference.com)


Annex 2: Withdrawal of Israeli forces

An agreement on the withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area. This agreement will include comprehensive arrangements to apply in the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area subsequent to the Israeli withdrawal. Internal security and public order by the Palestinian police force consisting of police officers recruited locally and from abroad holding Jordanian passports and Palestinian documents issued by Egypt). Those who will participate in the Palestinian police force coming from abroad should be trained as police and police officers.

  • A temporary international or foreign presence, as agreed upon.
  • Establishment of a joint Palestinian-Israeli Coordination and Cooperation Committee for mutual security purposes.
  • Arrangements for a safe passage for persons and transportation between the Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
  • Arrangements for coordination between both parties regarding passages: Gaza - Egypt; and Jericho - Jordan.

Annex 3: Economic cooperation

The two sides agree to establish an Israeli-Palestinian continuing Committee for economic cooperation, focusing, among other things, on the following:

  • Cooperation in the field of water.
  • Cooperation in the field of electricity.
  • Cooperation in the field of energy.
  • Cooperation in the field of finance.
  • Cooperation in the field of transport and communications.
  • Cooperation in the field of trade and commerce.
  • Cooperation in the field of industry.
  • Cooperation in, and regulation of, labor relations and
  • Cooperation in social welfare issues.
  • An environmental protection plan.
  • Cooperation in the field of communication and media.

Annex 4: Regional development

The two sides will cooperate in the context of the multilateral peace efforts in promoting a Development Program for the region, including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, to be initiated by the G-7. 1983 G-7 Economic Summit in Williamsburg, Virginia (left to right) Pierre Trudeau, Gaston Thorn, Helmut Kohl, François Mitterrand, Ronald Reagan, Yasuhiro Nakasone, Margaret Thatcher, Amintore Fanfani. ...


Agreed minutes of the accords

Minute A: General understandings

Any powers and responsibilities transferred to the Palestinians through the Declaration of Principles prior to the inauguration of the Council will be subject to the same principles pertaining to Article IV, as set out in the agreed minutes below.


Minute B: Specific understandings

Article IV: Council's jurisdiction

It was to be understood that: Jurisdiction of the Council would cover West Bank and Gaza Strip territory, except for issues that would be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations.


Article VI (2): Transferring authority

It was agreed that the transfer of authority would be as follows: The Palestinians would inform the Israelis of the names of the authorized Palestinians who would assume the powers, authorities and responsibilities that would be transferred to the Palestinians according to the Declaration of Principles in the following fields: education and culture, health, social welfare, direct taxation, tourism, and any other authorities agreed upon.


Article VII (2): Cooperation

The Interim Agreement would also include arrangements for coordination and cooperation.


Article VII (5): Israel's powers

The withdrawal of the military government would not prevent Israel from exercising the powers and responsibilities not transferred to the Council.


Article VIII: Police

It was understood that the Interim Agreement would include arrangements for cooperation and coordination. It was also agreed that the transfer of powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian police would be accomplished in a phased manner.


Article X: Designating officials

It was agreed that the Israeli and Palestinian delegations would exchange the names of the individuals designated by them as members of the Joint Israeli-Palestinian Liaison Committee which would reach decisions by agreement.


Annex II: Israel's continuing responsibilities

It was understood that, subsequent to the Israeli withdrawal, Israel would continue to be responsible for external security, and for internal security and public order of settlements and Israelis. Israeli military forces and civilians would be allowed to continue using roads freely within the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area.


The acceptance of the accords by both parties

The accords aroused in both parties, the Israeli and the Palestinian, a wave of hope for an end to the conflict, but skeptics abounded everywhere.


In Israel, a strong debate over the accords took place; the left wing supported them, while the right wing opposed them. After a two day discussion in the Knesset on the government proclamation in the issue of the accord and the exchange of the letters, on September 23, 1993 a vote of confidence was held in which 61 Knesset members voted for the decision, 50 voted against and 8 abstained. Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Palestinian reactions to the accords were not homogeneous, either. The Fatah accepted the accords, but the Hamas, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, which were known as the "refusal organizations", objected to the accords since those groups completely denounce Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state. Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of Israel superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ...


