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Encyclopedia > Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde


Born October 16, 1854(1854-10-16)
Dublin, Ireland
Died November 30, 1900 (aged 46)
Paris, France
Occupation Playwright, novelist, poet
Nationality Irish

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. Known for his barbed wit, he was one of the most successful playwrights of late Victorian London, and one of the greatest celebrities of his day. As the result of a famous trial, he suffered a dramatic downfall and was imprisoned for two years of hard labour after being convicted of the offence of "gross indecency." Oscar Wilde in his favourite coat. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about work. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A 1907 engraving of William Butler Yeats, one of Irelands best-known poets. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ...

Contents

Biography

Statue of Oscar Wilde in Dublin's Merrion Square (Archbishop Ryan Park).
Statue of Oscar Wilde in Dublin's Merrion Square (Archbishop Ryan Park).

Download high resolution version (750x1000, 353 KB)I, Alterego, created the source file and release it under the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (750x1000, 353 KB)I, Alterego, created the source file and release it under the GFDL. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Merrion Square is situated on the south side of Dublin city centre and is considered one of the citys finest Georgian squares. ...

Birth and early life

Oscar Wilde was the second son born into an Anglo-Irish family, at 21 Westland Row, Dublin, to Sir William Wilde and his wife Jane Francesca Wilde (née Elgee) (her pseudonym being Speranza). Jane was a successful writer, being a poet for the revolutionary Young Irelanders in 1848 and a life-long Irish nationalist.[1] Sir William was Ireland's leading Oto-Ophthalmologic (ear and eye) surgeon and was knighted in 1864 for his services to medicine.[1] William also wrote books on archaeology and folklore. He was a renowned philanthropist, and his dispensary for the care of the city's poor, in Lincoln Place at the rear of Trinity College, Dublin, was the forerunner of the Dublin Eye and Ear Hospital, now located at Adelaide Road. Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Sir William Robert Willis Wilde (1815–April 19, 1876), today best known for being the father of Oscar Wilde, was a man of prominence in his own day. ... Memorial to Lady Wilde and her husband located in Mount Jerome Cemetery, Dublin Jane Francesca Agnes, Lady Wilde (1826 - 3 February 1896)[1] (née Jane Francesca Elgee) was an Irish poet and supporter of the nationalist movement; she was the wife of Sir William Wilde and mother of Oscar... Young Ireland was a Irish nationalist revolutionary movement, active in the mid nineteenth century. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Otology is a small, unknown but increasingly popular religion which consits of fellow OTers. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ...


In June 1855, the family moved to 1 Merrion Square in a fashionable residential area, where Wilde's sister, Isola, was born in 1856. Here, Lady Wilde held a regular Saturday afternoon salon with guests including Sheridan le Fanu, Samuel Lever, George Petrie, Isaac Butt and Samuel Ferguson. Oscar was educated at home up to the age of nine. He attended Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, Fermanagh from the ages of nine to sixteen[2], spending the summer months with his family in rural Waterford, Wexford and at Sir William's family home in Mayo. Here the Wilde brothers played with the older George Moore. Merrion Square is situated on the south side of Dublin city centre and is considered one of the citys finest Georgian squares. ... A Salon of Ladies by Abraham Bosse A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the... Sheridan Le Fanu Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu (August 28, 1814 – February 7, 1873) was an Irish writer of Gothic tales and mystery novels. ... Sir (Samuel) Hardman Lever, 1st Baronet KCB (18 April 1869 - 1 July 1947) was a British Liberal politician. ... For other persons of the same name, see George Petrie. ... Isaac Butt (September 6, 1813 - May 5, 1879) was the founder and first leader of a number of parties and organisations, including the Irish Metropolitan Conservative Society in 1836, the Home Government Association in 1870 and in 1874 the Home Rule League, subsequently known as the Irish Parliamentary Party. ... Samuel Ferguson (March 10, 1810 – August 9, 1886) was an Irish poet, barrister, antiquarian, artist and public servant. ... Portora Royal School for boys, located in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, is one of a number of free English-medium schools founded by Royal Charter in 1608, by James I. Originally called Enniskillen Royal School and located outside Enniskillen, the school moved to its present location on Portora Hill... For other uses, see Enniskillen (disambiguation). ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... County Waterford (Port Láirge in Irish) is a county in the province of Munster on the south coast of Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Wexford Code: WX Area: 2,352 km² Population (2006) 131,615 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... A portrait of George Moore by Édouard Manet George Augustus Moore (February 24, 1852 - January 21, 1933) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet, art critic, memoirist and dramatist. ...


After leaving Portora, Wilde studied classics at Trinity College, Dublin, from 1871 to 1874. He was an outstanding student, and won the Berkeley Gold Medal, the highest award available to classics students at Trinity. He was awarded a scholarship to Magdalen College, Oxford, where he continued his studies from 1874 to 1878 and where he became a part of the Aesthetic movement, one of its tenets being to make an art of life. While at Magdalen, he won the 1878 Newdigate Prize for his poem Ravenna, which he read out at Encaenia; he failed, though, to win the Chancellor's English Essay Prize for an essay that would be published posthumously as The Rise of Historical Criticism (1909). In November 1878, he graduated with a double first in classical moderations and Literae Humaniores, or 'Greats'. For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... College name Magdalen College Latin name Collegium Beatae Mariae Magdalenae Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister college Magdalene College, Cambridge President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Jessica Jones Undergraduates 395 MCR President Eloise Scotford Graduates 230 Location of Magdalen College within central Oxford , Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth century Britain. ... Sir Roger Newdigates Prize is awarded to students of the University of Oxford for Best Composition in English verse by an undergraduate who has not yet been in attendance at Oxford for four years since his or her date of admittance. ... Encaenia (Gk: festival of renewal) is an annual ceremony which takes place at some universities, most notably the University of Oxford. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Literae Humaniores is the name given to the study of Classics at Oxford and some other universities. ...


Marriage and family

After graduating from Oxford, Wilde returned to Dublin, where he met and fell in love with Florence Balcombe. She in turn became engaged to Bram Stoker. On hearing of her engagement, Wilde wrote to her stating his intention to leave Ireland permanently. He left in 1878 and was to return to his native country only twice, for brief visits. The next six years were spent in London, Paris and the United States, where he traveled to deliver lectures. Wilde's address in the 1881 British Census is given as 1 Tite Street, London. The head of the household is listed as Frank Miles with whom Wilde shared rooms at this address. Florence Balcombe (July 17, 1858 - May 25, 1937) was the wife of Bram Stoker whom she married in 1878. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The United Kingdom has taken a census of its population every ten years since 1801, with the exception of 1941 (during the Second World War). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... George Frank Miles (1852-1891) was a well-known painter in London. ...


In London, he met Constance Lloyd, daughter of wealthy Queen's Counsel Horace Lloyd. She was visiting Dublin in 1884, when Oscar was in the city to give lectures at the Gaiety Theatre. He proposed to her and they married on May 29, 1884 in Paddington, London. Constance's allowance of £250 allowed the Wildes to live in relative luxury. The couple had two sons, Cyril (1885) and Vyvyan (1886). After Oscar's downfall, Constance took the surname Holland for herself and the boys. She died in 1898 following spinal surgery and was buried in Staglieno Cemetery in Genoa, Italy. Cyril was killed in France in World War I. Vyvyan survived the war and went on to become an author and translator. He published his memoirs in 1954. Vyvyan's son, Merlin Holland, has edited and published several works about his grandfather. Oscar Wilde's niece, Dolly Wilde, was involved in a lengthy lesbian affair with writer Natalie Clifford Barney. For information about The Times satire Queens Counsel, see Queens Counsel (comic strip). ... The Gaiety Theatre is a theatre on South King Street in Dublin, Ireland, off of Grafton Street and close to St. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Paddington (disambiguation). ... Cyril Holland (June 5, 1885 - May 9, 1915) was the eldest son of Oscar Wilde and Constance Lloyd Wilde. ... Vyvyan Holland (1886 – 1967), born Vyvyan Wilde, was a British author and translator. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Merlin Holland is Oscar Wildes only grandson. ... Dolly Wilde (1895-1941) was born in the United Kingdom, and was the only child of Oscar Wildes dissipated older brother Willie. ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... Natalie Clifford Barney (31 October 1876 – 2 February 1972) was an American expatriate who lived, wrote, and hosted a literary salon in Paris. ...


