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Encyclopedia > Orthodox Church in America
Orthodox Church in America

Founder
Independence 1970
Recognition Autocephalous by the Russian, Bulgarian, Georgian, Polish, and Czech and Slovak Churches
Primate Metropolitan Herman (Swaiko)
Headquarters Syosset, New York, United States
Territory United States, Canada
Possessions Mexico, South America, Australia
Language English, Church Slavonic
Population 27,000 to 115,000 (est.)
Website The Orthodox Church in America
This article forms part of the series
Orthodoxy in America
History
American Orthodox Timeline
American Orthodox Bibliography
Byzantines on OCA autocephaly
Ligonier Meeting
People
Saints - Bishops - Writers
Jurisdictions - List
Antiochian - Bulgarian - Jerusalem
OCA - Romanian - Moscow
ROCOR - Serbian

Ecumenical Patriarchate:
Albanian - Carpatho-Russian
Belarusian - Greek - Ukrainian Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church (Czechoslovak Orthodox Church up to 1993) traces its roots to the Church of the Czech Brethren of the 1920s. ... His Beatitude, Metropolitan Herman (Swaiko) (b. ... Syosset is a hamlet (and a census-designated place) in Nassau County, New York, within the Town of Oyster Bay. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavonic. ... Estimates of the number of Eastern Orthodox adherents in North America vary considerably depending on methodology ( as well as the definition of the term adherent ) and generally fall in range from 1. ... Image File history File links Cross_of_the_Russian_Orthodox_Church_01. ... The History of Orthodoxy in America is complex and resists any easy categorizations or explanations. ... // Afonsky, Bp. ... The Byzantine response to the autocephaly of the Orthodox Church in America consisted primarily in a number of letters and statements made in the early 1970s by the ancient autocephalous patriarchates of the Orthodox Church—the Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem—along with the Church of Greece. ... The Ligonier Meeting was a meeting of twenty-eight or twenty-nine Orthodox Christian hierarchs in North America, specifically those affiliated with SCOBA, held November 30 to December 2, 1994, at the Antiochian Village in Ligonier, Pennsylvania. ... American Orthodox Saints Alexander Hotovitzky Alexis of Wilkes-Barre, leader of ex-Uniates into Orthodoxy Herman of Alaska, first missionary to Alaska Innocent of Alaska, missionary bishop to Alaska Jacob Netsvetov John Kochurov John Maximovitch, ROCOR bishop of Shanghai and San Francisco Juvenaly of Alaska Nikolai Velimirovic, rector of St. ... American Orthodox bishops are men serving as bishops in some capacity, whether with dioceses or exercising authority of some kind in the United States and Canada. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The following is a list of Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions with a presence in North America. ... The Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America (often referred to in North America simply as the Antiochian Archdiocese) is the sole jurisdiction of the Antiochian Orthodox Church in the USA and Canada with exclusive jurisdiction over the Antiochian Orthodox faithful in those countries, though these faithful were originally cared... The Jerusalem Patriarchate in America comprises the Orthodox Churches under the omophorion of His Beatitude, Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem, represented in America by Archbishop Damaskinos of Jaffa. ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian: , ), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Ecumenical Patriarchate in America comprises five separate jurisdictions, along with a number of stavropegial institutions, and includes roughly two-thirds of all Orthodox Christians in America. ... The American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese is a diocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate with about 75 parishes in the United States and Canada, led by Metropolitan Nicholas (Smisko) of Amissos. ...

