FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Orthodoxy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Orthodoxy
Look up orthodox in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho ('right', 'correct') and doxa ('thought', 'teaching', 'glorification'), is typically used to refer to the correct worship or the correct theological and doctrinal observance of religion, or other forms of intellectual activity shared by organizations or movements, as determined by some overseeing body. The term did not conventionally exist with any degree of formality (in the sense in which it is now used) prior to the advent of Christianity in the Greek-speaking world, though the word does occasionally show up in ancient literature in other, somewhat similar contexts. Orthodoxy is opposed to heterodoxy ('other teaching'), heresy and schism. People who deviate from orthodoxy by professing a doctrine considered to be false are most often called heretics, while those who deviate from orthodoxy by removing themselves from the perceived body of believers, i.e. from full communion, are called schismatics. Not infrequently these occur together. The distinction in terminology pertains to the subject matter; if one is addressing corporate unity, the emphasis may be on schism; if one is addressing doctrinal coherence, the emphasis may be on heresy. Look up orthodox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Information. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Orthodoxy (1908) is a book by G. K. Chesterton that has become a classic of Christian apologetics. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Heterodoxy includes any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position.[1] As an adjective, heterodox is used to describe a subject as characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards (status quo). ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ...


Derived from late classical and medieval Christian apologetics for orthodoxy, more specificity is often applied when defending a claim to orthodoxy or refuting heresy. Apostasy, for example is a violation of orthodoxy that takes the form of abandonment of the faith, be it for some form of atheism or for some other faith, a concept largely unknown before the adoption of Christianity as the official religion of Rome. The first well-known apostate is probably Julian, the last pagan emperor of Rome. A lighter deviation from orthodoxy than heresy is commonly called error, in the sense of not being grave enough to cause total estrangement while yet seriously affecting communion. Sometimes error is also used to cover both full heresies and minor errors. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Religion embraces conceptualization of the divine and practice of worship, and how adherents of all faiths represent to others how they perceive these things, both from within and from without. In each there is a degree of openness, and an extent to which these elements are non-negotiable, in all religions. Tribal religions may involve cannibalising non-believers, or may be very open to theological discussion; while monotheistic religions adapt themselves to diverse cultures in manifold ways while yet not relinquishing certain precepts. Issues of tolerance and syncretism are distinct; a religion may tolerate another, neither oppressing nor adapting to it; a religion may permit itself to be absorbed into another; a religion may be outwardly intolerant while yet absorbing some teachings from another religion. A religion may be more tolerant of others at a given point in time than at another. These forms of cultural interplay impinge upon the extent to which a religion may or may not appear to maintain a consistent stance concerning its theology and practice. Orthopraxy is a term derived from Greek meaning correct practice. It refers to accepted religious practices and may include both ritual practices as well as interpersonal acts. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The concept of orthodoxy is the most prevalent and even inherently pervasive in nearly all forms of organized monotheism, but orthodoxic belief is not usually overly emphasized in polytheistic or animist religions. Certainly, orthodoxy still exists and actively governs belief within these traditions, but in a much more flexible and limited way. Often there is little to no concept of dogma, and varied interpretation of doctrine and theology is tolerated and sometimes even encouraged within certain contexts. Syncretism, for example, plays a much wider role in non-monotheistic (and particularly, non-scriptual) religion. The prevailing governing idea within polytheism is most often orthopraxy ("right cultic practice") rather than "right belief". For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Orthopraxy is a term derived from Greek meaning correct practice. It refers to accepted religious practices and may include both ritual practices as well as interpersonal acts. ...


Orthodox theology

Various groups have laid claim to the word orthodox as part of their titles, usually in order to differentiate themselves from other, 'heretical' movements. Orthodox Judaism focuses on a strict adherence to what it sees as the correct interpretation of the Oral Torah, dating from the revelation of the Torah on Mount Sinai. Within Christianity, the term occurs in the Eastern Orthodox, Western Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches as well as in Protestant denominations like the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... When Moses received all of the laws that would define the Jewish tradition, he also received the explanation of these laws. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... ... Western Orthodoxy is a strand of Orthodox Christian worship adapted for congregations in traditionally Catholic or Protestant countries. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... For other senses of this word, see denomination. ... Along with Westminster Theological Seminary, the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (OPC) was founded by conservative Presbyterians who revolted against the modernist theology within the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PCUSA) during the 1930s. ...


The Eastern Orthodox Churches hearken back to the original forms of worship; for example, the Nicene Creed is viewed as created at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, in contrast to the Roman Catholic church, which uses the Nicene creed with the addition of the phrase 'and the Son' (see Filioque clause). This change is one of many causes for the Great Schism formalized in 1054 by simultaneous proclamations of "Anathema" from the collegial leadership of the Orthodox Churches in the East and the Bishop of Rome in the West. This emphasis on the use of the original "creed" is shared today by all Eastern Orthodox churches. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα) meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods; later, with evolving meanings, it came to mean: to be formally set apart, banished, exiled, excommunicated or denounced, sometimes accursed. ...


The Catholic Church considers the Eastern Orthodox to be in schism and not in full communion with the Holy See. But the Roman Church does not consider the Orthodox church to be schismatic and heretical. Although the Roman church recognizes that the Orthodox church has valid sacraments and full apostolic succession many Roman Catholics do not even know that Orthodoxy exists. Some Eastern Orthodox Christians in turn consider Catholics to be heretics[citation needed], while the majority consider them in schism because of the changes they have made in the theological teachings of the apostles and their direct successors. Recent declarations between the two churches in recent years have brought the two churches closer together than they had been for centuries. The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ...


