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Encyclopedia > Orthopoxvirus
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Orthopox viruses include many species isolated from non-human mammals. Camelpox virus, Cowpox virus, Ectromelia virus (Mousepox virus), Monkeypox virus, Raccoonpox virus, Taterapox virus (African gerbil), Vaccinia virus (no natural reservoir), Buffalopox virus, Rabbitpox virus, Variola virus (Humans, Smallpox), Volepox virus, Skunkpox virus, and Uasin Gishu disease virus (African horses). Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Monkeypox virus, first identified in 1958 as a pathogen of cynomolgus monkeys, is an orthopoxvirus with a clinical presentation similar to smallpox. ...


Viral Classification

Members of the genus Orthopoxvirus are members of the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, which is a division of the dsDNA viral family Poxvirida. dsDNA is an abbreviation for double-stranded DNA ...

Natural Habitats

Orthopox viruses are distributed universally. All mammalian Orthopoxviruses should be considered capable of establishing infections in humans. Zoonoses of many of these mammalian isolates have been reported. Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ...

Mode of Transmission in the Laboratory

Aerosols of concentrated virus may result in Orthopox infection, especially in non-immunized individuals. Needle sticks, especially with concentrated virus, may result in severe local infection of the skin even in immunized individuals.

Clinical Manifestation

They are transmitted primarily by respiratory droplets, though direct contact with bodily fluids or objects contaminated with bodily fluids may also transmit infection. Initial symptoms of Orthopoxvirus infection include fever, malaise, head and body aches, and sometimes vomiting. Jump to: navigation, search Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. ... Malaise is a term used to refer to a general state of discomfort, tiredness, or illness. ... Jump to: navigation, search Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...

Signs and Symptoms

The initial symptoms include fever, malaise, head and body aches, and sometimes vomiting. Lesions that developed into crater-like ulcers surrounded by inflammatory tissue and eventually covered by thick black crusts are the characteristic indicators of Orthopox infection. Severe edema and erythema may affect large areas in cases of severe infection. Encephalitis (alteration of mental status and focal neurologic deficits), myelitis (upper- and lower-motor neuron dysfunction, sensory level and bowel and bladder dysfunction), or both may result from Orthooxvirus infection. Rarely, Orthopoxviruses may be detected in cerebrospinal fluid. Some mammalian Orthopox infections are known to result in high instances of mortality. Jump to: navigation, search Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. ... Malaise is a term used to refer to a general state of discomfort, tiredness, or illness. ... Jump to: navigation, search Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... A lesion is a non-specific term referring to abnormal tissue in the body. ... An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an initial abrasion and generally maintained by an inflammation and/or an infection. ... Jump to: navigation, search Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ... Erythema is an abnormal redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ... Jump to: navigation, search Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Myelitis is a human disease involving swelling of the spinal cord, which disrupts central nervous system functions linking brain and limbs. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ...


Vaccinia-specific immunoglobulins may be administered to infected individuals. The only product currently available for treatment of complications of Orthopox infection is Vaccinia Immunoglobulin (VIG), which is an isotonic sterile solution of the immunoglobulin fraction of plasma from persons vaccinated with vaccinia vaccine. It is effective for treatment of eczema vaccinatum and certain cases of progressive vaccinia. However, VIG is contraindicated for the treatment of vaccinial keratitis. VIG is recommended for severe generalized vaccinia if the patient is extremely ill or has a serious underlying disease. VIG provides no benefit in the treatment of postvaccinial encephalitis and has no role in the treatment of smallpox. Current supplies of VIG are limited, and its use should be reserved for treatment of vaccine complications with serious clinical manifestations. The recommended dosage of the currently available VIG for treatment of complications is 0.6 ml/kg of body weight. VIG must be administered intramuscularly and should be administered as early as possible after the onset of symptoms. Because therapeutic doses of VIG might be substantial (e.g., 42 ml for a person weighing 70 kg), the product should be administered in divided doses over a 24- to 36-hour period. Doses can be repeated, usually at intervals of 2--3 days, until recovery begins (e.g., no new lesions appear). Future reformulations of VIG might require intravenous administration, and health-care providers should refer to the manufacturer's package insert for correct dosages and route of administration. CDC is currently the only source of VIG for civilians (see Vaccinia Vaccine Availability for contact information). The Food and Drug Administration has not approved the use of any antiviral compound for the treatment of vaccinia virus infections or other Orthopoxvirus infections, including smallpox. Certain antiviral compounds have been reported to be active against vaccinia virus or other Orthopoxviruses in vitro and among test animals. However, the safety and effectiveness of these compounds for treating vaccinia vaccination complications or other Orthopoxvirus infections among humans is unknown. Questions also remain regarding the effective dose and the timing and length of administration of these antiviral compounds. Insufficient information exists on which to base recommendations for any antiviral compound to treat postvaccination complications or Orthopoxvirus infections, including smallpox. However, additional information could become available, and health-care providers should consult CDC to obtain up-dated information regarding treatment options for smallpox vaccination complications (see Consultation Regarding Complications of Vaccinia Vaccine). Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... The word plasma has a Greek root which means to be formed or molded (the word plastic shares this root). ... Jump to: navigation, search The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the government agency responsible for regulating food (human and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal), biologics and blood products in the United States. ...



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