Aestheticism and philosophy

Keller cartoon from the Wasp of San Francisco depicting Wilde on the occasion of his visit there in 1882.
Keller cartoon from the Wasp of San Francisco depicting Wilde on the occasion of his visit there in 1882.

While at Magdalen College, Wilde became particularly well known for his role in the aesthetic and decadent movements. He began wearing his hair long and openly scorning so-called "manly" sports, and began decorating his rooms with peacock feathers, lilies, sunflowers, blue china and other objets d'art. Image File history File links Wasp_cartoon_on_Oscar_Wilde. ... Image File history File links Wasp_cartoon_on_Oscar_Wilde. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth century Britain. ... In 19th century European and especially French literature, decadence was the name given, first by hostile critics, and then triumphantly adopted by some writers themselves, to a number of late nineteenth century fin de siècle writers who were associated with Symbolism or the Aesthetic movement and who relished artifice... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... Sunflowers is also a painting by Vincent van Gogh. ... Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ...


Legends persist that his behaviour cost him a dunking in the River Cherwell in addition to having his rooms (which still survive as student accommodation at his old college) trashed, but the cult spread among certain segments of society to such an extent that languishing attitudes, "too-too" costumes and aestheticism generally became a recognised pose. Publications such as the Springfield Republican commented on Wilde's behaviour during his visit to Boston in order to give lectures on aestheticism, suggesting that Wilde's conduct was more of a bid for notoriety rather than a devotion to beauty and the aesthetic. Wilde's mode of dress also came under attack by critics such as Higginson, who wrote in his paper Unmanly Manhood, of his general concern that Wilde's effeminacy would influence the behaviour of men and women, arguing that his poetry "eclipses masculine ideals [..that..] under such influence men would become effeminate dandies". He also scrutinised the links between Oscar Wilde's writing, personal image and homosexuality, calling his work and lifestyle 'Immoral'. The River Cherwell is a river which flows through the midlands of England. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth-century Britain. ... The Springfield Republican is a newspaper based in Springfield, Massachusetts. ...

1881 caricature in Punch
1881 caricature in Punch

Wilde was deeply impressed by the English writers John Ruskin and Walter Pater, who argued for the central importance of art in life, an argument laced with a strongly philhellenic and homoerotic subtext[attribution needed]. Wilde later commented ironically on Pater's suppressed emotions: on being informed of the man's death, he replied, "Was he ever alive?" Reflecting on Pater's view of art, he wrote, in The Picture of Dorian Gray, "All art is quite useless". The statement was meant to be read literally, as it was in keeping with the doctrine of Art for art's sake, coined by the philosopher Victor Cousin, promoted by Theophile Gautier and brought into prominence by James McNeill Whistler. In 1879 Wilde started to teach Aesthetic values in London. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 356 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,372 × 2,312 pixels, file size: 917 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 356 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,372 × 2,312 pixels, file size: 917 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes, see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection). ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... Walter Horatio Pater (August 4, 1839 - July 30, 1894) was an English essayist and literary critic. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Ironic redirects here. ... The Picture of Dorian Gray is the only published novel written by Oscar Wilde, and first came out as the lead story in Lippincotts Monthly Magazine on 20 June 1890. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... Victor Cousin. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 31, 1811 - October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist and literary critic. ... Self portrait (1872) James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 11, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based painter and etcher. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The aesthetic movement, represented by the school of William Morris and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, had a permanent influence on English decorative art. As the leading aesthete in Britain, Wilde became one of the most prominent personalities of his day. Though he was sometimes ridiculed for them, his paradoxes and witty sayings were quoted on all sides. This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 - April 10, 1882) was an English poet, painter and translator. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Aestheticism in general was caricatured in Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta Patience (1881). While Patience was a success in New York it was not known how much the aesthetic movement had penetrated the rest of America. So Richard D'Oyly Carte invited Wilde for a lecture tour of North America. D'Oyly Carte felt this tour would "prime the pump" for the tour of Patience, making sure that the ticket-buying public was aware of one of the movement's charming personalities. This was duly arranged, Wilde arriving on 3 January 1882, aboard the SS Arizona. Wilde is reputed to have told a customs officer "I have nothing to declare except my genius", although there is no contemporary evidence for the remark. W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Patience (operetta) This article refers to the operetta. ... Richard DOyly Carte Richard DOyly Carte (May 3, 1844 – April 3, 1901) was an English theatrical impresario during the latter half of the nineteenth century. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


During his tour of the United States and Canada, Wilde was torn apart by no small number of critics—The Wasp, a San Francisco newspaper, published a cartoon ridiculing Wilde and Aestheticism—but he was also surprisingly well received in such rough-and-tumble settings as the mining town of Leadville, Colorado. [1] San Francisco redirects here. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... View of Mount Massive looking west from Harrison Street in downtown Leadville Leadville is the county seat of Lake County, Colorado. ...


On his return to the United Kingdom, he worked as a reviewer for the Pall Mall Gazette in the years 1887-1889. Afterwards he became the editor of Woman's World. The Pall Mall Gazette was an evening newpaper founded in London February 7, 1865. ...


Politics

Wilde, for much of his life, advocated socialism, which he argued "will be of value simply because it will lead to individualism."[3] He also had a strong libertarian streak as shown in his poem "Sonnet to Liberty" and, subsequently to reading the works of Peter Kropotkin—whom he described as "a man with a soul of that beautiful white Christ which seems coming out of Russia"[4]—he declared himself an anarchist.[5] Other political influences on Wilde may have been William Morris and John Ruskin.[6] Wilde was also a pacifist and quipped that "When liberty comes with hands dabbled in blood it is hard to shake hands with her". In addition to his primary political text, the essay "The Soul of Man under Socialism", Wilde wrote several letters to the Daily Chronicle advocating prison reform and was the sole signatory of George Bernard Shaw's petition for a pardon of the anarchists arrested (and later executed) after the Haymarket affair.[7] Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or... Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: ) (December 9, 1842–February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... The Soul of Man under Socialism is an essay by Oscar Wilde in which he expounds a libertarian socialist worldview. ... The Daily Chronicle was a London newspaper company founded in 1872 that merged its publication with the Daily News to become the News-Chronicle and the company then absorbed The Star which it retained as an evening publication. ... Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... The Haymarket Riot on May 4, 1886 in Chicago is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers. ...


In Lady Florence Dixie's novel of 1890, Gloriana, or the Revolution of 1900, women win the right to vote, as the result of the protagonist, Gloriana, posing as a man, Hector l'Estrange, and being elected to the House of Commons. The character of l'Estrange is clearly based on that of Wilde. Dixie was an aunt of Lord Alfred Douglas.[8] Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Sexuality

Robert Ross at twenty-four
Robert Ross at twenty-four

Though Wilde's sexual orientation has variously been considered bisexual, homosexual, and paederastic, Wilde himself felt he belonged to a culture of male love inspired by the Greek paederastic tradition.[9] In describing his own sexual identity, Wilde used the term Socratic.[10] He may have had significant sexual relationships with (in chronological order) Frank Miles, Constance Lloyd (his wife), Robert Baldwin Ross, and Lord Alfred Douglas ("Bosie"). Wilde also had numerous sexual encounters with working-class male youths, who were often rent boys. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... George Frank Miles (1852-1891) was a well-known painter in London. ... Robert Ross at twenty-four For other uses of this name, see Robert Baldwin (disambiguation). ... Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (22 October 1870 – 20 March 1945) was a poet, a translator and a prose writer, better known as the intimate friend and lover of the writer Oscar Wilde. ... Male prostitution is the sale of sexual services (prostitution) by a male. ...


