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Encyclopedia > Oshawa, Ontario
City of Oshawa, Ontario
Motto: Prepare To Be Amazed
Map showing Oshawa's location in Durham Region
Coordinates: 43°53′56″N, 78°51′9″W
Country Canada
Province Ontario
Region Durham Region
Incorporated 1850
 - Mayor John Gray
 - Governing Body Oshawa City Council
 - MPs Jim Flaherty (Whitby-Oshawa)
Colin Carrie (Oshawa)
 - MPPs Jerry Ouellette (Oshawa)
John O'Toole (Durham)
Area  
 - City 145.65 km²  (56.23 sq mi)
Elevation 106 m  (346 ft)
Population (2001)[1]
 - City 139 051
 - Density 954.7/km² (368.6/sq mi)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
Website: oshawa.ca

Oshawa (estimated 2004 population 150 000; metropolitan population 296 298) is a city on Lake Ontario located approximately 60 km east of downtown Toronto in Ontario, Canada. It is commonly viewed as the eastern anchor of both the Greater Toronto Area and the Golden Horseshoe. It is not, however, part of the Toronto CMA but has its own metropolitan area, the sixteenth largest in Canada. It is the largest community in the Regional Municipality of Durham. The name Oshawa originates from the Seneca native term for "crossing of a stream". The name may also mean "Where the canoe is exchanged for the trail" in the Algonkian-family language of the Mississauga peoples. A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... The Regional Municipality of Durham, commonly called Durham Region (2003 population 525,000), is a regional political area located east of Toronto, Ontario. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Hon. ... Whitby—Oshawa in relation to the other Toronto area ridings Whitby—Oshawa is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004. ... Colin Carrie (born April 11, 1962) is a Canadian politician. ... Oshawa is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... A Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP) is an elected member of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. ... Jerry Ouellette (born January 30, 1959 in Oshawa, Ontario) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... Oshawa is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... John OToole is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... For information on the Durham federal electoral district, see Durham (electoral district). ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7...  Areas that observe daylight saving time  Areas that once observed daylight saving time  Areas that have never observed daylight saving time A 2001 public service announcement for the upcoming turning back of the clocks Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time in British English, is the convention of... for North America see also: Atlantic Standard Time Zone and Eastern Daylight Time Categories: Time zones ... Lake Ontario (French: lac Ontario), bounded on the north by Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The skyline of Hamilton, Ontario The skyline of Toronto, Ontario. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Durham Regional Municipality, also called Durham Region (2003 population 525,000), is a regional political area located east of Toronto, Ontario. ... For other uses, see Seneca. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Motto: Pride in our past, Faith in our future Area: 288. ...


The automobile industry, specifically the Canadian division of General Motors Corporation, known as General Motors Canada, has always been at the forefront of Oshawa's economy. Founded in 1876 as the McLaughlin Carriage Company, General Motors of Canada's headquarters and major assembly plants are located in the city. The lavish home of the carriage company's founder, Parkwood Estate, has become a backdrop favoured by Toronto film crews. General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is the worlds largest car manufacturer. ... GM Canada Old Logo (used in the 1990s) General Motors of Canada Limited (GM Canada) is the manufacturer and dealership of General Motors in Canada. ... The McLaughlin automobile company began life as the McLaughlin Carriage Company, a blacksmith shop in Enniskillen, Ontario, Canada. ... The Parkwood mansion, located in Oshawa, Ontario (Canada) was the home of Samuel McLaughlin (founder of General Motors of Canada) and was home to the McLaughlins from 1917 until 1972. ...


The city is also home to Windfields Farm, a thoroughbred horse breeding operation and birthplace of Canada's most famous racehorse, Northern Dancer. Windfields Farm is a 1,500 acre (6 km²) thoroughbred horse breeding farm in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. ... Northern Dancer (May 27, 1961 - November 16, 1990) was a Canadian-bred Thoroughbred racehorse and the most successful sire of the 20th Century. ...


Once very much a distinct community - physically, economically, and culturally - Oshawa has been increasingly subsumed into the Greater Toronto Area by urban sprawl. As a result, Oshawa is now one of the fastest growing cities in Canada. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl), a term with pejorative implication, refers to the unplanned, rapid and expansive growth of a greater metropolitan area, traditionally suburbs (or exurbs) over a large area. ...

Contents

History

The area that would become Oshawa began as a transfer point for the fur trade. Beaver and other animal pelts were trapped by local natives and traded with the Coureur des bois (voyagers). Furs were loaded onto canoes by the Mississauga Indians at the Oshawa harbour and transported to the trading posts located to the west at the mouth of the Credit River. Around 1760, the French constructed a trading post near the harbour location; this was abandoned after a few years, but its ruins provided shelter for the first residents of what later became Oshawa. An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... A coureur de bois was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. ... The Credit River is a river in southern Ontario which flows from headwaters above the Niagara Escarpment to empty into Lake Ontario at Port Credit, Ontario, now part of Mississauga. ...