Monasteries
Seminaries
Christ the Saviour
Holy Cross
Holy Trinity
St. Herman's
St. Tikhon's
St. Sava's
St. Sophia's
St. Vladimir's
Organizations
IOCC - OCEC - OCF
OCL - OCMC - OCLife - OISM
OTSA - SCOBA
Groups
Amer. Orthodox Catholic Church
Evangelical Orthodox Church
Paris School
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The Orthodox Church in America (OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America. Its current primate is Metropolitan Herman (Swaiko), who was elected in 2002. The Church's headquarters are located in Syosset, New York. The OCA consists of more than 700 parishes, missions, communities, monasteries, and institutions located primarily in the United States and Canada. Additional parishes and missions are located in Mexico and Australia. Membership estimates for the OCA vary, with recent figures ranging from as low 27,169 to as high as 115,000. The following is a list of monasteries and sketes, both male and female, in America. ... Christ the Saviour Seminary in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, is the seminary for the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese (ACROD), a self-governing diocese within the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. ... The Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Holy Cross) is an Eastern Orthodox Christian seminary located in Brookline, Massachusetts. ... Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary is a higher learning institution in Jordanville, New York under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... Saint Herman’s Orthodox Theological Seminary is an Orthodox Christian seminary located in Kodiak, Alaska with a campus in Anchorage. ... Saint Tikhons Orthodox Theological Seminary in South Canaan Township, Pennsylvania, is one of three institutions of professional theological education in the Orthodox Church in America. ... St. ... The St. ... Saint Vladimirs Orthodox Theological Seminary is an Orthodox Christian seminary located in Crestwood, New York in the United States. ... International Orthodox Christian Charities, Inc. ... The Orthodox Christian Education Commission is an agency of SCOBA. It was founded in 1957 by a group of Orthodox theologians and educators as a forum where they could exchange ideas and search for solutions to common educational problems. ... The Orthodox Christian Laity (OCL) is an independently organized movement of Orthodox Christian laity and clergy who are involved with Orthodox Renewal in the Americas. ... The Orthodox Christian Mission Center (OCMC) is an Orthodox Christian missions organization based in the USA and supported by all the jurisdictions of the Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). ... Originally founded in the 1960s, the Orthodox Inter-Seminary Movement (OISM) seeks to foster prayer, fellowship, and cooperation among seminarians of the Orthodox Church from across the North American continent. ... The Orthodox Theological Society in America (OTSA), was organized with the help of the Standing Conference of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas (SCOBA) as a way promote Orthodox theology, fellowship and cooperation among Orthodox Christians. ... The Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas (SCOBA) is an Eastern Orthodox organization designed to help cooperation among the canonical Orthodox Christian jurisdictions to be found in the Americas. ... The Evangelical Orthodox Church is an Eastern Orthodox Christian movement with its origins in Evangelical Protestantism, particularly in the Campus Crusade for Christ student missionary organization, that came to embrace an Eastern tradition of Christianity. ... The St. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Catholic Patriarchal (non cardinal) coat of arms Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... His Beatitude, Metropolitan Herman (Swaiko) (b. ... Syosset is a hamlet (and a census-designated place) in Nassau County, New York, within the Town of Oyster Bay. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


The history of the OCA began with the arrival of eight Russian Orthodox monks at Kodiak Island, Alaska in 1794. The monks established a mission in Alaska, which became a diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church a few years after the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. By the late 19th century, the Church had grown in other areas of the United States due to the arrival of immigrants from areas of Europe and the Middle East. Most of these immigrants, regardless of nationality or ethnic background, were united under a single North American Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... St. ... Kodiak Island is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Due to the massive disruption brought about by the Bolshevik Revolution, Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow directed all Russian Orthodox churches inside of Russia to govern themselves autonomously in 1920 if they were not able to contact the central administration or if it were disabled.[1] Some Russian Orthodox churches outside Russia took this directive as applying to them, as well, and used it as the basis for declarations of autonomy even without the necessary condition of the inability of the central administration to govern them. While many ethnic dioceses subsequently placed themselves under the jurisdiction of other Orthodox Churches, a large number of Orthodox in America became a self-governing Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church in America (known informally as the "Metropolia") under the leadership of Metropolitan Platon (Rozhdestvensky). The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Saint Tikhon of Moscow (January 19, 1865 – 7 April 1925), born Vasily Ivanovich Belavin (Василий Иванович Белавин in Russian), was the Patriarch and all Russias of the Russian Orthodox Church during the early years of the Soviet Union, 1917 through 1925. ...


The Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church in America was granted autocephaly by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1970, and was renamed the Orthodox Church in America. Although the autocephaly of the OCA is not universally recognized by all autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches, it is in full communion with them. It also is a member of the Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas (SCOBA) is an Eastern Orthodox organization designed to help cooperation among the several Eastern Orthodox Christian jurisdictions to be found in the Americas. ...

Contents

History

Part of the series on
Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity Portal

History
Byzantine Empire
Crusades
Ecumenical council
Baptism of Kiev
Great Schism
By region
Eastern Orthodox history
Ukraine Christian history
Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Image File history File links HY002563. ... It has been suggested that Eastern Roman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Orthodox Christian culture reached its golden age during the high point of Byzantine Empire and continued to flourish in Russia, after the fall of Constantinople. ... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ...

Traditions
Assyrian Church of the East
Oriental Orthodoxy
Syriac Christianity
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ) under His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle as well as Saint Mari and Addai as evidenced in the... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...

Liturgy and Worship
Sign of the cross
Divine Liturgy
Iconography
Asceticism
The Sign of the Cross is a ceremonial hand motion made by the vast majority of the worlds Christians. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ascetic redirects here. ...

Theology
Hesychasm - Icon
Apophaticism - Filioque clause
Miaphysitism - Monophysitism
Nestorianism - Theosis - Theoria
Phronema - Philokalia
Praxis - Theotokos
Hypostasis - Ousia
Essence-Energies distinction
Hesychasm (Greek ησυχασμός, from ησυχία, stillness, rest, quiet) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in Eastern Orthodox Christianity practised (Gk: ησυχάζω: keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Theoria is contemplation or perception of beauty, esp. ... Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. ... The Philokalia (Gk. ... Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills, distinct from theoretical knowledge. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Energies of God are a central principle of theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers of the Church, and most famously formulated by Gregory Palamas, against charges of heresy brought by Barlaam of Calabria. ...

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Missionary work

The first Russian colony in Alaska was established in 1784 by merchant Grigory Shelikhov. Shelikhov's attempt to colonize Kodiak Island was met with fierce resistance by the native population. He returned to Russia and installed Alexandr Baranov as director of the colony. In order to convince the Russian imperial court of the seriousness of his colonial ambitions, Shelikhov recruited volunteers from the Valaam and Konevitsa monasteries to travel to the new colony.[2] After the discovery of northern Alaska by Ivan Fedorov in 1732, and the Aleutian Islands, southern Alaska, and north-western shores of North America in 1741 during the Russian exploration conducted by Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov, it took fifty years until the founding of the first Russian colony in... Grigory Ivanovich Shelikhov (Shelekhov) (Шелихов (Шелехов), Григорий Иванович in Russian; English spelling varies from Shelekov to Shelikof)(1747 — 7. ... Alexandr Andreevich Baranov (Александр Андреевич Баранов in Russian), sometimes spelled Aleksander or Alexander and Baranof, was born in 1746 in Kargopol, in the Arkhangelsk province of Russia. ... Valaam in winter The Valaam Monastery, or Valamo Monastery is the Orthodox monastery in Karelia, which used to be a part of territory contended between Soviet Union and Finland. ... Konevsky Monastery (Russian: , Finnish: ) is a Russian Orthodox monastery that occupies Konevets Island in the north-western part of the Lake Ladoga, Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation. ... Monastery of St. ...


