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Encyclopedia > Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Muhammad bin 'Awad bin Laden
Osama bin Muhammad bin 'Awad bin Laden
Osama bin Muhammad bin 'Awad bin Laden
Born: March 10, 1957 (age 49)
Flag of Saudi Arabia Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Crime: Murder of U.S. nationals outside the United States
Conspiracy to murder U.S. nationals outside the United States
Attack on a federal facility resulting in death
Date Added: June 7, 1999
Number on List: #452
Currently Top Ten Fugitive

Osama bin Muhammad bin 'Awad bin Laden (Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. In conjunction with several other Islamic terrorists, bin Laden issued two fatwasin 1996 and then again in 1998—that Muslims should kill civilians and military personnel from the United States and allied countries until they withdraw support for Israel and withdraw military forces from Islamic countries.[2][3] FBI Photo Information about this image : [1] (Im not the original uploader. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ‎ ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, located in Ar Riyad Province in the Najd region. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saudi Arabian Airlines (also known as Saudia) is Saudi Arabias domestic and international airline, and one of the largest airlines of the Middle East. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ‎; plural fatāwa), is a legal pronouncement in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Sheikh Osama bin Laden has issued two fatawa. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are at least 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


He has been indicted in United States federal court for his alleged involvement in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya, and is on the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list. It has also been said that he is linked to the 2000 USS Cole bombing, the Bali nightclub bombings, the Madrid bombings, as well as bombings in the Jordanian capital of Amman and in Egypt's Sinai peninsula. In the common law legal system, an indictment is a formal charge of having committed a serious criminal offense. ... The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. ... Aftermath at the Nairobi embassy. ... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ... Nairobi (pronounced )is the capital of Kenya. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list arose from a conversation held in late 1949, during a game of Hearts between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson,[1] International News Service (the predecessor of the United Press International) Editor-in... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11-M, 3/11, 11/3 and M-11) were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded over 1700. ... Amman, the capital city of Jordan. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


Although bin Laden has not been indicted for the September 11, 2001 attacks, he has taken responsibility for them.[4][5][6] Attacks involved the hijacking of United Airlines Flight 93, United Airlines Flight 175, American Airlines Flight 11, American Airlines Flight 77, and the subsequent destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City and severe damage to The Pentagon outside of Washington, DC.[7] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... United Airlines Flight 93 was a flaming homosexual flight from Newark International Airport (now known as Newark Liberty International Airport) in Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco International Airport, then continuing on to Narita International Airport in Tokyo, Japan, on a different aircraft. ... A portion of the fuselage from United Airlines Flight 175 on the roof of 5 WTC. United Airlines Flight 175 was a morning flight that regularly flew from Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in Los Angeles, California (Boston–Los Angeles route). ... Flight 11 redirects here. ... Security camera image showing American Airlines Flight 77 (far right, just above far right stone block) just before impact. ... WTC redirects here. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located at 48 N. Rotary Road, Arlington, Virginia 22211 (Map). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...

Contents

Family and childhood

Main article: Bin Laden family

Osama Muhammed bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.[8] In a 1998 interview, later televised on Al Jazeera, he gave his birth date as March 10, 1957. His father, the late Muhammed Awad bin Laden, was a wealthy businessman with close ties to the Saudi royal family.[9] Before World War I, Muhammed, poor and uneducated, emigrated from Hadhramaut, on the south coast of Yemen, to the Red Sea port of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, where he began to work as a porter. Starting his own business in 1930, Muhammed built his fortune as a building contractor for the Saudi royal family during the 1950s. Office building of the bin Laden family. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ‎ ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, located in Ar Riyad Province in the Najd region. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shaikh Mohammed bin Laden (محمد بن لادن), also known as Mohammed Awad bin Laden (1908—September 3, 1967), a Yemeni immigrant to Saudi Arabia was a wealthy investor, businessman and patriarch of the bin Laden family. ... The House of Saud refers to the royal family of Saudi Arabia. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: ‎ []) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Jeddah (also Jedda, Jiddah, or Juddah) is a city in in western Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea. ... The House of Saud refers to the royal family of Saudi Arabia. ...


In 1994 bin Laden's family publicly disowned him, shortly before the Saudi Arabian government revoked his citizenship for anti-government activity. He attended his son's wedding in January 2001, but since September 11 of that year he is believed only to have had contact with his mother on one occasion.[10] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


There is no definitive account of the number of children born to Muhammed bin Laden, but the number is generally put at 55. Various accounts place Osama as his seventeenth son. Muhammed bin Laden was married 22 times, although to no more than four women at a time per Sharia law. Osama was born the only son of Muhammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Hamida al-Attas, nee Alia Ghanem[11], who was born in Syria.[12] Not to be confused with Shahryar. ... Hamida al-Attas is the mother of Osama Bin Laden. ...


Al-Attas' step family in Jeddah

Osama's parents divorced soon after he was born, according to Khaled M. Batarfi, a senior editor at the Al Madina newspaper in Jeddah who knew Osama during the 1970s. Osama's mother then married a man named Muhammad al-Attas, who worked at the bin Laden company. The couple had four children, and Osama lived in the new household with three stepbrothers and one stepsister.[13] Al Madina is the oldest newspaper and publishing house in Saudi Arabia and Al Madina Press is now one of the Kingdoms most prominent media companies. ...


Education and politicization

Bin Laden was raised as a devout Sunni Muslim. From 1968 to 1976 he attended the relatively secular Al-Thager Model School, the most prestigious secondary school in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, called "the school of the élite."[14] In the 1960s, King Faisal had welcomed exiled teachers from Syria, Egypt, and Jordan, so that by the early seventies it was common to find members of the Muslim Brotherhood teaching at Saudi schools and universities. During that time, bin Laden was exposed to the Brotherhood's political teachings during after-school Islamic study groups. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... A secondary school in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, the Al-Thager Model School is a two-storey building that used to house both primary and secondary grades, as well as residential dormitories on the second level. ... There were numerous monarchs known as King Faisal, including: King Faisal of Saudi Arabia King Faisal I of Iraq King Faisal II of Iraq This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Muslim Brotherhood symbol. ...


Bin Laden may have studied economics and business administration[15] at the Management and Economics School of King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. Some reports suggest Bin Laden earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979,[16] or a degree in public administration in 1981.[17] Other sources describe him as never having graduated from college, though "hard working,"[18] or having left university during his third year.[19] Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Look up economics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a tertiary degree in business management. ... King Abdulaziz University (in Arabic جامعة الملك عبد العزيز) The King AbdulAziz University founded in 1967 , had 2,000 teachers and more than 37,000 students in 2000/2001. ... It has been suggested that Professional degree be merged into this article or section. ... Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ...