In the late 1700s a local resident, Roger Conant, started an export business shipping salmon to the United States. His success attracted further migration into the region. A large number of the founding immigrants were United Empire Loyalists, who left the United States to live under British rule. Later Irish and then French Canadian immigration increased as did industrialization. As well, the surveys ordered by Governor John Graves Simcoe, and the subsequent land grants, helped populate the area. When Col. Asa Danforth laid out his York-to-Kingston road, it passed through what would later become the city. The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those British Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... John Graves Simcoe (February 25, 1752 – October 26, 1806) was the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada (modern-day southern Ontario plus the shoreline of Georgian Bay and Lake Superior) from 1791-1796. ...


In 1822, a "colonization road" (a north-south road to facilitate settlement) known as Simcoe Street was constructed. It more or less followed the path of an old native trail known as the Nonquon Road, and ran from the harbour to the area of Lake Scugog. This intersected the "Kingston Road" at what would become Oshawa's "Four Corners." In 1836, Edward Skae relocated his general store approximately 800 m east to the southeast corner of this intersection; as his store became a popular meeting place (probably because it also served as the Post Office), the corner and the growing settlement that surrounded it, were known as Skae's Corners. In 1842, Skae, the postmaster, applied for official post office status, but was informed the community needed a better name. The name "Oshawa" was adopted, a native term meaning "where we leave our canoes and walk." As a result, the Post Office became Oshawa. In 1849, the requirements for incorporation were eased, and Oshawa was incorporated as a village in 1850. Kingston Road (originally The Kingston Road) was built by American engineer Asa Danforth as a route to connect Toronto (then called York) with Kingston, Ontario. ...


The newly established village became an industrial centre, and implement works, tanneries, asheries and wagon factories opened (and often closed shortly after, as economic "panics" occurred regularly). In 1876, Colonel Robert Samuel McLaughlin moved his carriage works to Oshawa from Enniskillen to take advantage of its harbour as well as the availability of a rail link not too far away. The village became a town in 1879. Around 1890, the carriage works relocated from its Simcoe Street address to an unused furniture factory a couple of blocks to the northeast, and this remained its site until the building burnt in 1899. Offered assistance by the town, McLaughlin elected to stay in Oshawa, building a new factory across Mary Street from the old site. Rail service had been provided in 1890 by an electric line which provided both streetcar and freight service, connecting central Oshawa with the Grand Trunk (now Canadian National) Railway. The Oshawa Railway was acquired by the Grand Trunk operation around 1910, and streetcar service was replaced by buses in 1940. After GM moved its main plants to south Oshawa in 1951, freight traffic fell and most of the tracks were removed in 1963, although a line to the older remaining "north" plant via Ritson Road remained until 2000. Colonel Robert Samuel McLaughlin (September 8, 1871 - January 6, 1972) was a Canadian businessman, philanthropist and founder, in 1907, of the McLaughlin Motor Car Co. ...


The start of the car industry

In 1907 the McLaughlin Carriage Company began to manufacture Buick automobiles under the McLaughlin-Buick name, and in 1915 the firm acquired the manufacturing rights to the Chevrolet brand. Within three years his firm and the Chevrolet Motor Car Company of Canada merged, creating General Motors of Canada. Col. R. S. McLaughlin became the head of this new operation, and his factory expanded rapidly, eventually covering several blocks. The popularity of the automobile in the nineteen-twenties generated rapid expansion of Oshawa, which grew in population from 4,000 to 16,000 during this decade as well as in land area. Oshawa annexed the area to its south, including both the harbour and the community of Cedardale. This growth allowed Oshawa to seek incorporation as a city, which took place March 8, 1924. Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, and China by General Motors Corporation. ... Chevrolet (IPA: ʃɛv. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


With the wealth he gained in his business venture, in 1916 Robert McLaughlin built one of the most stately homes in Canada, "Parkwood." The 55-room residence was built using inexpensive labour, and designed by Toronto architect John M. Lyle. McLaughlin lived in the house for 55 years with his wife and 5 children. The house replaced an older mansion, which was about thirty years old when it was demolished; the grounds of the earlier home had been operated as Prospect Park, and this land was acquired by the town and became its first municipal park, Alexandra Park. Parkwood today is open to the public as a national historic site (for a paid admission) and tours are offered as well.