Biographers generally believe Wilde was made fully aware of his own and others' homosexuality in 1885 (the year after his wedding) by the 17-year-old Robert Baldwin Ross. Neil McKenna's biography The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde (2003) theorises that Wilde was aware of his homosexuality much earlier, from the moment of his first kiss with another boy at the age of 16. According to McKenna, after arriving at Oxford in 1874, Wilde tentatively explored his sexuality, discovering that he could feel passionate romantic love for "fair, slim" choirboys, but was more sexually drawn towards the swarthy young rough trade. By the late 1870s, Wilde was already preoccupied with the philosophy of same-sex love, and had befriended a group of Uranian (pederastic) poets and homosexual law reformers, becoming acquainted with the work of gay-rights pioneer Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs. Wilde also met Walt Whitman in America in 1882, writing to a friend that there was "no doubt" about the great American poet's sexual orientation — "I have the kiss of Walt Whitman still on my lips," he boasted. He even lived with the society painter Frank Miles, who was a few years his senior and may have been his lover. However, writes McKenna, he was at one time unhappy with the direction of his sexual and romantic desires, and, hoping that marriage would 'cure' him, he married Constance Lloyd in 1884. McKenna's account has been criticised by some reviewers who find it too speculative, although not necessarily implausible.[11] Trade refers to the straight partner of a gay man (as in, Hes trade), or to the genre of such partners. ... The Uranians were a relatively obscure group of pederastic poets who flourished between 1870 and 1930, particularly among the graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. ... Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs (1825 – 1895), pioneer gay rights activist, was born in Westerfeld, in north-western Germany. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ...


Regardless of whether or not Wilde was still naïve when he first met Ross, Ross did play an important role in the development of Wilde's understanding of his own sexuality. Ross was aware of Wilde's poems before they met, and indeed had been beaten for reading them. He was also unmoved by the Victorian prohibition against homosexuality. By Richard Ellmann's account, Ross, "...so young and yet so knowing, was determined to seduce Wilde." Later, Ross boasted to Lord Alfred Douglas that he was "the first boy Oscar ever had" and there seems to have been much jealousy between them. Soon, Wilde entered a world of regular sex with youths such as servants and newsboys, in their mid to late teens, whom he would meet in homosexual bars or brothels. In Wilde's words, the relations were akin to "feasting with panthers", and he revelled in the risk: "the danger was half the excitement." In his public writings, Wilde's first celebration of romantic love between men and boys can be found in The Portrait of Mr. W. H. (1889), in which he propounds a theory that Shakespeare's sonnets were written out of the poet's love of Elizabethan boy actor "Willie Hughes". William Hughes is one potential candidate for the Fair Youth of Shakespeares Sonnets. ...


In the early summer of 1891 he was introduced by the poet Lionel Johnson to the twenty-two-year-old Lord Alfred Douglas, an undergraduate at Oxford at the time. An intimate friendship immediately sprang up between the two, but it was not initially sexual, nor did the sexuality progress far when it did eventually take place. According to Douglas, speaking in his old age, for the first six months their relations remained on a purely intellectual and emotional level. Despite the fact that "from the second time he saw me, when he gave me a copy of Dorian Gray which I took with me to Oxford, he made overtures to me. It was not till I had known him for at least six months and after I had seen him over and over again and he had twice stayed with me in Oxford, that I gave in to him. I did with him and allowed him to do just what was done among boys at Winchester and Oxford . . . Sodomy never took place between us, nor was it attempted or dreamed of. Wilde treated me as an older one does a younger one at school." After Wilde realised that Douglas only consented in order to please him, as his instincts drew him not to men but to younger boys, Wilde permanently ceased his physical attentions.[12] Lionel Pigot Johnson (15 March 1867 - 4 October 1902) was an English poet, essayist and critic. ...


For a few years they lived together more or less openly in a number of locations. Wilde and some within his upper-class social group also began to speak about homosexual law reform, and their commitment to "The Cause" was formalised by the founding of a highly secretive organisation called the Order of Chaeronea, of which Wilde was a member. A homosexual novel, Teleny or The Reverse of the Medal, written at about the same time and clandestinely published in 1893, has been attributed to Oscar Wilde, but was probably, in fact, a combined effort by a number of Wilde's friends, which Wilde edited. Wilde also periodically contributed to the Uranian literary journal The Chameleon. The Order of Chaeronea was a secret society for the cultivation of a homosexual and pederastic ethos. ... Teleny, or The Reverse of the Medal, is a gay novel, set in Paris in the 1890s about a young man who falls in love with a Hungarian pianist. ... From John Addington Symonds 1891 book A Problem in Modern Ethics. ...


Lord Alfred's first mentor had been his cosmopolitan grandfather Alfred Montgomery. His older brother Francis Douglas, Viscount Drumlanrig possibly had an intimate association with the Prime Minister Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, which ended on Francis' death in an unexplained shooting accident. Lord Alfred's father John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry came to believe his sons had been corrupted by older homosexuals, or as he phrased it in a letter, "Snob Queers like Rosebery".[13] As he had attempted to do with Rosebery, Queensberry confronted Wilde and Lord Alfred on several occasions, but each time Wilde was able to mollify him. Francis Archibald Douglas, Viscount Drumlanrig (3 February 1867–19 October 1894) was a Scottish nobleman and politician, the eldest son of the 9th Marquess of Queensberry. ... Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery (May 7, 1847 - May 21, 1929) was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister. ... John Sholto Douglas (1844-1900) was an eccentric Scottish nobleman, the 9th Marquess of Queensberry and Viscount Drumlanrig. ...


Divorced and spending wildly, Queensberry was known for his outspoken views and the boxing roughs who often accompanied him. He abhorred his younger son and plagued the boy with threats to cut him off if he did not stop idling his life away. Queensberry was determined to end the friendship with Wilde. Wilde was in full flow of rehearsal when Bosie returned from a diplomatic posting to Cairo, around the time Queensberry visited Wilde at his Tite Street home. He angrily pushed past Wilde's servant and entered the ground floor study, shouting obscenities and asking Wilde about his divorce. Wilde became incensed, but it is said he calmly told his manservant that Queensberry was the most infamous brute in London, and that he was not to be shown into the house ever again. It is said that, despite the presence of a bodyguard, Wilde forced Queensberry to leave in no uncertain terms.


On the opening night of The Importance of Being Earnest Queensberry further planned to insult and socially embarrass Wilde by throwing a bouquet of turnips. Wilde was tipped off, and Queensberry was barred from entering the theatre. Wilde took legal advice against him, and wished to prosecute, but his friends refused to give evidence against the Marquess and hence the case was dropped. The Importance of Being Earnest is a play by Oscar Wilde, a comedy of manners on the seriousness of society in either three or four acts (depending on edition) inspired by W. S. Gilberts Engaged. ...


Wilde and Bosie left London for a holiday in Monte Carlo and whilst there, on February 18, 1895, the Marquess left his calling card, with an inscription accusing Wilde of posing as a "somdomite [sic]" at Wilde's Club.[14] Monte Carlo is a very wealthy section of the city-state of Monaco known for its casino, gambling, beaches, glamour, and sightings of famous people. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been...


Trial, imprisonment, and transfer to Reading Gaol

The Marquess of Queensberry's calling card with the offending inscription "For Oscar Wilde posing Somdomite [sic]"

Wilde made a complaint of criminal libel against Lord Alfred Douglas's father for leaving him a calling card at his club, and the Marquess was arrested but later freed on bail. The libel trial became a cause célèbre as salacious details of Wilde's private life with Alfred Taylor and Lord Alfred Douglas began to appear in the press. A team of detectives, with the help of the actor Charles Brookfield, had directed Queensberry's lawyers (led by Edward Carson QC) to the world of the Victorian underground. Here Wilde's association with blackmailers and male prostitutes, crossdressers and homosexual brothels was recorded, and various persons involved were interviewed, some being coerced to appear as witnesses.[15] Image File history File links Somdomite. ... Image File history File links Somdomite. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been... Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (22 October 1870 – 20 March 1945) was a poet, a translator and a prose writer, better known as the intimate friend and lover of the writer Oscar Wilde. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Look up cause célèbre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Charles Brookfield was a British actor, author and journalist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For information about The Times satire Queens Counsel, see Queens Counsel (comic strip). ...