At university, bin Laden was influenced by Muhammad Qutb and Abdallah Azzam, professors with strong ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. Qutb, an Egyptian, was the brother and publicizer of the late Sayyid Qutb, author of Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq, or Milestones, one of the most influential tracts on the importance of jihad against all that is unIslamic in the world.[19][1] Azzam,[19] an Islamic scholar from Palestine, was instrumental in building pan-Islamic enthusiasm for jihad against the Soviets in Afghanistan and in drawing Muslims (like bin Laden) from all over the Middle East to fight there.[20] Muhammad Qutb, the brother of the Egyptian Islamic thinker Sayyid Qutb, taught for several years in Saudi Arabia. ... Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (1941–1989) (Arabic عبدالله عزام) was a central figure in the global development of the militant Islamist movement. ... Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (IPA pronunciation: ) (Arabic: ‎; 9 October 1906 (The Library of Congress has his birth year as 1903). ... Maalim fi-l-Tariq or Milestones (Arabic: معالم في الطريق), first published in 1964, is a book by Egyptian Islamist author Sayyid Qutb in which he lays out a plan and makes a call to action to re-create the Muslim world on strictly Quranic grounds, casting off what Qutb calls...


Bin Laden has informal training in Islamic jurisprudence, is considered "well versed in the classical scriptures and traditions of Islam"[21] and has been mentored by scholars such as Musa al-Qarni[22] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Musa al-Qarni is a former mufti of Osama bin Laden. ...


Married life in Jeddah

In 1974, at the age of 17, bin Laden married his first wife, his first cousin from Syria, Najwa Ghanem, his mother's brother's daughter. The marriage ceremony took place in Najwa's native land, at Latakia, in northwestern Syria.[2][23] After the birth of his first son, Abdallah, they moved from his mother's house to a building in the Al-Aziziyah district of Jeddah. Saad bin Laden is one of at least 11 sons from Osamas first wife and also first cousin, Najwa Ghanem from Syria. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ...


Bin Laden is reported to have married four other women[3] and divorced one, Umm Ali bin Laden (i.e., the mother of Ali). Umm Ali bin Laden was a University lecturer who studied in Saudi Arabia,[4][24] and spent holidays in Khartoum, Sudan, where Osama later settled during his exile in the years 1991 to 1996. According to Wisal al Turabi, the wife of Sudan's ruler Hassan Turabi, Umm Ali taught Islam to some families in Riyadh, an upscale neighborhood in Khartoum. The three latter wives of Osama bin Laden were all university lecturers, highly educated, and from distinguished families. According to Wisal al Turabi, he married the other three because they were "spinsters," who "were going to go without marrying in this world. So he married them for the Word of God."[5][25] According to Abu Jandal, bin Laden's former chief bodyguard, Osama's wife Umm Ali asked Osama for a divorce when they still lived in Sudan, because she said that she "could not continue to live in an austere way and in hardship."[6][26] Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Abu Jandal was a member of al-Qaeda and former chief bodyguard of Osama bin Laden. ...


Children

Bin Laden has fathered anywhere between 12 to 24 children.[27] His wife, Najwa, reportedly had 11 children by bin Laden, including Abdallah (born c. 1976), Omar, Saad and Muhammad. Muhammad bin Laden (born c. 1983) married the daughter of the late alleged al-Qaeda military chief Mohammed Atef in January 2001, at Kandahar, Afghanistan. A son of Osama bin Laden, Saad bin Laden continued in his fathers footsteps, occupying a position of prominence within Al Qaeda. ... Mohammed Atef Group photo of Ayman al-Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden & Abu Hafs Prosecution Trial Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Mohammed Atef (Arabic: محمد عاطف ) (also transliterated as Muhammad Atef, Muhammed Atef, Muhammad ‘Āṭif and several other ways) was the alleged military chief of the international terrorist organization al-Qaida. ... For the hamlet in Saskatchewan, Canada; see Kandahar, Saskatchewan. ...


Appearance and manner

Bin Laden is often described as lanky; the FBI describes him as tall and thin, being 6' 4" (193 cm) to 6' 5" (195 cm) tall and weighing about 165 pounds (75 kg). He has an olive complexion, is left-handed, and usually walks with a cane. He wears a plain white turban and no longer dons the traditional Saudi male headdress, generally white.[28] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... A cane is a long, straight wooden stick, generally of bamboo, Malacca (rattan), or some similar plant, mainly used as a support, such as a walking stick or as an instrument of punishment. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The turban (Arabic: ‎, ‘imāmä; Turkish: tülbent; Persian: دلبنت, dulband) is a headdress, of Asian origin, consisting of a long scarf wound round the head or an inner hat. ...


In terms of personality, bin Laden is described as a soft-spoken, mild mannered man,[29]; and despite his rhetoric, he is said to be charming, polite, and respectful. According to Michael Scheuer, bin Laden claims to speak only Arabic, though others, such as Rhimaulah Yusufzai and Peter Bergen, believe he understands English.[30] However, in a 1998 interview, he had to have English questions translated for him into Arabic.[31] Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Usage variations of bin Laden's name

Because there is no universally accepted standard in the West for transliterating Arabic words and names into English, bin Laden's name is transliterated in many ways. The version often used by most English-language mass media is Osama bin Laden. Most American government agencies, including the FBI and CIA, use either Usama bin Laden or Usama bin Ladin, both of which are often abbreviated to UBL. Less common renderings include Ussamah Bin Ladin and Oussama Ben Laden (French-language mass media). The latter part of the name can also be found as Binladen or Binladin. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


Strictly speaking, under Arabic linguistic conventions, it is incorrect to use "bin Laden" in a similar manner as a Western surname. His full name means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of 'Awad, son of Laden". However, the bin Laden family (or "Binladin," as they prefer to be known) generally use the name as a surname in the Western style. Although Arabic conventions dictate that he be referred to as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", using "bin Laden" is in accordance with the family's own usage of the name and is the near-universal convention in Western references to him. Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ...


Bin Laden also has several commonly used aliases and nicknames, including the Prince, the Sheikh, Al-Amir, Abu Abdallah, Sheikh Al-Mujahid, the Director, and Samaritan.[32] A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... // A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Bob, Rob, Robby, Robbie, Robi, Robin, Bobby, Rab, Rabbie, Bert, Bertie, Butch, Bobbers, Bobert, Beto, Bobadito, and Robban (in Sweden), are all nicknames for Robert). ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ...


Military and militant activity

Jihad in Afghanistan

Group photo of Ayman Al Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden & Abu Hafs.Prosecution exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui.
Group photo of Ayman Al Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden & Abu Hafs.
Prosecution exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui.