Confusingly, the term "Western Orthodox" used to refer Uniate (the term seen as a pejorative by some) Catholic churches in communion with the Roman See, known also as Eastern Catholic Churches. Actually this is rarely the case in semantic terms. Today "Western Orthodox" will probably refer to groups of apostolic Orthodox Christians in the UK, USA, and perhaps smaller numbers in France, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, who wish to be Orthodox and yet want a western and Latin rite. This can also refer to the Orthodox churches that have implemented a Western rite such as the Antiochian Orthodox church has done. The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy sees, the term Holy See is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church) to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop of Rome, commonly called...


In Ukraine and Romania there are Uniates called Greek Catholics who have Byzantine rite, but accept primacy of the Pope, and so are called Byzantine Catholics. Also, in Lebanon and Syria are groups called Maronites and Melkites in a similar situation. There numbers are relatively small in general when compared to the size of the Orthodox Churches - though the Melkite church numbers over a million faithful. In defense of the Eastern churches, they have never in their 2000 years existence accepted the primacy of the Pope as the Roman Catholics do.


The Catholic Church considers most forms of Protestantism to be heresy or at the least, in error (since they do not most do not believe in Apostolic Succession and thus their "rite" and ordinations are invalid); some Protestants are mutually hostile and consider Catholics, and sometimes the Orthodox, to be heretics (the exception to this rule are the episcopal Protestants such as Anglicans--particularly High Church Anglicans and Anglo-Catholics--and some episcopal Lutherans). In some cases the term apostasy is applied with mutual invectiveness. The Catholic Church, since the Second Vatican Council, has been working harder to effect rapprochement among diverse forms of Christianity; these efforts have been met with wide-ranging responses. Some religious groups are considered by all of the aforementioned to be unorthodox (or even arbitrarily cults, as they are less commonly called in Protestant circles), including members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, Unitarians, and some of the more radical forms of liberal theology. Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original sense of religious practice; for that usage see Cult (religious practice). ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unitarianism is the belief... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called...


Inside each of these ecclesiastical communities there are issues that correspond to estrangement or refinements of perceived orthodoxy. For example, the Roman See often issues recommendations as to what practices it considers orthodox so as to curb excesses or deficiencies by its prelates. Some evangelicals are pursuing innovations that other, more conservative evangelicals consider unorthodox and term "neo-evangelical," "neo-pentecostal," or "fringe Charismatic." While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy sees, the term Holy See is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church) to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop of Rome, commonly called... A prelate is a member of the clergy having a special canonical jurisdiction over a territory or a group of people; usually, a prelate is a bishop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Neo-Evangelicalism is the trend that started in the Fundamentalist movement in the middle of the twentieth century, among conservative Protestants, as a rejection of Fundamentalist separatism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal can... The charismatic movement began with the adoption of certain Pentecostal beliefs—specifically what are known as the biblical charisms of Christianity: speaking in tongues, prophesying, etc. ...


The term Oriental Orthodoxy is used to refer to non-Chalcedonian eastern Christians, as opposed to Christians of Eastern Orthodox Churches, who accept the Council of Chalcedon (See Ecumenical Councils) and generally worship according to the Byzantine Rite. They have been traditionally referred to as Monophysite. They are found in Egypt, Ethiopia, some parts of Syria, Iraq and Iran, Armenia, and southern India in Kerala State. They accept only the first three of the ecumenical councils. In the last century there has been some rapproachement between these and the Eastern Orthodox Churches, particularly in Syria. There have been claims after dialogue, that really the differences have been of phraseology all along, and a simple misunderstanding of what each church holds. This is not entirely satisifactory to many in Eastern Orthodoxy, and it is not considered in each church's competence to use a General Holy Synod to bring about communion. These Eastern Orthodox Christians hold that it would take another Great and Holy Council of every Eastern Orthodox Bishop together to reverse the Anathema, and this raises problems of its own. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... See also General Council (disambiguation). ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ...


Critical uses

In general intellectual contexts, the terms "orthodox" and "orthodoxy" are commonly used in an unfavorable sense, similar to that associated with "dogma" and "dogmatic". The implication is that orthodox beliefs are not rationally justified but are imposed by some overseeing body, such as the dominant group in an academic discipline. For example, the term orthodox economics is commonly used by critics to refer to the dominant approach to economics, which its supporters would more commonly call mainstream economics. In this sense, orthodox economics is commonly counterposed to radical [1] or heterodox economics [2]. Mainstream economics is the term used to distinguish the economics profession in general from advocates of various heterodox schools, including Austrian economics and Marxian economics. ... Heterodox economics [1] refers to approaches or schools of economic thought that do not conform to mainstream economics, which has largely developed from neoclassical economics in the late 19th century. ...


External links

Various Links to the Orthodox churches:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Eastern Orthodoxy - Encyclopedia Article (3517 words)
The use of icons was defended and upheld at the Seventh Ecumenical Council.
The Eucharist is at the center of Eastern Orthodoxy.
In practice, it is partaking of the bread and wine in the midst of the Divine Liturgy with the rest of the church.
EASTERN ORTHODOXY : Encyclopedia Entry (9731 words)
On the basis of the numbers of adherents, Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest Christian communion in the world after the Roman Catholic Church, and the third largest grouping overall after Protestantism.
Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism split during the Great Schism that is conventionally dated to 1054, although it was in fact a gradual process rather than a singular event, exacerbated by cultural and linguistic divisions between the Greek-speaking East and the Latin-speaking West.
In contrast, the term "Oriental Orthodoxy" refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keep the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m