The trial opened on April 3, 1895 amongst scenes of near hysteria both in the press and the public galleries. After a shaky start, Wilde regained some ground when defending his art from attacks of perversion. The Picture of Dorian Gray came under fierce moral criticism, but Wilde fended it off with his usual charm and confidence on artistic matters. Some of his personal letters to Lord Alfred were examined, their wording challenged as inappropriate and evidence of immoral relations. Queensberry's legal team proposed that the libel was published for the public good, but it was only when the prosecution moved on to sexual matters that Wilde baulked. He was challenged on the reason given for not kissing a young servant; Wilde had replied, "He was a particularly plain boy - unfortunately ugly - I pitied him for it."[16] Counsel for the defence, scenting blood, pressed him on the point. Wilde hesitated, complaining of Carson's insults and attempts to unnerve him. The prosecution eventually dropped the case, after the defence threatened to bring boy prostitutes to the stand to testify to Wilde's corruption and influence over Queensberry's son, effectively crippling the case. After Wilde left the court, a warrant for his arrest was applied for and (after a delay that would have permitted Wilde, had he possessed the presence of mind to take advantage, to escape to the continent) later served on him at the Cadogan Hotel, Knightsbridge. That moment was immortalised by Sir John Betjeman's poem. He was arrested for "gross indecency" under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 In British legislation of the time, this term implied 'homosexual acts not amounting to buggery'.[17] After his arrest Wilde sent Robert Ross to his home in Tite Street with orders to remove certain items and Ross broke into the bedroom to rescue some of Wilde's belongings. Wilde was then imprisoned on remand at Holloway where he received daily visits from Lord Alfred Douglas. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Picture of Dorian Gray is the only published novel written by Oscar Wilde, and first came out as the lead story in Lippincotts Monthly Magazine on 20 June 1890. ... Blue plaque to Lillie Langtree The Cadogan Hotel is one of Londons most prestigious luxury hotels and restaurants. ... Knightsbridge is a street and district spanning the City of Westminster and theRoyal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London notable for its eclectic mix of rich, famous, and international residents including several billionaires Roman Abramovich, oligarchs from Russia, China and India, international businessman Lord Marshall of Knightsbridge, trend setters Charles... A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... The Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, An Act to make further provision for the Protection of Women and Girls, the suppression of brothels, and other purposes was the latest in a twenty-five year series of legislation in the United Kingdom beginnning with the Offences against the Person Act... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Anal sex or anal intercourse is a form of human sexual behavior. ...


Events moved quickly and his prosecution opened on April 26, 1895. Wilde had already begged Douglas to leave London for Paris, but Douglas complained bitterly, even wanting to take the stand; however, he was pressed to go and soon fled to the Hotel du Monde. Ross and many others also left the United Kingdom during this time. Under cross examination Wilde presented an eloquent defence of same-sex love: is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Charles Gill (pros.): What is "the love that dares not speak its name?"

Wilde: "The love that dares not speak its name" in this century is such a great affection of an elder for a younger man as there was between David and Jonathan, such as Plato made the very basis of his philosophy, and such as you find in the sonnets of Michelangelo and Shakespeare. It is that deep spiritual affection that is as pure as it is perfect. It dictates and pervades great works of art, like those of Shakespeare and Michelangelo, and those two letters of mine, such as they are. It is in this century misunderstood, so much misunderstood that it may be described as "the love that dares not speak its name," and on that account of it I am placed where I am now. It is beautiful, it is fine, it is the noblest form of affection. There is nothing unnatural about it. It is intellectual, and it repeatedly exists between an older and a younger man, when the older man has intellect, and the younger man has all the joy, hope and glamour of life before him. That it should be so, the world does not understand. The world mocks at it, and sometimes puts one in the pillory for it."

The trial ended with the jury unable to reach a verdict and Wilde's counsel, Sir Edward Clark, was finally able to agree bail. Wilde was freed from Holloway and went into hiding at the house of Ernest and Ada Leverson, two of Wilde's firm friends. The Reverend Stuart Hedlam put up most of the £5,000 bail,[18] having disagreed with Wilde's heinous treatment by the press and the courts. Edward Carson, it was said, asked for the service to let up on Wilde.[19] His request was denied. If the Crown was seen to give up at that point, it would have appeared that there was one rule for some and not others, and outrage could have followed. David and Jonathan were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, whose intimate relationship was recorded favorably in the Old Testament books of Samuel. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Gothic pillory (early 16th century) in Schwäbisch Hall, Germany The pillory was a device used in punishment by public humiliation and often additional, sometimes lethal, physical abuse. ... Ada Leverson (1862-August 1933), nee Beddington, was a British writer, now known as a novelist. ...


The final trial was presided over by Justice Sir Alfred Wills. On May 25, 1895 Wilde was convicted of gross indecency and sentenced to two years' hard labour. His conviction angered some observers, one of whom demanded, in a published letter, "Why does not the Crown prosecute every boy at a public or private school or half the men in the universities?" in reference to the presumed pederastic proclivities of British upper class men.[20] Sir Alfred Wills was the third President of the Alpine Club from 1864-1866. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A dictionary definition of Indecent not conforming with accepted standards of behaviour or morality. ...


Wilde was imprisoned first in Pentonville and then in Wandsworth prison in London, and finally transferred in November to Reading Prison, some 30 miles west of London. Wilde knew the town of Reading from happier times when boating on the Thames and also from visits to the Palmer family, including a tour of the famous Huntley & Palmers biscuit factory which is quite close to the prison. HMP Pentonville Pentonville Prison in 1842 HM Prison Pentonville is a prison built in 1842 in North London. ... HM Prison Wandsworth is a prison in Wandsworth in south London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... // Reading (HM Prison) HM Prison & YOI Reading is a British prison. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Huntley & Palmers was a well known British firm of biscuit makers based in Reading, Berkshire. ...


Now known as prisoner C. 3.3, (which described the fact that he was in block C, floor three, cell three) he was not, at first, even allowed paper and pen, but a later governor was more amenable. Wilde was championed by the reformer Lord Haldane who had helped transfer him and afforded him the literary catharsis he needed. During his time in prison, Wilde wrote a 50,000 word letter to Douglas, which he was not allowed to send while still a prisoner, but which he was allowed to take with him at the end of his sentence. On his release, he gave the manuscript to Ross, who may or may not have carried out Wilde's instructions to send a copy to Douglas (who later denied having received it). Ross published a much expurgated version of the letter (about a third of it) in 1905 (four years after Wilde's death) with the title De Profundis, expanding it slightly for an edition of Wilde's collected works in 1908, and then donated it to the British Museum on the understanding that it would not be made public until 1960. In 1949, Wilde's son Vyvyan Holland published it again, including parts formerly omitted, but relying on a faulty typescript bequeathed to him by Ross. Its complete and correct publication occurred in 1962, in The Letters of Oscar Wilde. LATIN VERSION from the Latin Bible: Latin Vulgate canticum graduum 1. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Vyvyan Holland (1886 – 1967), born Vyvyan Wilde, was a British author and translator. ... The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde contains over 1000 pages of letters written by Oscar Wilde. ...


Release and death

Prison was unkind to Wilde's health and after he was released on May 19, 1897, he spent his last three years penniless, in self-imposed exile from society and artistic circles. He went under the assumed name of Sebastian Melmoth, after the famously "penetrated" Saint Sebastian and the devilish central character of Wilde's great-uncle Charles Robert Maturin's gothic novel Melmoth the Wanderer. is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sebastian redirects here. ... Charles Robert Maturin, also known as Charles Maturin or C.R. Maturin, was an Irish Protestant clergyman (ordained by the Church of Ireland) and a writer of gothic plays and novels. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... Melmoth the Wanderer is a gothic novel published in 1820, written by Charles Robert Maturin. ...