Bin Laden's wealth and connections assisted his interest in supporting the mujahideen, Muslim guerrillas fighting the Soviet Union in Afghanistan following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. His old teacher from the university in Jeddah, Abdullah Azzam, had relocated to Peshawar, a major border city of a million people in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. From there, Azzam was able to organize resistance directly on the Afghan frontier. Peshawar is only 15 km east of the historic Khyber Pass, through the Safed Koh mountains, connected to the southeastern edge of the Hindu Kush range. This route became the major avenue of inserting foreign fighters and material support into eastern Afghanistan for the resistance against the Soviets, and also in later years. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x698, 122 KB)United States v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x698, 122 KB)United States v. ... Zacarias Moussaoui (Arabic: زكريا موسوي) (born May 30, 1968) is a French citizen of Moroccan descent who was convicted of conspiring to kill Americans as part of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Islamic-Arabic term for Muslims fighting in a war, or involved in any other struggle. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Peshāwar (Pashto: پښور; Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pakhawar in Pashto. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) (commonly known as Sarhad; سرحد) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns and various other groups. ... The Khyber Pass (also called the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Safed Koh (white mountain) is a range of mountains on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, up to 15,620ft (4,761 m) above sea-level at Mount Sikaram, straight and rigid, towering above all surrounding hills, it is near the Kabul River. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


After leaving college in 1979 bin Laden joined Azzam[33][34] to fight the Soviet Invasion[35] and lived for a time in Peshawar. According to Rahimullah Yusufzai, executive editor of the English-language daily The News International in 2001 "Azam prevailed on him to come and use his money" for training recruits, reported Yusufzai.[36] In the early 1980s, bin Laden lived at several addresses in and around Arbab Road, a narrow street in the University Town neighborhood in western Peshawar, Yusufzai said. Nearby in Gulshan Iqbal Road is the Arab mosque that Abdullah Azzam used as the jihad center, according to a Reuters inquiry in the neighborhood. Years later, in 1989, Azzam was blown up in a massive car bombing outside the mosque. Bin Laden is thought by some to be a suspect in that assassination, because of a rift in the direction of the jihad at that time.[37] Others doubt this claim; Ahmad Zaidan, for instance, author of the Arabic-language book Bin Laden Unmasked, told Peter L. Bergen in an interview, "I rule out totally that bin Laden would indulge himself in such things, after all, Osama bin Laden, he's not type of person to kill Abdullah Azzam. Otherwise, if he be exposed, he would be finished, totally." Bergen also cites Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, who speculates that there were more likely candidates than bin Laden: "It could be Hekmatyar, it could be KHAD, it could be the Mossad, the Egyptians [around Ayman al Zawahiri].... I met with Hekmatyar, an arrogant, self-centered person. I think Hekmatyar had a secret organization to eliminate his enemies."[38] The News International (ISSN 1563-9479) is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan, published simultaneously from Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore. ... The University of Peshawar (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, with an enrollment of 129, of whom one was a female. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (born 1947 in Imam Saheb, Kunduz province, Afghanistan) is an Afghan warlord. ... KHAD or KhAD is an abbreviation for Khedamat-e Eteleaat-e Dawlati, the Afghanistan Marxist regimes secret police, also known as the State Information Agency. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, often referred to as Mossad, meaning The Institute) is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert...


By 1984, with Azzam, bin Laden had established an organization named Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK, Office of Order in English), which funneled money, arms and Muslim fighters from around the world into the Afghan war. Through al-Khadamat, bin Laden's inherited family fortune paid for air tickets and accommodation, dealt with paperwork with Pakistani authorities and provided other such services for the jihad fighters. In running al-Khadamat, bin Laden set up a network of couriers traveling between Afghanistan and Peshawar, which continued to remain active after 2001, according to Yusufzai. The Maktab al-Khadamāt, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, is reliably believed to have been founded in 1984 by Dr. Abdullah Azzam and Osama bin Laden to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for... A generally ineffective group of fighters in the Soviet-Afghan War, the spin surrounding the Arab fighters enhanced their reputation, giving them almost hero status within the Arab world for defeating the godless communists. ...


Robin Cook, former leader of the British House of Commons and Foreign Secretary from 1997-2001, wrote in The Guardian on Friday, July 8, 2005, Robert Finlayson Cook, known as Robin Cook, (February 28, 1946 – August 6, 2005), was a politician in the British Labour Party. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

Bin Laden was, though, a product of a monumental miscalculation by western security agencies. Throughout the 80s he was armed by the CIA and funded by the Saudis to wage jihad against the Russian occupation of Afghanistan. Al-Qaida, literally "the database", was originally the computer file of the thousands of mujahideen who were recruited and trained with help from the CIA to defeat the Russians.[39]

However, Peter Bergen, a CNN journalist and adjunct professor who is known for conducting the first television interview with Osama bin Laden in 1997, refuted Cook's notion, stating on August 15, 2006, the following: Peter Bergen (1962-) is a fellow at the New America Foundation in Washington D.C; an Adjunct Professor at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University; CNNs terrorism analyst and author of Holy War, Inc. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

The story about bin Laden and the CIA—that the CIA funded bin Laden or trained bin Laden—is simply a folk myth. There's no evidence of this. In fact, there are very few things that bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri and the U.S. government agree on. They all agree that they didn't have a relationship in the 1980s. And they wouldn't have needed to. Bin Laden had his own money, he was anti-American and he was operating secretly and independently.

The real story here is the CIA didn't really have a clue about who this guy was until 1996 when they set up a unit to really start tracking him.[40]

It is more likely that the CIA was concerned and watching Osama bin Laden at least by early 1995 due to the discovery of the Oplan Bojinka plot which in part involved a suicide airplane attack on CIA Headquarters. Oplan Bojinka was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995. ...


For a while Osama worked at the Services Office working with Abdullah Azzam on Jihad Magazine, a magazine that gave information about the war with the soviets and interviewed mujahideen. As time passed, Aymen Al Zawahiri encouraged Osama to split away from Abdullah Azzam. Osama formed his own army of mujahideen and fought the Soviets. One of his most significant battles was the battle of Jaji, which was not a major fight, but it earned him a reputation as a fighter.


Formation of al-Qaeda

By 1988, bin Laden had split from Maktab al-Khidamat because of strategic differences. While Azzam and his MAK organization acted as support for the Afghan fighters and provided relief to refugees and injured, bin Laden wanted a more military role in which the Arab fighters would not only be trained and equipped by the organization but also be commanded on the battlefield by Arabic. One of the main leading points to the split and the creation of al-Qaeda was the insistence of Azzam that Arab fighters be integrated among the Afghan fighting groups instead of forming their separate fighting force.[41] The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, is reliably believed to have been founded in 1984 by Dr. Abdullah Azzam and Osama bin Laden to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the...


After Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, bin Laden offered to help defend Saudi Arabia (with 12,000 armed men) but was rebuffed by the Saudi government. Bin Laden publicly denounced his government's dependence on the U.S. military and demanded an end to the presence of foreign military bases in the country. According to reports (by the BBC and others), the 1990/91 deployment of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia in connection with the Gulf War upset Muslims because the Saudi government claims legitimacy based on their role as guardians of the sacred Muslim cities of Mecca and Medina. After the Gulf War cease-fire agreement left Saddam Hussein remaining in power in Iraq, the ongoing presence of long-term bases for non-Muslim U.S. forces in Saudi Arabia continued to undermine the Saudi rulers' perceived legitimacy and inflamed anti-government Islamist militants, including bin Laden. Combatants UN Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 378 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 dead, 75,000 wounded The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991) was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of approximately 30 nations... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979, until April 9, 2003. ...


Bin Laden's increasingly strident criticisms of the Saudi monarchy led the government to attempt to silence him. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, "with help from a dissident member of the royal family, he managed to get out of the country under the pretext of attending an Islamic gathering in Pakistan in April 1991."[7] Hassan al-Turabi, leader of the National Islamic Front, had invited bin Laden to "transplant his whole organization to Sudan" in 1989. Bin Laden's agents had begun purchasing property in Sudan in 1990. When the Saudi government began putting pressure on him in 1991, bin Laden moved to Sudan. The Saudi government revoked his citizenship in 1994. The cover of the final 9/11 report, which can be purchased in bookstores across the United States and around the world The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Dr. Hassan Abd Allah al-Turabi (الدكتور حسن عبد الله الترابي in Arabic), commonly called Hassan al-Turabi (sometimes transliterated Hassan al-Tourabi) (حسن الترابي), is a religiopolitical leader in Sudan, who may have been instrumental in institutionalizing Islamic Sharia law in the northern part of the country. ... The National Islamic Front is the political organization that controls Sudan. ...


Assisted by donations funneled through business and charitable fronts such as Benevolence International, established by his brother-in-law, Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, bin Laden established a new base for mujahideen operations in Khartoum, Sudan to disseminate Islamist philosophy and recruit operatives in Southeast Asia, Africa, Europe, and the United States. Bin Laden also invested in business ventures, such as al-Hajira, a construction company that built roads throughout Sudan, and Wadi al-Aqiq, an agricultural corporation that farmed hundreds of thousands of acres of sorghum, gum Arabic, sesame and sunflowers in Sudan's central Gezira province. Bin Laden's operations in Sudan were protected by the powerful Sudanese NIF government figure Hassan al Turabi. While in Sudan, bin Laden married one of Turabi's nieces.[42] The Benevolence International Foundation (BIF) was a nonprofit Canada and Bosanska Idealna Futura in Bosnia. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of about 30 species of grasses raised for grain, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eastern Africa, with one species native to Mexico. ... Acacia senegal plant from Koehlers Medicinal-Plants 1887 Gum arabic, a natural gum also called gum acacia, is a substance that is taken from two sub-Saharan species of the acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Bold text // Strike-through text For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Al Jazirah is one of the 26 wilayat or states of Sudan. ... Dr. Hassan Abd Allah al-Turabi (الدكتور حسن عبد الله الترابي in Arabic), commonly called Hassan al-Turabi (sometimes transliterated Hassan al-Tourabi) (حسن الترابي), is a political and religious leader in Sudan, who may have been instrumental in institutionalizing Islamic Sharia law in the northern part of the country. ...


Refuge in Afghanistan

Sudanese officials, whose government was under international sanctions, offered to expel Osama bin Laden to Saudi Arabia in the mid-1990s provided that the Saudis pardon him. The Saudis refused because they had already revoked his citizenship and would not accept him in their country.[43] Consequently, in May 1996, under increasing pressure from Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the United States, Sudan asked bin Laden to leave and he returned to Afghanistan. He chartered a plane and flew to Kabul before settling in Jalalabad after being invited by Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, leader of the Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan, a member of the Afghan Northern Alliance. After spending a few months in the border region hosted by local leaders, bin Laden forged a close relationship with some of the leaders of Afghanistan's new Taliban government, notably Mullah Mohammed Omar.[44] Bin Laden supported the Taliban regime with financial and paramilitary assistance and, in 1997, he moved to Kandahar, the Taliban stronghold.[45] Kabul, Kâbl (locally: کابل), is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population of approximately 3 million people. ... Abdul Rasul Sayyaf is a political leader in Afghanistan. ... Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan (Ittihad-I Islami Bara-yi Azadi) is a political party and a former faction of the Northern Alliance (United Front). ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Mohammed Omar also known as Mullah Mohammad Omar (Arabic: ملا محمد عمر) or simply Mullah Omar, born at Singesar, 1959, is the reclusive leader of the Taliban of Afghanistan and was Afghanistans de facto head of state from 1996 to 2001. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Bin Laden is suspected of funding the November 1997 Luxor massacre in Egypt conducted by Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, the largest Egyptian militant Islamist group. The Egyptian government convicted bin Laden's colleague, one of the leaders of Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri, and sentenced him to death in absentia for the massacre.[46][47] Djeser-Djeseru The Luxor Massacre took place on 17 November 1997, at Deir el-Bahri, an archaelogical site located across the River Nile from Luxor in Egypt. ... Group photo of Ayman Al Zawahiri, Usama Bin Laden & Abu Hafs Prosecution Trial Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Sheikh Ayman al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ‎) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group, a physician, author, poet, and formerly the head of the militant organization... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ...


Attacks on United States targets

It is believed that bin Laden was involved with the December 29, 1992, bombing of the Gold Mihor Hotel in Aden, Yemen, which killed a Yemeni hotel employee and an Austrian national and seriously injured the Austrian's wife.[48] December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... Media:rofl. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ...


In 1998, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, (a leader of Egyptian Islamic Jihad), co-signed a fatwa (religious edict) in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, declaring: Group photo of Ayman Al Zawahiri, Usama Bin Laden & Abu Hafs Prosecution Trial Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Sheikh Ayman al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ‎) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group, a physician, author, poet, and formerly the head of the militant organization... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya. ... A fatwa (Arabic: ‎; plural fatāwa), is a legal pronouncement in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...

[t]he ruling to kill the Americans and their allies civilians and military - is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it, in order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Makka) from their grip, and in order for their armies to move out of all the lands of Islam, defeated and unable to threaten any Muslim. This is in accordance with the words of Almighty Allah, 'and fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together,' and 'fight them until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah'.[49][50]

In response to the 1998 United States embassy bombings following the fatwa, President Bill Clinton ordered a freeze on assets that could be linked to bin Laden. Clinton also signed an executive order, authorizing bin Laden's arrest or assassination. In August 1998, the U.S. launched an attack using cruise missiles. The attack failed to harm bin Laden but killed 19 other people.[51] For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Mayor Uri Lupolianski Web Address www. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... For other uses, see Allah (disambiguation). ... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... An executive order is an edict issued by a member of the executive branch of a government, usually the head of that branch. ... Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile Taurus KEPD 350 A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ...