The Oshawa Strike, 1937

On April 8 1937, disputes between 4000 assembly line workers and General Motors management led to the Oshawa Strike, a salient event in the history of Canadian trade unionism. As the weight of the Great Depression slowly began to lift, demand for automobiles again began to grow. The workers sought higher wages, an eight hour workday, better working conditions and recognition of their union, the United Auto Workers (Local 222). The then-Liberal government of Mitchell Hepburn, which had, ironically, been elected on a platform of being the working man's friend, sided with the corporation and even brought in armed university students to break up any union agitation. Fortunately, these much-derided "Hepburn's Hussars" were never needed as the union scrupulously refused to be drawn into any violent act. The union and workers had the backing of the local population, other unions and the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, and on April 23, two weeks after the strike started, the company gave in to most of the workers' demands, although -- pointedly -- it did not recognize the union. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Bold text // Link titleSmall TextSubscript textSubscript textSuperscript textStrike-through textSEX The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in October of 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... The United Auto Workers (UAW), officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 700,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico organized into approximately 950 union locals. ... Mitchell Frederick Hepburn (August 12, 1896 - January 5, 1953) was Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1934 to 1942. ... The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups as well as the League for Social Reconstruction. ...


Post-war Oshawa

In 1950, the city annexed a portion of East Whitby Township west of Park Road. Some of this area had been developed during the 1920s boom period, although it was not within the boundaries of the city proper. The opening of what later became Highway 401, shortly after World War II, caused another rapid expansion of Oshawa, as the annexed land was built up as new subdivisions and Oshawa became a bedroom community for both Toronto and its other suburbs as well as a manufacturing centre. With the creation of the Regional Municipality of Durham in 1974, Oshawa was amalgamated with the remaining poritions of East Whitby Township and took on its present boundaries, which included the outlying villages of Columbus, Raglan and Kedron. Much of Oshawa's industry has closed over the years; however, it is still the headquarters of GM Canada as well as its major manufacturing site. East Whitby Township is a former municipality in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. ... The Kings Highway No. ...


Oshawa's future

The opening of the Oshawa Shopping Centre (now the Oshawa Centre) less than two kilometres west of the "four corners" in 1956 struck a blow to Oshawa's downtown from which it has never been able to recover. For most of the last thirty years, the city has tried to promote the downtown core as a viable place to live and work, with multiple failed attempts to attract new business and other projects to the city core. Local politicians and civic officials hope that the opening of the new General Motors Centre will spark renewed interest in downtown revitalization. Most of Oshawa's growth has occurred on the outer regions of the city. Legislation passed by the Ontario Government in 2005 now protects greenspace to the north of the city (the Oak Ridges Moraine), which will eventually prohibit any further expansion of the urban boundary. This will likely result in the redevelopment of Oshawa's many 'brownfield' sites, and may result in increased density. Oshawa Centre is a shopping mall located in the City of Oshawa, Ontario. ... General Motors Centre (under construction) The General Motors Centre is a 5,500-seat multi-purpose arena currently under construction in Oshawa, Ontario. ... The Oak Ridges Moraine is an ecologically sensitive geological landform in south central Ontario, Canada. ...


Economy

Oshawa is headquarters to General Motors Canada, which has large-scale manufacturing and administrative operations in the city and employs many thousands both directly and indirectly. Since Windsor, Ontario houses the Daimler-Chrysler Headquarters (DCX) for Canada, the two cities have something of a friendly rivalry for the title of "Automotive Capital of Canada". GM Canada Old Logo (used in the 1990s) General Motors of Canada Limited (GM Canada) is the manufacturer and dealership of General Motors in Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... DaimlerChrysler AG (Xetra: DCX) , (NYSE: DCX), with headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany and Auburn Hills, Michigan, is a prominent automobile and truck manufacturer, formed in 1998 by the buyout of the Chrysler Corporation (USA) by Daimler-Benz (Germany). ... DCX represents the New York Stock Exchange stock symbol for automaker DaimlerChrysler. ...


The revenue collection divisions of the Ontario Ministry of Finance occupy one of the few major office buildings in the city's downtown, which continues to struggle despite business improvement efforts. The city's southern neighbourhoods tend to be considerably less affluent than its northern sections, which are rapidly expanding as Toronto commuters move in. The southern half of the city consists of industrial zones and compact housing designed for mid-20th century industrial workers, while the northern half has a suburban feel more typical of later decades.


High wages paid to unionized GM employees have meant that these workers could enjoy a relatively high standard of living, although such jobs are much scarcer today than they once were. During its post-World War II heyday, General Motors offered some of the best manufacturing jobs available in Canada and attracted thousands of workers from economically depressed areas of the country, particularly the Maritimes, rural Quebec and northern Ontario. The city was also a magnet for European immigrants in the skilled trades, and boasts substantial Polish, Ukrainian, German and Russian ethnic communities. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... The Maritime provinces. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of...