Nevertheless, Wilde lost no time in returning to his previous pleasures. According to Douglas, Ross "dragged [him] back to homosexual practices" during the summer of 1897, which they spent together in Berneval. After his release, he also wrote the famous poem The Ballad of Reading Gaol. Wilde spent his last years in the Hôtel d'Alsace, now known as L'Hôtel, in Paris, where it is said he was notorious and uninhibited about enjoying the pleasures he had been denied in Britain. Again, according to Douglas, "he was hand in glove with all the little boys on the Boulevard. He never attempted to conceal it." In a letter to Ross, Wilde laments, "Today I bade good-bye, with tears and one kiss, to the beautiful Greek boy. . . he is the nicest boy you ever introduced to me."[21] Just a month before his death he is quoted as saying, "My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death. One or other of us has got to go." His moods fluctuated; Max Beerbohm relates how, a few days before Wilde's death, their mutual friend Reginald 'Reggie' Turner had found Wilde very depressed after a nightmare. "I dreamt that I had died, and was supping with the dead!" "I am sure," Turner replied, "that you must have been the life and soul of the party."[22] Reggie Turner was one of the very few of the old circle who remained with Wilde right to the end, and was at his bedside when he died. The Ballad of Reading Gaol is a famous poem by Oscar Wilde, written after his release from Reading prison on 19 May 1897. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Mary Cassatts painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers. ... Max Beerbohm by William Rothenstein, 1893 Sir Henry Maximilian Beerbohm (August 24, 1872 - May 20, 1956) was an English parodist and caricaturist. ...

The tomb of Oscar Wilde in Père Lachaise Cemetery

Wilde died of cerebral meningitis on November 30, 1900. Different opinions are given as to the cause of the meningitis; Richard Ellmann claimed it was syphilitic; Merlin Holland, Wilde's grandson, thought this to be a misconception, noting that Wilde's meningitis followed a surgical intervention, perhaps a mastoidectomy; Wilde's physicians, Dr. Paul Cleiss and A'Court Tucker, reported that the condition stemmed from an old suppuration of the right ear (une ancienne suppuration de l'oreille droite d'ailleurs en traitement depuis plusieurs années) and did not allude to syphilis. Most modern scholars and doctors agree that syphilis was unlikely to have been the cause of his death. Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced pierre la-sh-ez) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Merlin Holland is Oscar Wildes only grandson. ... Mastoidectomy is an operation to remove disease from the bone behind the ear, when medical management is inadequate. ...


On his deathbed Wilde was received into the Roman Catholic church and Robert Ross, in his letter to More Adey (dated 14 December 1900), states "He was conscious that people were in the room, and raised his hand when I asked him whether he understood. He pressed our hands. I then sent in search of a priest, and after great difficulty found Father Cuthbert Dunne. . . who came with me at once and administered Baptism and Extreme Unction. - Oscar could not take the Eucharist".[23] The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Wilde was buried in the Cimetière de Bagneux outside Paris but was later moved to Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. His tomb in Père Lachaise was designed by sculptor Sir Jacob Epstein, at the request of Robert Ross, who also asked for a small compartment to be made for his own ashes. Ross's ashes were transferred to the tomb in 1950. The numerous spots on the tombstone are lipstick traces from admirers. Located to the southwest of the city of Paris, France, the Cimetière de Bagneux is located at 44, avenue Marx-Dormoy, in Montrouge, Hauts-de-Seine. ... Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced pierre la-sh-ez) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Jacob Epstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Sir Jacob Epstein (10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born Jewish sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK, where he pioneered modern sculpture, often producing controversial works that challenged taboos concerning what public artworks appropriately depict. ...


The modernist angel depicted as a relief on the tomb was originally complete with male genitals which were broken off and kept as a paperweight by a succession of Père Lachaise Cemetery keepers; their current whereabouts are unknown. In the summer of 2000, intermedia artist Leon Johnson performed a forty minute ceremony entitled Re-membering Wilde in which a commissioned silver prosthesis was installed to replace the vandalised genitals.[24] This article is about the supernatural being. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced pierre la-sh-ez) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ...


Biographies

Oscar Wilde's house in Tite Street, Chelsea
Oscar Wilde's house in Tite Street, Chelsea
  • After Wilde's death, his friend Frank Harris wrote a biography, Oscar Wilde: His Life and Confessions. Of his other close friends, Robert Sherard, Robert Ross, Charles Ricketts and Lord Alfred Douglas variously published biographies, reminiscences or correspondence.
  • An account of the argument between Frank Harris, Lord Alfred Douglas and Oscar Wilde as to the advisability of Wilde's prosecuting Queensberry can be found in the preface to George Bernard Shaw's play The Dark Lady of the Sonnets.
  • In 1946, Hesketh Pearson published The Life of Oscar Wilde (Methuen), containing materials derived from conversations with Bernard Shaw, George Alexander, Herbert Beerbohm Tree and many others who had known or worked with Wilde. This is a lively read, although inevitably somewhat dated in its approach. It gives a particularly vivid impression of what Wilde's conversation must have been like.
  • In 1954 Vyvyan Holland published his memoir Son of Oscar Wilde. It was revised and updated by Merlin Holland in 1989.
  • In 1955 Sewell Stokes wrote a novel, Beyond His Means, based on the life of Oscar Wilde.
  • In 1975 H. Montgomery Hyde published Oscar Wilde: A Biography.
  • In 1983 Peter Ackroyd published The Last Testament of Oscar Wilde, a novel in the form of a pretended memoir.
  • In 1987 literary biographer Richard Ellmann published his detailed work Oscar Wilde.
  • In 1997 Merlin Holland published a book entitled The Wilde Album. This rather small volume contained many pictures and other Wilde memorabilia, much of which had not been published before. It includes 27 pictures taken by the portrait photographer Napoleon Sarony, one of which is at the beginning of this article.
  • 1999 saw the publication of Oscar Wilde on Stage and Screen written by Robert Tanitch. This book is a comprehensive record of Wilde's life and work as presented on stage and screen from 1880 until 1999. It includes cast lists and snippets of reviews.
  • In 2000 Columbia University professor Barbara Belford published the biography, "Oscar Wilde: A Certain Genius."
  • 2003 saw the publication of the first complete account of Wilde's sexual and emotional life in The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde by Neil McKenna (Century/Random House).
  • 2005 saw the publication of The Unmasking of Oscar Wilde, by literary biographer Joseph Pearce. It explores the Catholic sensibility in his art, his interior suffering and dissatisfaction, and his lifelong fascination with the Catholicism, which led to his deathbed embrace of the Church.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 266 KB)Photo taken by User:Adam Carr, June 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 266 KB)Photo taken by User:Adam Carr, June 2002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Oscar Wildes house at 34 Tite Street, now commemorated with a blue plaque. ... Frank Harris by Alvin Langdon Coburn. ... Robert Harborough Sherard (3 December 1861 – 30 January 1943) was an English writer and journalist. ... Charles De Sousy Ricketts (1866 - 1931) was a versatile English artist and designer, best known for his work as book designer and typographer from 1896 to 1904 with the Vale Press, and his work in the theatre as a set designer. ... Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (22 October 1870 – 20 March 1945) was a poet, a translator and a prose writer, better known as the intimate friend and lover of the writer Oscar Wilde. ... Sewell Stokes (November 16, 1902 London - November 2, 1979 London) was an English novelist, biographer, playwright, and screenwriter. ... Harford Montgomery Hyde (August 14, 1907 – August 10, 1989), born in Belfast, was a barrister, politician (Ulster Unionist MP for North Belfast) and author from Northern Ireland and early campaigner for homosexual law reform, losing his seat as a result. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Richard Ellmann (March 15, 1918 – May 13, 1987) was a prominent American/British literary critic and biographer of Irish writers such as James Joyce, Oscar Wilde, and William Butler Yeats. ... Merlin Holland is Oscar Wildes only grandson. ... (1882), the subject of Saronys copyright infringement lawsuit that reached the U.S. Supreme Court Napoleon Sarony (1821 – 1896) was an American lithographer and photographer. ... Robert Tanitch is an author, playwright and biographer of theater and film actors including such luminaries as Alec Guinness and Lawrence Olivier. ... Joseph Pearce (born 1961) is an English-born writer, as of 2005 Writer in Residence and Professor of Literature at Ave Maria University in Naples, Florida; previously he had a comparable position, from 2001, at Ave Maria College in Ypsilanti, Michigan. ...