On November 4, 1998, Osama bin Laden was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury, and the United States Department of State offered a US $5 million reward for information leading to bin Laden's apprehension or conviction.[52] November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... A grand jury is a type of jury, in the common law legal system, which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


In an interview with journalist Rahimullah Yusufzai published in TIME Magazine, January 11, 1999, Osama Bin Laden is quoted as saying: (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

"The International Islamic Front for Jihad against the U.S. and Israel has issued a crystal-clear fatwa calling on the Islamic nation to carry on jihad aimed at liberating holy sites. The nation of Muhammad has responded to this appeal. If the instigation for jihad against the Jews and the Americans in order to liberate Al-Aksa Mosque and the Holy Ka'aba Islamic shrines in the Middle East is considered a crime, then let history be a witness that I am a criminal."[53]

A fatwa (Arabic: ‎; plural fatāwa), is a legal pronouncement in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jawwad, Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djehad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, literally meaning struggle in the way of God and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), also known as al-Ka‘abatu’l-Musharrafat ( ‎), al-Baytu l-‘AtÄ«q ( ‎ The Primordial House), or al-Baytu’l-Ḥarām ( ‎ The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

September 11, 2001 attacks

Taken from the 27 December 2001 Osama bin Laden video.
Taken from the 27 December 2001 Osama bin Laden video.

Immediately after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, U.S. government officials named bin Laden and the al-Qaeda organization as the prime suspects.[52] After the 9/11 attacks, the reward offered by the U.S. government increased to $25 million.[54][32] The Airline Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association are offering an additional $2 million reward.[55] Image File history File links Bin_laden_12_27a. ... Image File history File links Bin_laden_12_27a. ... The United States government quickly identified the 19 hijackers as being responsible for the September 11, 2001 attacks, and linked the attacks to Osama bin Laden. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The government of the United States of America, established by the U.S. Constitution, is a... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... In the parlance of criminal justice, a suspect is a term used to refer to a person, known or unknown, suspected of committing a crime. ... The Air Line Pilots Association, International, is the collective bargaining representative for over 64,000 pilots of 41 U.S. and Canadian airlines. ... The Air Transport Association is a trade organization of the largest U.S. airlines. ...


The FBI stated that evidence linking Al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable.[56] The Government of the United Kingdom reached the same conclusion, regarding Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the September 11, 2001 attacks.[57] Her Majestys Government, or when the sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the governments of some other kingdoms where executive authority is theoretically vested in the monarch...


Bin Laden initially denied, but later admitted involvement in the September 11, 2001 attacks. On September 16, 2001, bin Laden denied any involvement with the attacks by reading a statement which was broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera satellite channel: "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation."[58] This denial was broadcast on U.S. news networks and worldwide. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ...


In November 2001, U.S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, in which Osama bin Laden is talking to Khaled al-Harbi. In the tape bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks.[59] The tape was broadcast on various news networks on December 13, 2001. Jalalabad (Persian: Jalālābād) is the capital of Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, 150 km east of Kabul near the Khyber Pass. ... Although not thought to be an al-Qaida leader, Khaled al-Harbi (right) appears in this al-Qaida video alongside Osama bin Laden. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video he stated "Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people," but he stopped short of admitting responsibility for the attacks.[60] December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shortly before the U.S. presidential election in 2004 in a taped statement, bin Laden publicly acknowledged al-Qaeda's involvement in the attacks on the U.S, and admitted his direct link to the attacks. He said that the attacks were carried out because, "We are free and do not accept injustice. We want to restore freedom to our nation."[61] In this video, aired on Al Jazeera on October 30, 2004, bin Laden also stated that he had personally directed the 19 hijackers.[6][62] He said the terrorist acts were enacted after considering "the injustice of the US-Israeli alliance against our people in Palestine and Lebanon". He also compared the attack on the two towers to several destroyed towers in Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War.[63] A still of 2004 Osama bin Laden video. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel Phalange South Lebanon Army Amal PLO Syria Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 37,000 Casualties 670 9,800 The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon, Milkhemet Levanon, Arabic: ‎), called by Israel the Operation Peace of...


Another video obtained by Al Jazeera in September 2006 shows Osama bin Laden with Ramzi Binalshibh, as well as two hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks.[64] Ramzi Binalshibh (Arabic: رمزي بن الشيبة; also transliterated as Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Ramzi bin al-Shaibah, and several other ways; born 1973), is a citizen of Yemen and according to the United States, Germany, and several other countries, a key... This photograph of Hamza al-Ghamdi was released by the FBI in the days following the attack. ... This photograph of Wail al-Shehri was captured by an ATM just days before the 9/11 attack. ...


Criminal charges and attempted extradition

As a result of international pressure, Sudan asked bin Laden to leave the country in 1996. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, "Saudi officials apparently wanted bin Laden expelled from Sudan," but would not accept offers to extradite him to Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden chartered a plane and moved to Afghanistan that year.[65][66] There are conflicting claims as to whether Sudan offered to extradite bin Laden to the United States in 1996. President Clinton, his administration officials, and the 9-11 commission deny such an offer was made[65][66]; businessman Mansoor Ijaz, former Sudanese officials, and former U.S. ambassador to Sudan Tim Carney claim that extradition offers were made "through unofficial channels" by Sudan.[67] Additionally, an audio recording of Clinton has since surfaced admitting that he did not take bin Laden since they would not be able to charge him with any crimes.[68] The cover of the final 9/11 report, which can be purchased in bookstores across the United States and around the world The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Mansoor Ijaz is a Pakistani-American businessman, the founder and chairman of Crescent Investment Management LLC (CIM), a New York investment partnership since 1990 that includes among others Lt Gen James Alan Abrahamson (USAF Ret), former director of President Reagans Strategic Defense Initiative and the renowned German architect Joachim... Tim Carney is a fictional character on the soap opera Fair City. ...

Osama bin Laden, Prosecution exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui.
Osama bin Laden, Prosecution exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui.

On June 8, 1998 a United States grand jury indicted Osama bin Laden on charges of killing five Americans and two Indians in the 13 November 1995 truck bombing of a US-operated Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh.[69] Bin Laden was charged with "conspiracy to attack defense utilities of the United States" and prosecutors further charged that bin Laden is the head of the terrorist organization called al Qaeda, and that he was a major financial backer of Islamic terrorists worldwide.[69] Bin Laden denied involvement but praised the attack. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1052x1652, 324 KB) Summary United States v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1052x1652, 324 KB) Summary United States v. ... Zacarias Moussaoui (Arabic: زكريا موسوي) (born May 30, 1968) is a French citizen of Moroccan descent who was convicted of conspiring to kill Americans as part of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... A grand jury is a type of jury, in the common law legal system, which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 4, 1998 Osama bin Laden was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, on charges of Murder of U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, and Attacks on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death[70] for his alleged role in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... A grand jury is a type of jury, in the common law legal system, which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (S.D.N.Y.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: New York (Manhattan), Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, and Sullivan. ... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ...


The evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony by former Al Qaeda members and satellite phone records.[71][72]


Attempts at assassination and requests for the extradition of bin Laden from the Taliban of Afghanistan were met with failure.[73] In 1999, U.S. President Bill Clinton convinced the United Nations to impose sanctions against Afghanistan in an attempt to force the Taliban to extradite him. The U.S. Department of State currently offers a $25 million reward for information leading directly to his apprehension or conviction.[74] Flag flown by the Taliban. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Current whereabouts

Claims as to the location of Osama bin Laden have been made since December 2001, although none have been definitively proven and some have placed Osama in different locations during overlapping time periods. The current location of Osama bin Laden is not definitively known, but he is widely believed to be somewhere near the border region between Pakistan and Afghanistan. ...


A December 11, 2005 letter from Atiyah Abd al-Rahman to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi indicates that bin Laden and the al-Qaeda leadership were based in the Waziristan region of Pakistan at the time. In the letter, translated by the military's Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, "Atiyah" instructs Zarqawi to "send messengers from your end to Waziristan so that they meet with the brothers of the leadership...I am now on a visit to them and I am writing you this letter as I am with them..." Al-Rahman also indicates that bin Laden and al-Qaeda are "weak" and "have many of their own problems." The letter has been deemed authentic by military and counterterrorism officials, according to the Washington Post.[75][76] December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikinews has news related to: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: ‎, ) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006) led Al-Qaeda in Iraq until his death in June 2006. ... Waziristan location map A flag used by a resistance movement in Waziristan against the British during the 1930s, with the Takbir written on it. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ... ...


Alleged deaths

Reports alleging Osama bin Laden's death have appeared from time to time. The current location of Osama bin Laden is not definitively known, but he is widely believed to be somewhere near the border region between Pakistan and Afghanistan. ...


April 2005

The Sydney Morning Herald stated "Dr Clive Williams, director of terrorism studies at the Australian National University, says documents provided by an Indian colleague suggested bin Laden died of massive organ failure in April last year...'It's hard to prove or disprove these things because there hasn't really been anything that allows you to make a judgment one way or the other', Dr. Williams said."[77] ... The Australian National University (ANU), is a university located in Canberra, the national capital of Australia. ...


August 2006

On September 23, 2006 the French newspaper L'Est Républicain quoted a report from the French secret service (DGSE) stating that Osama bin Laden had died in Pakistan on August 23, 2006 after contracting a case of typhoid fever that paralyzed his lower limbs. According to the newspaper, Saudi security services first heard of bin Laden's alleged death on September 4, 2006.[78][79][80] The alleged death was reported by the Saudi Arabian secret service to its government, which reported it to the French secret service. The French defense minister Michèle Alliot-Marie expressed her regret that the report had been published while French President Jacques Chirac declared that bin Laden's death had not been confirmed.[81] American authorities also cannot confirm reports of bin Laden's death,[82] with Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice saying only, "No comment, and no knowledge."[83] Later, CNN's Nic Robertson said that he had received confirmation from an anonymous Saudi source that the Saudi intelligence community has known for a while that bin Laden has a water-borne illness, but that he had heard no reports that it was specifically typhoid or that he had died.[84] September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... LEst Républicain (founded in 1889 by Léon Goulette) is a daily regional French newspaper based in Nancy. ... Logo of Francess Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE) / General Directorate for External Security. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For a related disease which is caused by a different bacterium, see Paratyphoid fever. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... Michèle Alliot-Marie Michèle Alliot-Marie (born 10 September 1946) is the French Minister of Defence and Veterans Affairs. ... Symbol of the French government The President of the French Republic (French: ) colloquially referred to as President of France, is Frances elected Head of State and also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra and Grand Master of the Légion dhonneur. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932 in Paris) is a French politician and the current President of the French Republic. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


See also

Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Group photo of Ayman Al Zawahiri, Usama Bin Laden & Abu Hafs Prosecution Trial Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Sheikh Ayman al-Zawahiri (Arabic: ‎) (born June 19, 1951) is a prominent member of the al-Qaeda group, a physician, author, poet, and formerly the head of the militant organization... Office building of the bin Laden family. ... Clearstream Banking S.A. (CB) is the clearing division of Deutsche Börse, based in Luxembourg. ... A clearing house (or clearinghouse) is an organization affiliated with a securities or derivatives exchange that completes the transactions on that exchange by seeing to validation, delivery, and settlement. ... Banner used by the FBI since inception on October 10, 2001 as the main title for the web site pages of both the group of wanted terrorists, and also on the wanted poster of each terrorist fugitive. ... The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list arose from a conversation held in late 1949, during a game of Hearts between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson,[1] International News Service (the predecessor of the United Press International) Editor-in... Islamic fundamentalism is a religious ideology which advocates literalistic interpretations of the sacred texts of Islam, Sharia law, and an Islamic State. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Islamofascism is a controversial neologism suggesting an association of the ideological or operational characteristics of certain modern Islamist movements with European fascist movements of the early 20th century, neofascist movements, or totalitarianism. ... The Ladenese Epistle is a written declaration of war writen by Osama bin Laden on the United States. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: ‎, , strugglers) is an Islamic-Arabic term for Muslims fighting in a war, or involved in any other struggle. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The United States government quickly identified the 19 hijackers as being responsible for the September 11, 2001 attacks, and linked the attacks to Osama bin Laden. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... In the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings (August 7, 1998), 257 people were killed and over 4,000 wounded in simultaneous car bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the East African capital cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. ... The USS Cole bombing was a suicide bombing attack against the U.S. Navy guided missile destroyer USS Cole (DDG 67) on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored in the Yemeni port of Aden. ... The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... The Istanbul Bombings were two terrorist attacks carried out on two days in November 2003. ... The scene of one of the Madrid bombings. ... The July 2005 London bombings were synchronised terrorist attacks. ...