Although the workforce at General Motors of Canada has shrunk in recent years (with more reductions through attrition planned), the company continues to make significant technology and capital investments at its sites in Oshawa. While the company's once essential role in the local economy has diminished, it remains the largest local employer. Many of its operations have been spun off to contractors. In most cases, new owners at the spun-off facilities are not bound by the collective bargaining agreements of the Canadian Auto Workers, and wages at such operations tend to be much lower than at General Motors itself. Canadian Auto Workers Logo The Canadian Auto Workers (CAW) (properly the National Automobile, Aerospace, Transportation and General Workers Union of Canada) is one of Canadas largest and highest profile trade unions. ...


Despite GM's troubles, Oshawa has become one of the fastest growing cities in Canada, although statements to this effect are often in reference to the Census Metropolitan Area, which includes its fast growing neighbours of Whitby and Clarington. Many commuters have been enticed to Oshawa by comparatively low housing prices and the regular rail service into downtown Toronto provided by GO Transit and VIA Rail. The growth of subdivisions to house Toronto commuters will likely accelerate if the long-planned Highway 407 extension is built across the city's northern tier in the next decade. The trend suggests major social changes for Oshawa, which has long had a vigorous labour union presence and largely blue collar identity. Rising property values and the emergence of land speculation associated with suburban growth have created new dynamics for the local economy. While unchecked growth was largely accepted (even embraced) in the 1980s and 1990s, concern over urban sprawl has emerged. Whitby is a historic town in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. ... Categories: Canada-place stubs | Ontario communities ... GO Transit (AAR reporting marks GOT), officially known as the Greater Toronto Transit Authority (GTTA), is Canadas first, and Ontarios only, interregional public transit system, established to link Toronto with the surrounding regions of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). ... This article or section should include material from 407 ETR International Highway 407 as part of the 400-series network Highway 407, officially called 407 ETR, is a pay-per-use freeway located in south-central Ontarios Greater Toronto Area. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... Speculation is the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, commodities, futures, currencies, collectibles, real estate, or any valuable thing to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income - dividends, rent etc. ...


In late 2004, the Greater Toronto Airports Authority announced a plan under which the Oshawa Airport would be closed and its traffic diverted to a major new Toronto reliever airport to be constructed in Pickering. The Oshawa airport handles occasional traffic related to General Motors (emergency spare parts and executives); GM has indicated that a move of its air traffic to Pickering would not affect its operations. The airport also handles significant general aviation, two flight training facilities, and numerous other aviation and non-aviation related companies, all of which would need to be diverted or relocated. The city has considered ambitious proposals to repurpose the airport lands, but as of January 2006, significant upgrade work is being performed on the main terminal building by the city itself, signalling that the city has no immediate plans to close the busy facility, understanding its importance to the community and local economy. Additional aviation related construction is also taking place on the airport lands. Oshawa Airport, (IATA: YOO, ICAO: CYOO), is a municipal airport adjacent to the north end of the city of Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. ... Pickering (estimated 2005 population 94,000 is a city located directly to the east of Toronto in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. ... General aviation (abbr. ...


Politics

See also: Oshawa (electoral district)

The dominant presence of General Motors (and its autoworkers) meant that Oshawa was well-known as a bastion of unionist, left-wing support during the decades following the Second World War. The city played an important role in Canada's labour history, including the 1937 "Oshawa Strike" against General Motors and the considerable financial support provided by the city's autoworkers to the NDP and its predecessors. Oshawa is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict...


However, Oshawa was part of the Ontario (County) riding when Michael Starr, a high ranking Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) and Cabinet Member in the Diefenbaker era served. Starr served the new Oshawa—Whitby riding for one term, before being narrowly defeated by future federal New Democratic Party (NDP) leader Ed Broadbent in 1968. Broadbent then represented the city in the Canadian House of Commons until 1989, and in the 1980s led the NDP to its greatest electoral successes. Ontario was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... The Honourable Michael Starr, PC (November 14, 1910 – March 16, 2000) was a Canadian politician and the first Canadian cabinet minister of Ukrainian descent. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Cabinet of Canada plays an important role in the Canadian government in accordance with the Westminster System. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Oshawa is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... Hon. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


By the end of the 1990s, the city's changing economy and demographics led many voters to the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario and the Canadian Alliance, a conservative party at the federal level. Conservative candidates have won recent provincial and federal elections, whereas from 1968-93 the city was a safe NDP seat in both the federal and provincial legislatures. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ...