On both sides there were fears of the other side's intentions. Israelis suspected that the Palestinians were entering into a tactical peace agreement, and that they were not sincere at all to reach peace and coexistence with Israel, but see it as part of the Ten Point Program (which is called in Israel Tokhnit HaSHlavim or Torat HaSHlavim). For evidence they brought statements of Arafat's in Palestinian forums in which he compared the accord to the Hudaibiya agreement that Muhammad signed with the sons of the tribe of Quraish. Those statements would then be understood as an attempt to justify the signing of the accords in accordance with historical-religious precedent, with no intention of honoring it. Palestinian journalist and editor Abd al-Bari Atwan claimed in 2004 that Arafat had ulterior motives when he signed the agreement—that it would help bring about thousands of Jews fleeing Israel.[8] The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... Abdul Bari Atwan (Arabic: عبد الباري عطوان) is the editor-in chief of the London-based Arabic newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi. ...


After the signing of the agreements Israeli settlement expansion accelerated to five times its original rate,[9] leading to frustration amongst many Palestinians and a general distrust of the accords and of Israeli intentions. The Israeli's trust in the accords was undermined by the fact, according to the Israeli goveernment, that after the signing of the accords the terrorist attacks against Israel did not cease and even intensified,[10] which some explained as an attempt by the terror organizations to thwart the peace process. Others believed that the Palestinian Authority had no interest in ceasing these attacks and was instead endorsing them. As evidence they showed that when violence flared up in September 1996, Palestinian police turned their guns on the Israelis in clashes which left 61 Arabs and 15 Israeli soldiers dead.[11] Important sections of the Israeli public opposed the process; notably, the Jewish settlers feared that it would lead to them losing their homes.


Criticisms of the Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords may appear not to have considered factors that would have externally influenced its interpretations. For example, the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre is often blamed for destabilizing the Palestinians' trust in the process. Also, the expansion of the settlements and blockades which caused the deterioration of economic conditions caused frustration and a corresponding drop in support for the accord and those who stood behind its ratification. The facade and minarets of the Cave of the Patriarchs. ... Map of Israeli settlements (magenta) in the West Bank. ...


Some academics have argued that the principles of the Oslo Accord simply cannot be accepted by both parties as it could serve only to separate further still the Israelis and Palestinians: both of whom believe they have a valid claim to the land they are fighting over, by creating a superior one over an inferior other.


There have been suggested alternatives to boundary setting and creating principles that divide the Israeli and Palestinians. One alternative that has the potential to be accepted by both parties is to rethink the principles of the Oslo Accord and move a peace process towards the creation of a bi-national state that promotes co-existence rather than to continuing to divide. An argument for this as a possible way of reconciliation is that neither side can wholly justify a claim for homogeneity. Palestine has a varied history of occupancy, such as the Canaanites, Hittites and Ammonites in ancient times.[12] Also, some Israeli and Palestinian thinkers have previously argued for a bi-national state as a more attractive alternative to separatism.[13] For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ...


Subsequent negotiations

In addition to the first accord, namely the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government, other more specific accords are often informally also known as "Oslo":


Oslo 2

The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip or Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement, or simply the Interim Agreement, also known as Oslo 2 (or Oslo II), and alternately known as Taba, was a key and complex agreement about the future of the Gaza Strip and the West... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Qalqīlyah (Arabic قلقيلية; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is an Arab city in the West Bank. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... Nickname: City of Generosity Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: City of Tulkarm Location Location in Palestine Government Neighbourhoods Al-Salam, Al-Sowana, Dhinnaba, Iktaba, Irtah, Iskan Al-Mozafeen, Izbat Al-Jarad, Izbat Naser, Nur Shams Camp, Shuwaykah, Tulkarm Camp Mayor Mahmoud Al-Jallad Geographical characteristics Area 246 km² Land 246 km...

