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Encyclopedia > Orthography

The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. (Where more than one writing system is used for a language, for example for Kurdish, there can be more than one orthography.) Orthography is derived from Greek ὀρθός orthós ("correct") and γράφειν gráphein ("to write"). Orthography is distinct from typography. Writing systems of the world today. ... Kurdish alphabet is a writing system for the Kurdish language. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ...


Orthography describes or defines the set of symbols (graphemes and diacritics) used, and the rules about how to write these symbols. Depending on the nature of the writing system, the rules may include punctuation, spelling and capitalization. In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ...


While "orthography" colloquially is often used synonymously with spelling, spelling is only part of orthography. A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ...

Contents

Efficiency

An orthography may be described as 'efficient' if it has one grapheme per phoneme (distinctive speech sound) and vice versa. An orthography may also have varying degrees of efficiency for reading or writing. For example, diverse letter, digraph, and diacritic shapes contribute to diverse word shapes, which aid fluent reading, while heavy use of apostrophes or diacritics makes writing slow, and the use of symbols not found on standard keyboards makes computer or cell phone input awkward. These are all considerations in the design of a writing system. In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Digraph has several meanings: directed graph, or digraph Digraph (orthography) Digraph (computing) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Typology of spelling systems

Phonemic orthography

A phonemic orthography is an orthography that has a dedicated symbol or sequence of symbols for each phoneme (distinctive speech sound) and vice versa. Most alphabetic scripts are fairly close to being phonemic, though English is a notorious exception. A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


Morpho-phonemic orthography

A morpho-phonemic orthography considers not only what is phonemic, as above, but also the underlying structure of the words. For example, in English, /s/ and /z/ are distinct sounds, so in a purely phonemic orthography the plurals of cat and dog would be cats and dogz. However, English orthography recognizes that the /s/ sound in cats and the /z/ sound in dogs are the same element, which is automatically pronounced differently depending on its environment, and therefore writes them the same despite their differing pronunciation. German and Russian are morpho-phonemic in this sense, whereas Turkish is purely phonemic. Korean hangul has changed over the centuries from a highly phonemic to a largely morpho-phonemic orthography, and there are moves in Turkey to make that script more morpho-phonemic as well. Morphophonology (also morphophonemics, morphonology) is a branch of linguistics which studies: The phonological structure of morphemes. ... Jamo redirects here. ...


Defectiveness

A 'defective' orthography is one that does not represent all the sounds of a language, such as Italian, English or Arabic. A defective script is a script that does not represent all the phonemic distinctions of a language. ... English orthography (or spelling), has relatively complicated rules when compared to other orthographic systems written with alphabetic scripts and contains many inconsistencies between spelling and pronunciation, necessitating rote learning for most people learning to read or write English. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...


Complex orthography

Complex orthographies often combine different types of scripts and/or utilize many different complex punctuation rules. Some widely accepted examples of languages with complex orthographies include Thai, Japanese, and Khmer. This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ...


See also

Writing systems of the world today. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ... In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between majuscule (capital or upper-case) and minuscule (lower-case) letters. ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Outline of the character 永, showing stroke order. ... The Eight Principles of Yong (永字八法 Pinyin: Yǒngzì Bā Fǎ; Japanese: えいじはっぽう, Eiji Happō; Korean: 영자팔법. Yeongjapalbeop; Vietnamese: Vĩnh Tự Bát Pháp/ Tám Phương Pháp về Chữ Vĩnh) explains how to write the eight strokes common in Chinese characters found all in the one character... The left part of mā, a Chinese character meaning mother, is a radical that means woman A radical (from Latin radix, meaning root) is a basic identifiable component of every Chinese character. ... A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Penmanship is the art of writing clearly and quickly. ... Cursive is any style of handwriting which is designed for writing down notes and letters by hand. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Graphology is the study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation to human psychology. ... “Write” redirects here. ... A list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features. ...

References

  • Smalley, W.A. (ed.) 1964. Orthography studies: articles on new writing systems (United Bible Society, London).

Notes

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Orthography information - Search.com (446 words)
The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization.
One of the most complex orthographies is that of Japanese, which uses a combination of several thousand logographic glyphs (Chinese characters Hanzi) called kanji, two syllabaries called katakana and hiragana, and the Latin alphabet, rōmaji.
An orthography that does not represent all the sounds of a language, such as that of Italian or Arabic, is called 'defective'.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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