The city's shifting social and political dynamics were seen in the 2004 federal election - the riding of Oshawa (not coterminous with the City of Oshawa, but containing most of it) was the country's most competitive. The candidate of the new Conservative Party of Canada, Dr. Colin Carrie, edged out his NDP rival Sid Ryan by several hundred votes; it was an atypical and ideologically stark race that left the Liberals in third place. Oshawa is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Colin Carrie (born April 11, 1962) is a Canadian politician. ... Patrick Cyril (Sid) Ryan (born 1952, in Dublin, Ireland) is a Canadian labour union leader. ...


In 2006, Whitby-Oshawa also became a Conservative seat; Jim Flaherty followed Starr (after over 40 years) into the Canadian cabinet as Minister of Finance. Whitby—Oshawa in relation to the other Toronto area ridings Whitby—Oshawa is a federal and provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004. ... Hon. ... The Cabinet of Canada plays an important role in the Canadian government in accordance with the Westminster System. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ...


In local politics, recent debate has centred around the construction of the new General Motors Centre sports arena in the downtown core. Other issues include: General Motors Centre (under construction) The General Motors Centre is a 5,500-seat multi-purpose arena currently under construction in Oshawa, Ontario. ...

  • high property taxes in the newer northern residential areas of the city
  • the sale of public utilities
  • the rejuvenation of the downtown area
  • the construction of a new courthouse on former GM lands in the downtown
  • production and job cuts and the overall financial health of GM
  • a series of multi-million dollar lawsuits between the City, the former City Manager and a number of councillors personally involved.

that main revenue building downtown is actually called the michel starr building


Education

Public education in Oshawa is provided via the Durham District School Board. As of late 2006, there were 32 elementary schools and six secondary schools. The Durham Catholic District School Board, which has its headquarters in Oshawa, oversees public Catholic education in Durham Region. There are 14 Catholic elementary schools and two secondary schools. The Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest operates one French Public elementary school, while the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud runs one publicly-funded French-language Catholic elementary school. Private schools include Durham Elementary School and Immanuel Christian School. The Durham District School Board is a school board in the public school system of Ontario, Canada, which serves most of the Regional Municipality of Durham (the schools within the Municipality of Clarington belongs to the Kawartha-Pine Ridge District School Board, even though it is within the Regional Municipality... The Durham Catholic District School Board is a school board located in Durham Region, Ontario. ... The Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest, also known as CSDCSO or Ontario District School Board #58, manages the French-language schools in the central south-western region of Ontario. ... Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud has its headquarters in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Oshawa is home to the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, opened in 2003. The main campus of Durham College is also located in the city. The university and college share a campus and some facilities, but the two institutions are independent. Given the city's industrial heritage, the university's courses emphasize technology, manufacturing and engineering themes. It is the only university in Canada to offer degree programs in Automotive Engineering and Nuclear Engineering. Trent University also offers a full-time program at the campus. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Durham College of Applied Arts and Technology is located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada with satellite campuses in Pickering, Uxbridge, Whitby, Port Hope, Port Perry and Beaverton. ... Trent University is a liberal arts oriented institution located along the Otonabee River in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. ...


Health care

Oshawa's hospital is the Oshawa site of the Lakeridge Health Corporation, formerly the Oshawa General Hospital. This 437-bed facility is the major regional hospital for the area and also houses the R.S. McLaughlin Durham Regional Cancer Centre. A new expansion is to open in early 2007. 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ...


Emergency services

Policing in Oshawa is provided by the Durham Regional Police service from a station in the downtown area of the city. EMS/Ambulance services are also overseen by the Region of Durham. Oshawa Fire Services operate from five fire stations located throughout the city. Durham Regional Police Service is the police service for Durham Regional Municipality, Ontario, east of Toronto. ...


Media

Although a relatively large city by Canadian standards, Oshawa has few media outlets of its own due to its proximity to Toronto. The city has one AM station, CKDO (AM) (1580), and one FM station, CKGE (94.9). Both stations are owned by Durham Radio, which also owns CJKX-FM, licenced to the nearby community of Ajax. All three stations are operated from the same studios near the Oshawa Airport. Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... CKDO is a Canadian radio station, broadcasting at 1350 AM in Oshawa, Ontario. ... FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... CKGE-FM is a Canadian radio station, broadcasting at 94. ... CJKX is a Canadian radio station. ... For other uses, see Ajax (disambiguation). ...