Biographical films, television series and stage plays

  • The play Oscar Wilde (1936), written by Leslie and Sewell Stokes, based on the life of Wilde, included Frank Harris as a character. Starring Robert Morley, the play opened at the Gate Theatre in London in 1936, and two years later was staged in New York where its success launched the career of Morley as a stage actor.
  • Two films of his life were released in 1960. The first to be released was Oscar Wilde starring Robert Morley and based on the Stokes brothers' play mentioned above. Then came The Trials of Oscar Wilde starring Peter Finch. At the time homosexuality was still a criminal offence in the UK and both films were rather cagey in touching on the subject without being explicit.
  • In 1960, Irish actor Micheál MacLiammóir began performing a one-man show called The Importance of Being Oscar. The show was heavily influenced by Brechtian theory and contained many poems and samples of Wilde's writing. The play was a success and MacLiammoir toured it with success everywhere he went. It was published in 1963.
  • In 1972, director Adrian Hall's and composer Richard Cumming's play Feasting with Panthers, based on Wilde's writings and set in Reading Gaol, premiered at the Trinity Repertory Company in Providence, Rhode Island.
  • In the summer of 1977 Vincent Price began performing the one-man play Diversions and Delights. Written by John Gay and directed by Joseph Hardy [2], the premise of the play is that an ageing Oscar Wilde, in order to earn some much-needed money, gave a lecture on his life in a Parisian theatre on November 28, 1899 (just a year before his death). The play was a success everywhere it was performed, except for its New York City run. It was revived in 1990 in London with Donald Sinden in the role.
  • In 1978 London Weekend Television produced a television series about the life of Lillie Langtry entitled Lillie. In it Peter Egan played Oscar. The bulk of his scenes portrayed their close friendship up to and including their tours of America in 1882. Thereafter, he was in a few more scenes leading up to his trials in 1895.
  • Michael Gambon portrayed Wilde on British Television in 1983 in the three-part BBC series Oscar concentrating on the trial and prison term.
  • 1988 saw Nickolas Grace playing Wilde in Ken Russell's film Salome's Last Dance.
  • In 1989 Terry Eagleton premiered his play St. Oscar. Eagleton agrees that only one line in the entire play is taken directly from Wilde, while the rest of the dialogue is his own fancy. The play is also influenced by Brechtian theory.
  • A fuller look at his life, without any of the restrictions of the 1960 films, is Wilde (1997) starring Stephen Fry. Fry, an acknowledged Wilde scholar, also appeared as Wilde in the short-lived American television series Ned Blessing (1993).
  • In 1994 Jim Bartley published Stephen and Mr. Wilde, a novel about Wilde and his fictional black manservant Stephen set during Wilde's American tour.
  • Moises Kaufman's 1997 play Gross Indecency: The Three Trials of Oscar Wilde uses real quotes and transcripts of Wilde's three trials.
  • Wilde appears as a supporting character in Tom Stoppard's 1997 play The Invention of Love and is referenced extensively in Stoppard's 1974 play Travesties.
  • David Hare's 1998 play The Judas Kiss portrays Wilde as a manly homosexual Christ figure.
  • The main character in the Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty musical A Man of No Importance identifies himself with Oscar Wilde, and Wilde appears to him several times.
  • Actor/playwright Jade Esteban Estrada portrayed Wilde in the solo musical comedy ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 1 in 2002.
  • Oscar: in October 2004, a stage musical by Mike Read about Oscar Wilde, closed after just one night at the Shaw Theatre in Euston after a severe critical mauling.
  • A play was made in Argentina called "The importance of being Oscar Wilde" produced by Pepito Cibrian
  • Somdomite: The Loves of Oscar Wilde premiered at Manhattanville College in 2005. Written by Joshua R. Pangborn, the play not only explores the last few years of Wilde's life, but the influence his choices had on his family and friends as well.

The play Oscar Wilde, written by Leslie & Sewell Stokes, is based on the life of the legendary Irish playwright Oscar Wilde in which Wildes friend, the controversial author and journalist Frank Harris, appears as a character. ... Leslie Stokes was an English playwright and BBC radio producer and director. ... Sewell Stokes (November 16, 1902 London - November 2, 1979 London) was an English novelist, biographer, playwright, and screenwriter. ... Frank Harris by Alvin Langdon Coburn. ... Robert Morley CBE (May 26, 1908 – June 3, 1992) was an Oscar-nominated English actor who, often in supporting roles, was usually cast as a pompous English gentleman representing the Establishment. ... Oscar Wilde is a 1960 movie about Oscar Wilde, starring Robert Morley. ... The Trials of Oscar Wilde also known as The Man with the Green Carnation, The Green Carnation, and The Trial of Oscar Wilde is a 1960 English film based on the libel case involving Oscar Wilde and the Marquess of Queensberry. ... Peter Finch (September 28, 1912 – January 14, 1977) was an English-born actor with strong Australian connections. ... Micheál MacLiammóir (born Alfred Willmore) was an Irish actor and dramatist born to a Protestant family on October 25, 1899 in the Kilburn neighborhood of London. ... The Importance of Being Oscar is a one-man show devised by the soi-disant Irish actor Micheál MacLiammóir and based on the writings of Oscar Wilde. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... The Trinity Repertory Company is a regional theatre located in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Vincent Leonard Price Jr. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Sir Donald Alfred Sinden, CBE (born Plymouth, 9 October 1923) is an English stage and film actor. ... LWT redirects here. ... This article refers to Langtry, Lillie. ... Lillie is a British television serial made by London Weekend Television for ITV and broadcast in 1978. ... This article is about the British actor. ... Sir Michael John Gambon, KBE (born October 19, 1940), is an acclaimed Irish-British actor who has worked in television, film and theatre. ... Nickolas Grace is a British actor, best known for his roles on television - including Anthony Blanche in Brideshead Revisited and the Sheriff of Nottingham in Robin of Sherwood. ... Henry Kenneth Alfred Russell, known as Ken Russell (born July 3, 1927), is an English film director, particularly well-known for his films about famous composers and his controversial, often outrageous pioneering work in film. ... Salomes Last Dance is a 1988 film by British film director, Ken Russell. ... Terry Eagleton (born in Salford, Lancashire (now Greater Manchester), England, on February 22, 1943) is a British literary critic and philosopher. ... {{dy justified his choice of form, and from about 1929 on he began to interpret its penchant for contradictions, much as had Eisenstein, in terms of the dialectic. ... Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, writer, actor, humourist, novelist, columnist, filmmaker and television personality. ... Moisés Kaufman (born 1964) is a playwright and director. ... Sir Tom Stoppard, OM, CBE (born as Tomáš Straussler on July 3, 1937)[1] is an Academy Award winning British playwright of more than 24 plays. ... The Invention of Love is a play by Tom Stoppard portraying the life of poet A.E. Housman, focusing specifically on his homosexuality and love for a college roommate. ... Travesties is a comedic play by Tom Stoppard, first produced in 1975. ... David Hare (born June 5, 1947) is an English dramatist and director. ... Lynn Ahrens (born October 1, 1948) is an American musical theatre lyricist who most-frequently works with Stephen Flaherty. ... Stephen Flaherty (born 1960) is an American composer of musical theatre in collaboration with Lynn Ahrens, and best known for the show Once On This Island, which was nominated for eight Tony Awards. ... A Man of No Importance is a musical with a book by Terrence McNally, lyrics by Lynn Ahrens, and music by Stephen Flaherty. ... Jade Esteban Estrada (born September 17, 1975 at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas) is a successful Latin pop singer, comedian, choreographer and actor. ... A trick photograph of Mike Read Mike Read (1 March 1951) is a British disc jockey, writer and former television presenter. ...