References

  1. ^ Wanted: Usama Bin Laden. Interpol. Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
  2. ^ BIN LADEN'S FATWA
  3. ^ Online NewsHour: Al Qaeda's 1998 Fatwa. PBS. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  4. ^ Eggen, Dan. "Bin Laden, Most Wanted For Embassy Bombings?", The Washington Post, August 28, 2006.
  5. ^ "Osama claims responsibility for 9/11", The Times of India, May 24, 2006.
  6. ^ a b "Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11", CBC News, October 29, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  7. ^ "9/11 jurors face complex life or death decisions", CNN, April 26, 2006.
  8. ^ frontline: hunting bin laden: who is bin laden?: chronology. PBS. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  9. ^ Osama bin Laden infoplease. Infoplease. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  10. ^ Who is Osama Bin Laden?. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
  11. ^ Letter From Jedda, Young Osama, How he learned radicalism, and may have seen America, by Steve Coll, The New Yorker Fact, Issue of 2005-12-12, Posted 2005-12-05
  12. ^ Salon.com News - The making of Osama bin Laden. Salon.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  13. ^ Letter From Jedda, Young Osama, How he learned radicalism, and may have seen America, by Steve Coll, The New Yorker Fact, Issue of 2005-12-12, Posted 2005-12-05
  14. ^ [quote from Saleha Abedin, a longtime Jeddah educator, now a vice-dean of Jeddah's Dar Al-Hekma College, a private women’s college], The New Yorker Fact, Issue of 2005-12-12
  15. ^ Messages to the World, the Statements of Osama bin Laden, Verso, 2005, p.xii
  16. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement, Vol. 22. Gale Group, 2002, http://galenet.galegroup.com
  17. ^ Hunting Bin Laden: Who is Bin Laden?. PBS Frontline.
  18. ^ Hug, Aziz (January 19, 2006). The Real Osama. American Prospect.
  19. ^ a b c Gunaratna, Rohan (2003). Inside Al Qaeda, 3rd edition, Berkley Books, p. 22. 
  20. ^ Kepel, Jihad (2002), p.145-147
  21. ^ Messages to the World, Verso, 2005, p.xvi
  22. ^ Musa al-Qarni on Jihad
  23. ^ "Vanity Fair excerpt of the book "The Osama bin Laden I Know" By Peter Bergen
  24. ^ RACHEL WILLIAMS The Scotsman, "Bin Laden 'fantasized over Whitney Houston", 22 Aug 2006
  25. ^ "Vanity Fair excerpt of the book "The Osama bin Laden I Know" By Peter Bergen
  26. ^ "Vanity Fair excerpt of the book "The Osama bin Laden I Know" By Peter Bergen
  27. ^ http://terrorism.about.com/od/groupsleader1/p/OsamabinLaden.htm
  28. ^ Most Wanted Terrorist - Usama Bin Laden. FBI. Retrieved on 2006-06-08.
  29. ^ 'I met Osama Bin Laden'. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
  30. ^ Through Our Enemies' Eyes, Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam and the Future of America, by "Anonymous" aka Michael Scheuer, Brassey's, c2002
  31. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/who/interview.html
  32. ^ a b Most Wanted Terrorist - Usama Bin Laden. FBI. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  33. ^ [http:/http://www.infoplease.com/spot/osamabinladen.html Osama bin Laden: "Wealthy Saudi exile is a terrorist mastermind"]. Infoplease. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
  34. ^ YOUNG OSAMA. New Yorker. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
  35. ^ Who is Osama Bin Laden?. BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
  36. ^ Rahimullah Yusufzai, executive editor of the English-language daily The News International, in a statement to Reuters in Peshawar on December 29, 2001. Yusufzai met bin Laden twice in Afghanistan in 1998.
  37. ^ See, for example, Rohan Gunaratna, Inside Al Qaeda (NY: Berkley Books, 2003) 31.
  38. ^ Peter L. Bergen, The Osama bin Laden I Know (New York: Free Press, 2006) 97.
  39. ^ Cook, Robin. The struggle against terrorism cannot be won by military means. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved on 2005-07-08.
  40. ^ Bergen, Peter. Bergen: Bin Laden, CIA links hogwash. CNN. Retrieved on 2006-08-15.
  41. ^ The Osama bin Laden I Know by Peter L. Bergen, pp. 74-88. ISBN 0-7432-7892-5
  42. ^ Bin Laden uses Iraq to plot new attacks, Asia Times Online, By Syed Saleem Shahzad, February 23, 2002
  43. ^ THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW TERRORISM. The 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (2004-07-22). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  44. ^ Profile: Mullah Mohammed Omar. The 9/11 Commission Report. BBC (2004-07-22). Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  45. ^ THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW TERRORISM. The 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (2004-07-22). Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  46. ^ Plett, Barbara. "Bin Laden 'behind Luxor massacre'", BBC online network, 1999-05-13. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  47. ^ "Profile: Ayman al-Zawahiri", BBC online network, 2004-09-27. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
  48. ^ who is bin laden?: chronology PBS. Retrieved on 2006-09-06.
  49. ^ Shaykh Usamah Bin-Muhammad Bin-Ladin; Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, Fazlur Rahman (1998-02-23). World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders: Initial "Fatwa" Statement (Arabic). al-Quds al-Arabi. Retrieved on 2006-09-10.
  50. ^ Shaykh Usamah Bin-Muhammad Bin-Ladin; Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, Fazlur Rahman (1998-02-23). Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders. World Islamic Front Statement (English). al-Quds al-Arabi. Retrieved on 2006-09-24. English language version of the fatwa translated by the Federation of American Scientists of the original Arabic document published in the newspaper al-Quds al-Arabi (London, U.K.) on 23 February, 1998, p. 3
  51. ^ "Taliban bargained over bin Laden, documents show", CNN.com, 2005-08-19. Retrieved on 2006-09-06.
  52. ^ a b "Bin Laden, millionaire with a dangerous grudge", CNN, September 12, 2001.
  53. ^ Yusufzai, Rahimullah. "Conversation With Terror", TIME Magazine, 1999-01-11. Retrieved on 2006-09-28.
  54. ^ Five Years Ago Today - Usama bin Laden: Wanted for Murder. Federal Bureau of Investigation (November 5, 2003).
  55. ^ "Officials, friends can't confirm Bin Laden death report", CNN, September 24, 2006.
  56. ^ Watson, Dale L., Executive Assistant Director, Counterterrorism/Counterintelligence Division, FBI (February 6, 2002). "The Terrorist Threat Confronting the United States", Congressional Testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  57. ^ Responsibility for the Terrorist Atrocities in the United States, 11 September 2001. 10 Downing Street, Office of the Prime Minister of the U.K. (2001, November 14). Retrieved on 2006-09-29.
  58. ^ Fox News. "Pakistan to Demand Taliban Give Up Bin Laden as Iran Seals Afghan Border." September 16, 2001.
  59. ^ "Bin Laden on tape: Attacks 'benefited Islam greatly'", CNN, December 14, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  60. ^ "Transcript: Bin Laden video excerpts", BBC News, December 27, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  61. ^ "Excerpts: Bin Laden video", BBC News. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  62. ^ "Al-Jazeera: Bin Laden tape obtained in Pakistan", MSNBC, October 30, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-09-07. - "In the tape, bin Laden — wearing traditional white robes, a turban and a tan cloak — reads from papers at a lectern against a plain brown background. Speaking quietly in an even voice, he tells the American people that he ordered the Sept. 11 attacks because “we are a free people” who wanted to “regain the freedom” of their nation."
  63. ^ Excerpts: Bin Laden video. BBC Online/
  64. ^ "Bin Laden 9/11 planning video aired", CBC News, 2006, September 7.
  65. ^ a b The Foundation of New Terrorism. 9/11 Commission, Staff Statement.
  66. ^ a b Gellman, Barton. "In '96, Sudan Offered to Arrest bin Laden", International Herald Tribune, October 4, 2001.
  67. ^ Carney, Timothy, Mansoor Ijaz. "Intelligence Failure? Let's Go Back to Sudan", The Washington Post, June 30, 2002.
  68. ^ Staff. "On Tape, Clinton Admits Passing Up bin Laden Capture", Newsmax, Sept 10th, 2006.
  69. ^ a b Frontline; The New York Times and Rain Media ([2001?]). "Osama bin Laden: A Chronology of His Political Life". Hunting bin Laden: Who Is bin Laden?. WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  70. ^ Indictment #S(9) 98 Cr. 1023. United States District Court, Southern District of New York.
  71. ^ "Embassy bombing defendant linked to bin Laden", CNN, February 14, 2001.
  72. ^ Profile: Osama bin Laden. Cooperative Research.
  73. ^ "Osama bin Laden 'innocent'", BBC News, November 21, 1998.
  74. ^ Most Wanted Terrorist - Usama Bin Laden. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  75. ^ Karen DeYoung. "Letter Gives Glimpse of Al-Qaeda's Leadership", Washington Post, October 2, 2006.
  76. ^ "Letter Exposes New Leader in Al-Qa`ida High Command (PDF)", Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, 25 September 2006.
  77. ^ "Expert says bin Laden could be dead", by Australian Associated Press, January 16, 2006, in the Sydney Morning Herald.
  78. ^ "French paper says bin Laden died in Pakistan", Reuters, 2006-09-23.
  79. ^ Sammari, Laïd. "Oussama Ben Laden serait mort", L'Est Républicain, 2006-09-23. Retrieved on 2006-09-23. (in French)
  80. ^ "Chirac says no evidence bin Laden has died", MSNBC.com/AP, 2006-09-23. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  81. ^ "Information sur la mort de ben Laden: Washington ne confirme pas", Le Monde/AFP, 2006-09-23. (in French)
  82. ^ Anna Willard and David Morgan. "France, US, unable to confirm report bin Laden dead", Reuters, 2006-09-23. (in English)
  83. ^ The Age (2006). Doubts over bin Laden death. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
  84. ^ "Conflicting reports: Bin Laden could be dead or ill", CNN, 2006-09-23. (in English)