Oshawa also has a rebroadcast transmitter of Peterborough's CBC Television affiliate CHEX on channel 22, which airs a daily afternoon news and current affairs program specially targeted to Durham Region viewers. Although a larger city than Peterborough then and now, Oshawa was not granted a television station in the original 1950s assignments as it was geographically too close to Toronto (the original spacings were set at 145 km (90 miles)). Nickname: The Electric City Map of Ontario with Peterborough indicated with a red dot Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario County Peterborough County Established 1819 - Scotts Plains Incorporated as town 1850 - Peterborough Incorporated as city July 1, 1905 Mayor Sylvia Sutherland MP Dean Del Mastro (CPC) MPP Jeff Leal (OLP... CBC Television is the primary English language television service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. ... See Chex for the a brand of breakfast cereal CHEX, an affiliate of the CBC network, began broadcasting on March 26, 1955, in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. ...


Oshawa is served by a number of community newspapers, including "The Oshawa Express", an independent which publishes every Wednesday and "Oshawa This Week", published three times per week by Metroland. The long-standing daily newspaper, the Oshawa Times (also known at various times as the Oshawa Daily Times and the Times-Gazette), was closed by its owner after a lengthy strike in 1994.


Sports

Hockey

Oshawa is home to the Oshawa Generals of the (Ontario Hockey League), the top level for players aged 15-20. Famous Alumni of this team include Bobby Orr, Alex Delvecchio, Wayne Cashman, Dave Andreychuk and Eric Lindros. The team moved from the Oshawa Civic Auditorium into the new General Motors Centre in November 2006. 1990 Memorial Cup Champions Oshawa Generals The Oshawa Generals are a junior ice hockey team in the Ontario Hockey League (OHL). ... A typical OHL hockey game. ... Robert Gordon Bobby Orr, OC (born March 20, 1948 in Parry Sound, Ontario) is a retired Canadian ice hockey defenseman and is considered to be one of the greatest hockey players of all time. ... Alex Peter Delvecchio, born December 4, 1931 in Fort William, Ontario is a former ice hockey player and member of the Hockey Hall of Fame. ... Wayne Cashman (born June 24, 1945) is a Canadian NHL coach and former player. ... David John Dave Andreychuk was born on the 29th of September, 1963, in Hamilton, Ontario and is a professional hockey player in the NHL, currently assigned to the Springfield Falcons after starting the 2005-2006 season playing for the Tampa Bay Lightning. ... Eric Bryan Lindros (born February 28, 1973 in London, Ontario, Canada) is a professional ice hockey player in the National Hockey League. ... Oshawa Civic Auditorium in 1964 The Oshawa Civic Auditorium is a 4,025-seat multi-purpose arena in Oshawa, Ontario Canada. ... General Motors Centre (under construction) The General Motors Centre is a 5,500-seat multi-purpose arena currently under construction in Oshawa, Ontario. ...


The Oshawa Generals have the dubious distinction of having their home arena destroyed by fire not once, but twice in the franchise history. In June 1928 the Bradley Arena was destroyed by fire. Then 25 years later, the Hambly Arena was also destroyed by fire. circa 1930 Fire 1953 Fire 1953 Fire 1953 The Oshawa Arena (later known as the Hambly Arena) opened in 1930 and was built in large part to the contributions of Colonel R.S. McLaughlin. ...


Baseball

Oshawa is also home to the Oshawa Dodgers of the Intercounty Baseball League (IBL), an amateur baseball league in Canada. Their home park, Kinsmen Stadium is located just to the north of the former site of the Hambly Arena. The Oshawa Dodgers are an amateur baseball team operating out of Oshawa, Ontario and member of the Intercounty Baseball League. ... The Intercounty Baseball League (IBL) is an amateur baseball league operating in central and southern Ontario. ...


Lacrosse

Oshawa was for many years one of the main centres for the sport of lacrosse and home of the Oshawa Green Gaels, one of the most storied teams in the sport. A player of note in the 1920s was Nels Stewart, who became a Hall of Famer in the National Hockey League. During the 1980s, when lacrosse seemed on the edge of oblivion in Canada, (the Green Gaels themselves having folded in the early part of the decade), lacrosse continued to be played in the neighbouring towns of Whitby and Brooklin, and many of the players were from Oshawa. With the rise of the National Lacrosse League the sport's survival seems assured and again, many players and others involved in the professional league are from the Oshawa area. Former Oshawa Green Gaels captain and Oshawa native, Derek Keenan, is the current general manager of the Portland Lumberjax. The Dive Shot. Lacrosse is a team sport that is played by ten players (men) or twelve players (women), each of whom uses a netted stick (the crosse) in order to pass and catch a very hard rubber ball with the aim of scoring goals (each worth one point traditionally... The Clarington Green Gaels are Junior B box lacrosse team from Clarington, Ontario, Canada. ... Nels Stewart December 2, 1902 - August 21, 1957 in Montreal was a Canadian professional ice hockey forward who played for the Montreal Maroons, New York Americans and Boston Bruins in the National Hockey League. ... NHL redirects here. ... NLL redirects here. ... Derek Keenan is a former lacrosse player, and current head coach and General Manager of the Portland LumberJax of the National Lacrosse League. ... The Portland Lumberjax are a professional lacrosse team in the National Lacrosse League (NLL) which started playing in the 2006 season. ...


