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Encyclopedia > Orthomyxoviridae
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Orthomyxoviridae
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Family: Orthomyxoviridae
Genera

Influenzavirus A
Influenzavirus B
Influenzavirus C
Isavirus
Thogotovirus Viruses can be classified in several ways, such as by their geometry, by whether they have envelopes, by the identity of the host organism they can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ...

The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. It includes those viruses which cause influenza. An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... A virus is a small particle that infects cells in biological organisms. ... Negatively stained flu virions. ...

Contents


Morphology

The virions have envelopes and occur in pleomorphic and filamentous forms. In general the virus's morphology is spherical with particles 50-120 nm in diameter, or filamentous virions 20 nm in diameter and 200-300(-3000) nm long. There are distinct surface projections of envelope, with some 500 spikes, each projecting 10-14 nm from the surface with some types (i.e. hemagglutininesterase (HEF)) dispersed evenly over all the surface, and other types in clusters (i.e. hemagglutinin (HA)). A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Hemagglutinin-esterase is a protein that we can find in the envelope of some viruses. ... Hemagglutinin (HA) is an antigenic glycoprotein found on the surface of the Influenza virus and is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected. ...


The major glycoprotein (HA) is interposed irregularly by clusters of neuraminidase (NA), with a ratio of HA to NA of about 4-5 to 1. A glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar). ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram Neuraminidase is an antigenic glycoprotein enzyme (EC 3. ...


The nucleocapsids are enclosed within lipoprotein membranes; nucleoproteins of different size classes with loop at each end; the arrangement within virion uncertain. The nucleocapsids are filamentous and fall in the range of 50-130 nm long and 9-15 nm in diameter. Their symmetry is helical. The outer shell of a virus is called the capsid. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids and may be structural or catalytic in function. ...


Nucleic Acid

Viruses of this family contain 7 to 8 segments of linear negative-sense single stranded RNA.


The total genome length is 12000-15000 nucleotides (nt). The largest segment 2300-2500 nt; of second largest 2300-2500 nt; of third 2200-2300 nt; of fourth 1700-1800 nt; of fifth 1500-1600 nt; of sixth 1400-1500 nt; of seventh 1000-1100 nt; of eighth 800-900 nt. Genome sequence has terminal repeated sequences; repeated at both ends. Terminal repeats at the 5'-end 12-13 nucleotides long. Nucleotide sequences of 3'-terminus identical; the same in genera of same family; most on RNA (segments), or on all RNA species. Terminal repeats at the 3'-end 9-11 nucleotides long. Encapsidated nucleic acid is solely genomic. Each virion may contain defective interfering copies. A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA. A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ...


Genera

The following genera are included here:

  • Genus Influenzavirus A; type species: Influenza A virus
  • Genus Influenzavirus B; type species: Influenza B virus
  • Genus Influenzavirus C; type species: Influenza C virus
  • Genus Isavirus; type species: Infectious salmon anemia virus
  • Genus Thogotovirus; type species: Thogoto virus

Infectious salmon anemia or anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) which affect fish farms in Canada, Norway and Scotland, causing severe losses to infected farms. ...

See also:

Negatively stained flu virions. ... Influenza A virus, the virus that causes Avian flu. ... A H5N1 case in Vietnam. ... Hemagglutinin (HA) is an antigenic glycoprotein found on the surface of the Influenza virus and is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram Neuraminidase is an antigenic glycoprotein enzyme (EC 3. ...

External link

  • NCBI

 
 

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