Modern popular culture

Wilde is an iconic figure in modern popular culture, both as a wit and as an archetype of gay identity. Such references to him include a Monty Python skit called "Oscar Wilde and Friends,"[25], a Kids in the Hall sketch featuring Dave Foley as Wilde, a brief depiction in Todd Haynes' 1998 film Velvet Goldmine (where Wilde's persona is presented as a precursor to glam rock); Dorian, Will Self's 2004 reworking of Wilde's novel, set in 1981; and Melmoth, Dave Sim's comic book, which retells the story of Wilde's final months with the names and places slightly altered to fit the world of Cerebus the Aardvark. In Gabriel Garcia Marquez's novel Love in the Time of Cholera, the protagonists are mentioned to have seen a glimpse of Oscar Wilde while strolling through Paris. He can be found as an influence to The Beatles on the cover of the Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... Dave Foley (born January 4, 1963, in Etobicoke, Ontario) is a Canadian actor, best known for his work in The Kids in the Hall, NewsRadio, and Celebrity Poker Showdown. ... Maverick, onetime New Queer Cinema director Todd Haynes was born on January 2, 1961, in Encino, California, and has had a controversial career. ... Velvet Goldmine is a 1998 film directed and co-written by Todd Haynes. ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a style of rock music, which initially surfaced in the post-hippie early 1970s. ... Will Self William Self (born September 26, 1961) is an English novelist, reviewer and columnist. ... David Victor Sim (born May 17, 1956 in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian comic book writer and artist, best known as the creator of the 6,000 page graphic novel Cerebus the Aardvark. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Cerebus the Aardvark, or simply Cerebus (pronounced Sehr-uh-bus[1]), is an award-winning independent comic book, written and illustrated by Canadian artist Dave Sim, with backgrounds by fellow Canadian Gerhard. ... Gabriel Garcia Marquez Gabriel García Márquez (born March 6, 1928) is a Colombian novelist, journalist, publisher, and political activist. ... Love in the Time of Cholera (El amor en los tiempos del cólera, 1985) is a novel by Gabriel García Márquez about a fifty-year love triangle between Fermina Daza, Florentino Ariza and Doctor Juvenal Urbino set in the late 19th century and the first decades of... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... For other uses, see Sgt. ...


Many songs have alluded to Wilde or his works, including The Smiths' "Cemetry Gates" and British singer / songwriter James Blunt's "Tears and Rain" (which mentions Dorian Gray). The Libertines sing about how nice it would be to be "Dorian Gray, just for a day" in their song "Narcissist" on their 2004 LP. The Pretenders paraphrase the famous quote "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars" in their song " Message of Love". Mötley Crüe makes mention of Dorian Gray as well in the song "New Tattoo". There is also a mention of Dorian Gray and "A picture in gray..." in the song "The Ocean" by U2 from their debut album Boy. "The Long Voyage" from French producer Hector Zazou's 1994 album Chansons des mers froides, on which Suzanne Vega and John Cale recite lyrics based on Wilde's poem "Silhouettes". "Resist", by Canadian rock group Rush, includes the line "I can resist everything except temptation," a quote from the play "Lady Windermere's Fan" by Wilde. Marilyn Manson includes references to Wilde on the 2003 album The Golden Age of Grotesque, particularly the song "Mobscene". Additionally, during the Perth show of his 2007-2008 Rape of the World tour on October 13, Manson dedicated his performance of "Mobscense" to Wilde, whose birthday was 3 days later. The Wikipedia parody Uncyclopedia contains many fictional quotes attributed to him.[26][27] The Smiths were an English rock band active from 1982 to 1987. ... For the American Civil War general, see James G. Blunt. ... The Libertines were an English rock band that gained notoriety[1] in the early 2000s, part of what was described as the garage rock revival movement of that time. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Narcissism is the pattern of traits and behaviors which involve infatuation and obsession with ones self to the exclusion of others and the egotistic and ruthless pursuit of ones gratification, dominance and ambition. ... The Pretenders are an Anglo-American rock band. ... Mötley Crüe (pronounced Motley Crew) is an American heavy metal band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1980. ... The Ocean is the seventh track of U2s debut album, Boy. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Alternate cover U.S. and Canada cover Singles from Boy Released: August 1980 Released: October 1981 Boy is the debut album from Irish rock band U2, released in 1980. ... Discography Albums External links Hector Zazou reviewed by All Music Guide Hector Zazou reviewed by MBHs Sunday Features ... Chansons des mers froides (French: songs from the cold seas) is a 1994 album by French musician Hector Zazou. ... Suzanne Vega (born Suzanne Nadine Vega, 11 July 1959, Santa Monica, California) is an American songwriter and singer known for her highly literate lyrics and eclectic folk-inspired music. ... Not to be confused with J.J. Cale. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band originally formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario; presently comprised of bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Marilyn Manson is an American metal band based in Los Angeles, California. ... The Golden Age of Grotesque is the fifth full length album by Marilyn Manson released in 2003. ... mOBSCENE is the inaugural single taken from the 2003 album The Golden Age of Grotesque by Marilyn Manson. ... Rape of the World is a tour of Marilyn Manson in 2007 from their album Eat Me, Drink Me. Touring with Manson on the North American dates were the thrash metal band Slayer and hard rock band Bleeding Through. ... Marilyn Manson is an alternative metal / alternative rock band based in Hollywood, California. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Uncyclopedia is an English-language wiki that features satirically themed articles as a parody of Wikipedia. ...


Works

Poetry

The Ballad of Reading Gaol is a famous poem by Oscar Wilde, written after his release from Reading prison on 19 May 1897. ...

Plays

(Dates are dates of first performance, which approximate better with the probable date of composition than dates of publication.) Vera; or, The Nihilists is a play by Oscar Wilde. ... The Duchess of Padua is a play by Oscar Wilde. ... Salomé, originally written in French in 1891 and translated into English, is a tragedy by the Irish-born playwright Oscar Wilde. ... Oscar Wilde. ... A Woman of No Importance program from 1930 A Woman of No Importance book cover, New Mermaids edition (softback) A Woman of No Importance is a play by Irish playwright Oscar Wilde. ... Salomé, originally written in French in 1891 and translated into English, is a tragedy by the Irish-born playwright Oscar Wilde. ... Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas (22 October 1870 – 20 March 1945) was a poet, a translator and a prose writer, better known as the intimate friend and lover of the writer Oscar Wilde. ... Aubrey Beardsley Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (August 21, 1872 – March 16, 1898) was an influential English illustrator, and author, best known for his erotic illustrations. ... An Ideal Husband is an 1895 comedy by Oscar Wilde which revolves around blackmail and political corruption, and touches on the themes of public and private honor. ... The Importance of Being Earnest is a play by Oscar Wilde, a comedy of manners on the seriousness of society in either three or four acts (depending on edition) inspired by W. S. Gilberts Engaged. ... A Florentine Tragedy is a never-completed fragment of a play by Oscar Wilde. ...