Transportation

As noted above, GO Transit trains connect the city with downtown Toronto. The Oshawa Station also serves VIA Rail in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor, as well as GO Buses, and Durham Region Transit. DRT is a regional transit system, started on January 1, 2006, that replaced Oshawa Transit, and has roots in a street railway in the town dating from 1895. GO Transit (AAR reporting marks GOT), officially known as the Greater Toronto Transit Authority (GTTA), is Canadas first, and Ontarios only, interregional public transit system, established to link Toronto with the surrounding regions of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). ... The Oshawa GO Station is a train and bus station in the GO Transit network located in Oshawa, Ontario in Canada. ... VIA Rail Canada (also referred to as VIA Rail and VIA; pronounced vee-ah) is an independent Crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail services in Canada. ... Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. ... Durham Region Transit (DRT) is the regional public transit operator in Durham Region, east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Oshawa Transit Commission is the current public transit agencies in the city of Oshawa, Ontario. ...


Intercity buses include Greyhound (limited service between Toronto, Port Hope, Cobourg and Belleville, as well as to Peterborough and Ottawa, and Can-Ar coaches daily to/from Lindsay and Toronto, along with GO use a downtown terminal at Bond and Centre Streets (Greyhound will also drop off passengers at the Oshawa GO Station upon request). The Greyhound is a breed of dog used for companionship, coursing game and racing. ... Port Hope is a town in Ontario, Canada, about 100 km east of Toronto. ... Cobourg (2001 population 17,172) is a town some 75 km east of Toronto. ... Belleville (2004 population 49,060, metropolitan population 88,025) is a city located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in southeastern Ontario, Canada, in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. ... Nickname: The Electric City Map of Ontario with Peterborough indicated with a red dot Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario County Peterborough County Established 1819 - Scotts Plains Incorporated as town 1850 - Peterborough Incorporated as city July 1, 1905 Mayor Sylvia Sutherland MP Dean Del Mastro (CPC) MPP Jeff Leal (OLP... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Mayor Larry OBrien Local government Ottawa City Council (21 councillors) MPs... Lindsay (2001 population 16,930) is a community on the Scugog River in the Kawartha Lakes region of southern Ontario, Canada. ...


Rail freight is carried on both the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways which traverse the city. Other than Highway 2 (Ontario), which reverted to local jurisdiction (King Street and Bond Street) in 1998, the city had no provincially maintained highways until the original section of Highway 401 opened in 1947 (as Highway 2A). The highway originally terminated at Ritson Road, and was extended east through the remainder of the city to Newcastle in 1952. Oshawa was the only city that Highway 401 was built directly through, rather than bypassing. This resulted in the demolition of several streets and hundreds of homes in the 1930s and 1940s. CN redirects here, as its the most common usage of the abbreviation in Canada; for more uses, see CN (disambiguation). ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Highway 2 was the major east-west provincial highway in Southern Ontario, running from Windsor in the west to the Lancaster in the east and joining together the towns and cities of the western two thirds of the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. ... The Kings Highway No. ... Highway 2A is a short controlled-access freeway in Toronto, Ontario that extends from its junction with Highway 2 at the Highland Creek to its junction with Highway 401 (exit 390). ...


The Port of Oshawa is a major stop for the auto industry, and at present there is still a small airport (see above).


Demographics

(multiple responses included)

Ethnic origin Population Percent
Canadian 117,010 39.86%
English 97,125 33.09%
Scottish 63,380 21.59%
Irish 59,740 20.35%
French 32,085 10.93%
German 22,380 7.62%
Dutch (Netherlands) 15,085 5.14%
Italian 13,985 4.76%
Polish 11,490 3.91%
Ukrainian 11,035 3.76%

According to the mid-2001 census, the population estimates there were 139,051 people residing in Oshawa, of whom 49.3% were male and 50.7% were female. Children under five accounted for approximately 6.5% of the resident population of Oshawa. This compares with 5.8% in Ontario, and almost 5.6% for Canada overall. The English are an ethnic group and nation primarily associated with England and the English language. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ...


In mid-2001, 10.4% of the resident population in Oshawa were of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.2% in Canada, therefore, the average age is 35.8 years of age comparing to 37.6 years of age for all of Canada.