The volunteers, led by Archimandrite Joasaph (Bolotov), departed Saint Petersburg on December 21, 1793, and arrived at Kodiak Island on September 24, 1794. When they arrived they were shocked by the harsh treatment of the Kodiak natives at the hands of the Russian settlers and Baranov. They sent reports to Shelikhov detailing the abuse of the local population, but were ignored. In response, however, the Holy Synod created an auxiliary episcopal see in Alaska in 1796, and elected Fr. Joasaph as bishop.[3] Fr. Joasaph and a small party returned to Russia in 1798 for his consecration, and to offer first-hand accounts of what they had seen. During their return voyage to the colony in May 1799, their ship sank and all aboard died.[3] In 1800, Baranov placed the remaining monks under house arrest, and forbade them to have any further contact with the local population.[2] Archimandrite (Greek: ἀρχιμανδρίτης - archimandrites) is a title in the Greek Orthodox Church for a superior abbot who has the supervision of several abbots and monasteries appointed by a bishop. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Headquarters of the Holy Synod of the Russian Empire in St. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ...


Despite the lack of leadership, the Orthodox mission in Alaska continued to grow. In 1811, however, the Holy Synod officially closed the episcopal see.[3] It was not until 1823 that the Holy Synod sent instructions for a new priest to travel to Alaska. Father John Veniaminov of Irkutsk volunteered for the journey, and left Russia in May 1823. He and his family arrived at Unalaska Island on July 29, 1824.[4] In 1840, Fr. John accepted monastic tonsure and ordination as the Bishop of Kamchatka, the Kurile and Aleutian Islands, making him the first ruling bishop of the Alaskan mission since Bishop Joasaph. Bishop Innocent was elevated to archbishop in 1850. For his missionary and scholarly work, Innocent became a saint of the Orthodox Church in America in 1977, and is referred to as the Enlightener of the Aleuts and Apostle to the Americas.[2] Irkutsks location Kazansky Church in Irkutsk Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia. ... Unalaska is an island in the Fox Islands group in the middle of the Aleutian Islands southwest of Alaska, at . ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... Saint Innocent of Alaska was a Russian Orthodox priest, bishop, archbishop and Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ...


Growth

The first All-American Sobor was held March 5–7, 1907.
The first All-American Sobor was held March 5–7, 1907.

In 1864, the first Orthodox church in the continental United States was established in New Orleans, Louisiana. Although founded by Greeks, the parish was multi-ethnic—composed of Greeks, Slavs, and Arabs. Numerous parishes were established across the country throughout the rest of the 19th century. Although these parishes were typically multi-ethnic, they all received support from the missionary diocese, which was moved from Alaska to San Francisco, California in 1872. The mission itself was instituted as a separate Diocese of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands on June 10, 1870, subsequent to the sale of Alaska to the United States in 1867.[2][5] In November 1870, the first Orthodox church in New York City was consecrated.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: , Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


In 1891, Father Alexis Toth brought a group of 361 Eastern Catholics into Orthodoxy. From then until his death in 1909, Fr. Alexis brought approximately 20,000 Eastern Catholics from 65 independent communities to Orthodoxy. By 1917, 163 Uniate parishes consisting of more than 100,000 faithful had been converted. For his efforts, Fr. Alexis was glorified as a saint by the OCA in 1994.[2] Alexis Toth (St. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope in Rome. ...


In recognition of the expansion of the Church beyond Alaska, Bishop Tikhon (Belavin) petitioned the Holy Synod to change the diocese's title to the Diocese of the Aleutians and North America. This was approved in February 1900.[6] He consecrated an auxiliary bishop for Alaska in 1903, and in 1904 he consecrated Raphael Hawaweeny to administer to the Arab parishes. In 1905, Bishop Tikhon relocated the diocesan administration from San Francisco to New York City.[2] Saint Tikhon of Moscow (January 19, 1865 – 7 April 1925), born Vasily Ivanovich Belavin (Василий Иванович Белавин in Russian), was the Patriarch and all Russias of the Russian Orthodox Church during the early years of the Soviet Union, 1917 through 1925. ... Saint Raphael of Brooklyn (November 20, 1860 – February 27, 1915) was born as Raphael Hawaweeny (Arabic: ‎) in Damascus, Syria. ...