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Profiles

  • FBI's 10 Most Wanted Fugitives poster
  • BBC News: 'I met Osama bin Laden' - March 26, 2004 - a short profile of bin Laden's life
  • Interpol Profile
  • Who Is Osama bin Laden? - By Michel Chossudovsky
  • New Yorker article on Osama's youth
  • Osama Bin Laden at the Internet Movie Database

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Other

  • "Main Columns of the Usame Bin Laden Ideology", Journal of Turkish Weekly
  • Al Qaeda's Evolution, March 2005
  • Does Bin Laden still control Al Qaeda?, March 2006
  • About.com's Is Osama bin Laden Dead?
  • BBC News News about a new audio recording of Osama on the BBC UK website. Thursday, 19 January 2006
  • CBC News video interview with Bruce Lawrence, editor of Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama bin Laden (2005, ISBN 1-84467-045-7) from CBC News: The Hour, November 21, 2005
  • Fatwa from World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders - Statement from bin Laden, 23 February 1998
  • BBC:Transcript of Osama bin Laden video aired by al-Jazeera
  • Deborah Amos "Interview: Osama Bin Laden: The World's Most Wanted Man" January 30, 2006 Council on Foreign Relations
  • Osama bin Laden at the Internet Movie Database
  • Al-Watan al-'Arabi report from 1998 translated by Foreign Broadcast Information Service
  • Emerson, S. (2002), American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us, Free Press; ISBN 0-7432-3324-7.
  • Coll, Steve (2004), Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10 2001, Penguin Press; ISBN 1-59420-007-6.
  • Randal, Jonathan. Osama: The Making of a Terrorist. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-117-6.
  • Guardian article about the difficulty of romanizing Arabic, i.e., Usama vs. Osama
  • Robin Cook The struggle against terrorism cannot be won by military means The Guardian, July 8, 2005
  • Licensed to Kill, Hired Guns in the War on Terror by Robert Young Pelton (Crown, September 1, 2006)
Persondata
NAME Bin Laden, Osama
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Osama bin Muhammad bin 'Awad bin Laden (full name); أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لاد (Arabic); Laden, Osama bin (alternate form); Bin Laden, Usama (alternate transliteration); UBL (common referant); Bin Ladin, Ussamah (alternate transliteration); Ben Laden, Oussama (alternate transliteration); Binladen, Osama (alternate transliteration); Binladin, Osama (alternate transliteration); Al-Amir (alias); Abu Abdallah (alias); Mujahid, Sheikh Al- (alias)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Al-Qaeda leader
DATE OF BIRTH March 10, 1957
PLACE OF BIRTH Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bin Laden to Europe: Stop helping U.S. - USATODAY.com (1281 words)
Bin Laden said it was unjust for the United States to have invaded Afghanistan for sheltering him after the 9/11 attacks, saying he was the "only one responsible" for the deadly assaults on New York and Washington.
Bin Laden is believed to be hiding along the Afghan-Pakistan frontier.
Bin Laden's message was the 89th this year by al-Qaeda's media wing, Al-Sahab, an average of one every three days, double the rate in 2006, according to IntelCenter, a U.S. counterterrorism group that monitors militant messaging.
Osama bin Laden (1103 words)
Considered the world's foremost terrorist, Osama bin Laden is the leader of a terrorist organization known as Al-Qaeda, or "The Base." Bin Laden is the alleged perpetrator of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center, damaged part of the Pentagon, and resulted in a plane crash in Pennsylvania.
Bin Laden also claims responsibility for a 1993 gunfight that killed 18 U.S. troops in Somalia and the 1996 bombing of the Khobar military complex in Saudi Arabia that left 19 U.S. soldiers dead.
Bin Laden was born in Saudi Arabia around 1957 to a father of Yemeni origins and a Syrian mother.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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