Additional agreements

Additional Israeli-Palestinian documents related to the Oslo Accords are:

Israel-Palestine Liberation Organization letters of recognition (or Israel-PLO Recognition or Letters of Mutual Recognition) were a series of official letters of recognition between the government of Israel and its Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the Palestine Liberation Organizations Chairman Yasser Arafat dated September 9, 1993. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as The Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, began January 7 and was concluded from January 15 to January 17, 1997 between Israel, represented by Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), represented by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum, full name: The Sharm el Sheikh Memorandum on Implementation Timeline of Outstanding Commitments of Agreements Signed and the Resumption of Permanent Status Negotiations was a memorandum signed on September 4, 1999 by Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat at Sharm... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

Loss of credibility

Since the start of the al-Aqsa Intifada, the Oslo Accords are viewed with increasing disfavor by both the Palestinian and Israeli public. In May 2000, seven years after the Oslo Accords and five months before the start of the al-Aqsa Intifada, a survey by the Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Research at the University of Tel Aviv found that: 39% of all Israelis supported the Accords and that 32% believed that the Accords would result in peace in the next few years. [14]. By contrast, the May 2004 survey found that 26% of all Israelis supported the Accords and 18% believed that the Accords would result in peace in the next few years. Many Palestinians believed that the Oslo Accords had turned the PLO leadership into a tool of the Israeli state in suppressing their own people. While benefiting a small elite, the conditions of most Palestinians worsened. This was seen as one of the causes for the al-Aqsa Intifada. For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Tel-Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל-אביב) is one of Israels major universities. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/isegarm.html
  2. ^ http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_madrid_desc.php
  3. ^ http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/pal/pal10.htm
  4. ^ http://www.constitution.org/col/cuddy_nwo.htm
  5. ^ The Israel-Palestine Conflict, James L. Gelvin
  6. ^ the gulf conflict 1990-1991: Diplomacy and war in the new world order, Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh
  7. ^ The Israel-Palestine Conflict, James L. Gelvin
  8. ^ Editor says Arafat signed Oslo in hopes of Jewish exodus, The Jerusalem Post, published November 21, 2004 (online copy: [1])
  9. ^ K Surin "The Night Can Sweat With Terror as Before: Afterthoughts' in South Atlantic Quarterly, Fall 2003. Vol. 102, Iss 4, p902
  10. ^ Death Toll Since Oslo is 50% Greater than During the Intifada (online copy), Government Press Office, Office of the Prime Minister of Israel, published September 11, 1998
  11. ^ http://christianactionforisrael.org/medigest/apr97/palsarmy.html
  12. ^ R. Garaudy ‘The Case of Israel’ London, Shorouk International. p 32.
  13. ^ Edward Said, ‘Truth & Reconciliation’, Al-Ahram Weekly, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/1999/412/op2.htm
  14. ^ Statistics on Israeli support of the Oslo Accords by the Tami Steinmetz Center for Peace Research
  • Bregman, Ahron Elusive Peace: How the Holy Land Defeated America.
  • Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X.
  • Eran, Oded. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002.

Sir Lawrence D. Freedman is Professor of War Studies at Kings College London, a post he has held since 1982. ... Efraim Karsh is Professor and Head of Mediterranean Studies at Kings College London. ... Ahron Bregman is a writer and journalist, specialising on the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Avraham Sela is an Israeli authority on the politics of the Middle East and international relations. ...

See also

For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Economic Cooperation Foundation (ECF) was founded by former Minister of Justice Dr. Yossi Beilin and by Dr. Yair Hirschfeld at the end of 1990 as a non-profit non-governmental organization, whose objectives are to build, maintain and support Israeli-Palestinian and Israeli-Arab cooperation in the political, economic... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... Peace Now (Hebrew: שלום עכשיו - Shalom Achshav) is an extra-parliamental political movement in Israel, with the agenda of swaying popular opinion and convincing the Israeli government of the need and possibility for achieving a just peace and an historic conciliation with the Palestinian people and neighboring Arab countries; this in exchange...

Issues

Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also Palestinian state and State of Palestine). ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...

People


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oslo Accords - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1849 words)
The Oslo Accords were a culmination of a series of secret and public agreements, dating particularly from the Madrid Conference of 1991 onwards, and negotiated between the Israeli government and the Palestine Liberation Organization (acting as representatives of the Palestinian people) in 1993 as part of a peace process trying to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
After a two day discussion in the Knesset on the government proclamation in the issue of the accord and the exchange of the letters, on September 23, 1993 a vote of confidence was held in which 61 Knesset members voted for the decision, 50 voted against and 8 abstained.
The Israelis trust in the accord was undermined also by the fact that after the signing of the accord the terrorist attacks against Israel did not cease and even intensified, which could be explained as an attempt of the terror organizations to thwart the peace process.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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