Prose

The Canterville Ghost is a popular novella by Oscar Wilde, widely adapted for the screen and stage. ... The Happy Prince and Other Stories is an 1888 collection of stories for children by Oscar Wilde. ... Lord Arthur Saviles Crime and Other Stories is collection of short semi-comic mystery stories that was written by Oscar Wilde and published in 1891. ... The Picture of Dorian Gray is the only published novel written by Oscar Wilde, and first came out as the lead story in Lippincotts Monthly Magazine on 20 June 1890. ... Illustration of the witch from The Fisherman and his Soul A House of Pomegranates is a collection of fairy tales, written by Oscar Wilde, that was published as a second collection for The Happy Prince and Other Tales (1892). ... The Soul of Man under Socialism is an essay by Oscar Wilde in which he expounds a libertarian socialist worldview. ... LATIN VERSION from the Latin Bible: Latin Vulgate canticum graduum 1. ... The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde contains over 1000 pages of letters written by Oscar Wilde. ... Teleny, or The Reverse of the Medal, is a gay novel, set in Paris in the 1890s about a young man who falls in love with a Hungarian pianist. ...

References

Print

  • Beckson, Karl. The Oscar Wilde Encyclopedia. (AMS, 1998)
  • Ellmann, Richard. Oscar Wilde. (Vintage, 1988) ISBN 0-521-47987-8
  • Holland, Merlin. The Wilde Album. (Fourth Estate, 1997) ISBN 1-85702-782-5
  • Igoe, Vivien. A Literary Guide to Dublin. (Methuen, 1994) ISBN 0-413-69120-9
  • Mason, Stuart [Christopher Millard]. Bibliography of Oscar Wilde. (Laurie, 1914; latest edition Oak Knoll Press, 1999) ISBN 1-578-98104-2
  • McKenna, Neil. The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde. (Random House, 2004) ISBN 0-09-941545-3
  • Raby, Peter (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Oscar Wilde. (CUP, 1997) ISBN 0-521-47987-8
  • Tufescu, Florina. Oscar Wilde's Plagiarism: The Triumph of Art over Ego. (Irish Academic Press, 2008) ISBN 9780716529040
  • Wilde, Oscar. The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde. (Collins, 2003) ISBN 0-00-714436-9
  • Whittington-Egan, Molly. Such White Lillies: Frank Miles & Oscar Wilde (Rivendale Jan.2008) ISBN 1-904201-09-1
  • Wood, Julia: The Resurrection of Oscar Wilde; The Lutterworth Press 2007, Cambridge: ISBN 9780718830717

Online

Karl Beckson (born February 4, 1926 in New York) is an American author of numerous articles and sixteen books on British literature, culture, and authors including Oscar Wilde, Arthur Symons, and Henry Harland. ... Richard Ellmann (March 15, 1918 – May 13, 1987) was a prominent American/British literary critic and biographer of Irish writers such as James Joyce, Oscar Wilde, and William Butler Yeats. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Oscar Wilde Portal 

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ... William Andrews Clark Memorial Library from the front, built 1924 - 1926, Robert Farquhar, architect The William Andrews Clark Memorial Library (Clark Library), one of the twelve libraries in the University of California, Los Angeles library system, is one of the most comprehensive rare books and manuscripts libraries in the United... Dame Ellen Terry, GBE (February 27, 1848 – July 21, 1928) was an English stage actress. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Literary Encyclopedia - Oscar Wilde
  2. ^ Oscar Wilde by Richard Ellmann
  3. ^ Wilde, Oscar, "The Soul of Man Under Socialism", The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde, Collins.
  4. ^ Wilde, Oscar, "De Profundis", The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde, Collins.
  5. ^ In England, in the Irish PUTI and dramatist Oscar Wilde declared himself an anarchist and, under Kropotkin's inspiration, wrote the essay "The Soul of Man Under Socialism" — "Anarchism as a movement, 1870–1940", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007
  6. ^ Muckley, Peter A, "'With them, in some things': Oscar Wilde and the Varieties of Socialism", C/Hernani, 36, 2A, 28020 MADRID, Spain. Retrieved August 16, 2007
  7. ^ Ireland, Doug (August 26, 2005). "Wildes Second Coming Out"[sic] . In These Times. Retrieved on April 20, 2007.
  8. ^ Heilmann, Ann, Wilde's New Women: the New Woman on Wilde in Uwe Böker, Richard Corballis, Julie A. Hibbard, The Importance of Reinventing Oscar: Versions of Wilde During the Last 100 Years (Rodopi, 2002) pp. 135-147, in particular p. 139
  9. ^ "We know that Wilde engaged in sexual acts with males, loved obsessively at least one male, cultivated a style of male intimacy and of Aesthetic transgression, thought of himself as in a tradition fostered by Greek pederastic love, expressed guilt for his same-sex acts/desires." John Maynard, "Sexuality and Love," in A Companion to Victorian Poetry, Ed. Richard Cronin et al.
  10. ^ Rictor Norton, A Critique of Social Constructionism and Postmodern Queer Theory, "A False 'Birth'," 1 June 2002 <http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/social15.htm>
  11. ^ Jad Adams, Strange Bedfellows, The Guardian, October 25, 2003 (review of Neil McKenna's The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde), accessed online 15 October 2007.
  12. ^ H. Montgomery Hyde, The Love That Dared not Speak its Name; p.144
  13. ^ Richard Ellman 'Oscar Wilde' Pulitzer prize winning biography
  14. ^ Irish Peacock & Scarlet Marquis, Merlin Holland
  15. ^ Richard Ellman 'Oscar Wilde' Pulitzer prize winning biography.
  16. ^ Irish Peacock & Scarlet Marquis, Merlin Holland
  17. ^ H. Montgomery Hyde, The Love That Dared not Speak its Name; p.5
  18. ^ Trials Of Oscar Wilde - Introduction by Sir Travers Humphrey QC
  19. ^ Richard Ellman, Oscar Wilde pg 435. Carson Approached Frank Lockwood (QC) and asked 'Can we not let up on the fellow now?
  20. ^ H. Montgomery Hyde, The Love That Dared Not Speak Its Name, p.170; Boston: Little, Brown, 1970
  21. ^ H. Montgomery Hyde, op.cit. p.152
  22. ^ M. Beerbohm (1946) "Mainly on the Air"
  23. ^ Holland, A. and Rupert Hart-Davis (2000): The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. pp. 1219-1220, New York: Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 0805059156
  24. ^ (RE)membering Wilde, retrieved on 2007-01-12
  25. ^ "Oscar Wilde and Friends" on YouTube
  26. ^ Oscar Wilde - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia
  27. ^ The Hindu : Metro Plus Hyderabad / Wired In : Surely, you must be joking!

... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Doug Ireland is an American journalist and blogger who writes frequently about gay politics. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been... In These Times is a biweekly magazine of news and opinion published in Chicago. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

External links

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Oscar Wilde

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamblings Scallop (2003) stands on the north end of Aldeburgh beach. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Online texts

Persondata
NAME Wilde, Oscar
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Wilde, Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills
SHORT DESCRIPTION Irish writer
DATE OF BIRTH 16 October 1854
PLACE OF BIRTH Dublin, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH 30 November 1900
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France
A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oscar Wilde - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5163 words)
Oscar Wilde's niece, Dolly Wilde, was involved in a lengthy lesbian affair with writer Natalie Clifford Barney.
Wilde and some within his upper-class social group also began to speak about homosexual law reform, and their commitment to "The Cause" was formalised by the founding of a highly secretive organisation called the Order of Chaeronea, of which Wilde was a member.
Wilde: "The love that dares not speak its name" in this century is such a great affection of an elder for a younger man as there was between David and Jonathan, such as Plato made the very basis of his philosophy, and such as you find in the sonnets of Michelangelo and Shakespeare.
CedarNet: The Oscar Wilde Project (905 words)
Born in Dublin in 1854, Oscar Wilde became one of the true masters of the English language.
Mixing dialogue with selected excerpts from the work and wit of Oscar Wilde, the play brings forth the soul of the man. It explores the creativity and characters that epitomize the work and the man-- Oscar Wilde; placing him in the context of the universality of human experience.
Richard Ellmann writes in his biography, Oscar Wilde, "he was proposing that good and evil are not what they seem, that moral tabs cannot cope with the complexity of behavior." Wilde was a satirist whose wit, commentary, and caricature challenged society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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