In the five years between 1996 and 2001, the population of Oshawa grew by 10.2%, compared with an increase of 6.1% for Ontario as a whole. Population density of Oshawa averaged 328.0 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 12.6, for Ontario altogether. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24...


At the time of the census in May 2001, the population of the City of Oshawa was 139,051, and 296,298 for the Oshawa Census Metropolitan Area, which includes neighbouring Whitby and Clarington. Whitby is a historic town in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. ... Categories: Canada-place stubs | Ontario communities ...


The information regarding ethnicities at the right is from the 2001 Canadian Census. The percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses (e.g. "French-Canadian" generates an entry in both the category "French" and the category "Canadian".) Groups with greater than 10,000 responses are included.


Religious profile

Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

Neighbours

Because Oshawa was for many years a separate and distinct city from Toronto, it remains in certain ways an urban centre unto itself, adjoined by several suburbs in its Census Metropolitan Area, which is entirely contained within the Greater Toronto Area. Unlike most Toronto bedroom communities, Oshawa experienced its fastest growth (which was locally self-sustained) well before Toronto spilled over the boundaries of the now-defunct Metropolitan Toronto in the 1970s and 1980s. Its industrial base and colourful labour history also make it an unusual kind of suburb. However, Oshawa is today considered part of the Greater Toronto Area. Despite this, in the mid 1990s, Oshawa residents still voted in a non-binding referendum to overwhelmingly reject any incorporation into a possible Greater Toronto Area amalgamation that would include it. This, however, may have simply reflected an overall dissatisfaction among citizens in the GTA when Metropolitan Toronto was itself amalgamated by the then-governing Progressive Conservative Party of Premier Mike Harris. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... A census metropolitan area, or CMA is a Canadian census subdivision comprising a large urban area (known as the urban core) and adjacent areas (known as urban and rural fringes) that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Metro Council redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... Michael Deane Harris (born January 23, 1945, in Toronto, Ontario) was the twenty-second Premier of Ontario from June 26, 1995 to April 15, 2002. ...


Cultural resources

COPA’s booth, part of the tradeshow at the 2004 Canadian Aviation Expo A Cirrus Design SR22 on display at the Expo in 2004 The Canadian Aviation Expo (CAE) is Canada’s largest aviation event, combining a three day tradeshow with a fly-in and airshow. ... Oshawa Civic Auditorium in 1964 The Oshawa Civic Auditorium is a 4,025-seat multi-purpose arena in Oshawa, Ontario Canada. ... General Motors Centre (under construction) The General Motors Centre is a 5,500-seat multi-purpose arena currently under construction in Oshawa, Ontario. ...

See also

1990 Chevrolet Lumina 2002 Chevrolet Impala Is a major car manufacturing facility in the city of Oshawa Ontario Canada building various automobiles for General Motors Canada. ... 2003 Chevrolet Silverado SS extended-cab, short-bed Oshawa Truck Assembly is a General Motors truck factory in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. ...

External links

Scugog
Ajax, Whitby

North
West  Oshawa   East
South Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 65 KB)Description: Illustration for Armillary sphere Source: Scanned by me (looxix) from the Encyclopédie. ... Scugog, township in south-central Ontario, in the Regional Municipality of Durham in the Greater Toronto Area. ... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 65 KB)Description: Illustration for Armillary sphere Source: Scanned by me (looxix) from the Encyclopédie. ... For other uses, see Ajax (disambiguation). ... Whitby (2004 population 110,000) is a town located east of Toronto on the north shore of Lake Ontario, and is the seat of Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Image File history File links Template_CanadianCityGeoLocation_North. ... Image File history File links Template_CanadianCityGeoLocation_West. ... Image File history File links Template_CanadianCityGeoLocation_East. ... Image File history File links Template_CanadianCityGeoLocation_South. ...

Clarington
Lake Ontario
Inner Ring of Golden Horseshoe
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Largest City: Toronto
Regions: Durham RegionHalton RegionPeel RegionYork RegionCity of HamiltonNiagara Region
Cities: BramptonBurlingtonMississaugaNiagara FallsOshawaPickeringPort ColborneSt.CatharinesThoroldVaughanWelland
Towns and Major Communities: AjaxAuroraBoltonBowmanvilleBrockButtonvilleCaledonClaringtonConcordEast GwillimburyFort ErieGeorginaGrimsbyLincolnHalton HillsKeswickKingKleinburgMapleMarkhamMiltonNewmarketNiagara-on-the-LakeOakvillePelhamPickeringRichmond HillScugogSuttonThornhillUnionvilleUxbridgeWhitby • Whitchurch-Stouffville • Woodbridge
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