In a report to the Holy Synod that year, Bishop Tikhon proposed dramatic changes in the operation of the diocese. Recognizing the needs of the growing multi-ethnic Orthodox community, he recommended reforming the missionary diocese into a self-supporting American diocese, composed of numerous ethnic auxiliary dioceses. His plan called for Russian (New York), Arab (Brooklyn), Serbian (Chicago), and Greek dioceses. Additionally, he called for the formation of a governing council, composed of clergy and laity, which would meet to discuss administrative and canonical issues. On March 5, 1907, the first All-American Sobor convened in Mayfield, Pennsylvania. Following Archibishop Tikhon's re-assignment to Russia that year, however, few of his reforms were implemented.[2][7] Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... This article is about the day. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A sobor is a council of bishops and other clerical and lay representatives representing the church in matters of importance. ... Mayfield is a borough located in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania. ...


During this period, education and charity was a focus of the diocese. In 1905, Archbishop Tikhon oversaw the creation of an Orthodox seminary in Minneapolis, Minnesota. St. Platon's Seminary moved from Minneapolis to Tenafly, New Jersey in 1912 and enrolled 78 students from then until 1923. In 1916, an unaccredited Russian Women's College was established in Brooklyn. An immigrant society and orphanage also were established, as well as the first Orthodox monasteries in the United States (Saint Tikhon's Monastery for men in 1905 and Holy Virgin Protection for women in 1915).[2] A seminary or theological college is a specialized and often live-in higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students (seminarians) in philosophy, theology, spirituality and the religious life, usually in order to prepare them to become members of the clergy. ... Nickname: City of Lakes Motto: En Avant (French: Lets go!) Location in Hennepin County and the state of Minnesota. ... Tenafly (pronounced ) is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. ... Accreditation is a process by which a facilitys services and operations are examined by a third-party accrediting agency to determine if applicable standards are met. ... Saint Tikhons Orthodox Theological Seminary in South Canaan Township, Pennsylvania, is one of three institutions of professional theological education in the Orthodox Church in America. ...


By 1917, the American diocese was the largest in the Russian Orthodox Church. It had grown from ten parishes in 1890 to more than 350. Most of the funding for the diocese was provided by Russian Church, via the Imperial Missionary Society. The connections between the American diocese and the Russian Church would be severely compromised by the events of that year.[2]


Revolution and turmoil

The Russian Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent establishment of the Communist Soviet government ushered in a period of repression for the Russian Orthodox Church. Church property was confiscated, and when Patriarch Tikhon resisted, he was imprisoned from April 1922 until June 1923.[6] On November 20, 1920, Patriarch Tikhon formally authorized Russian Orthodox bishops to set up temporarily independent organizations, until such time as normal communications with and governance from the patriarchate could be restored.[1] This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Soviet redirects here. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Ethnic groups within the American diocese began to re-align themselves with other national churches. In 1918, a group of Ukrainians in Canada formed the Ukrainian Greek Orthodox Church in Canada, and in 1922, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America was established. In 1926, the Serbians aligned with the Serbian Orthodox Church.[8] The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada (UOCC) is an Eastern Orthodox Church in Canada, primarily serving Ukrainian Canadians. ... The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, headquarted in New York City, is an eparchy of the Church of Constantinople. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The MONTENEGRO Orthodox Church (crnogorski: Crnogorska Православна Црква / Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Montenegro is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ...


In Soviet Russia, a splinter group known as the Living Church gained official state recognition in place of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1922. In the United States, a group of Living Church clergy led by Father John Kedrovsky attempted to depose ruling American hierarch Bishop Alexander (Nemolovsky). Bishop Alexander, in addition to the political and ethnic struggles of his diocese, had also to deal with mounting Church debt as a result of the loss of funds from the Russian Church. He was forced to mortgage Church property to pay creditors, and was replaced in 1922 Archbishop Platon (Rozhdestvensky), who had previously served as archbishop of the diocese from 1907–14.[2] The Living Church (also called Renovated Church or Obnovlencheskaya Tserkov) was a theoretically Orthodox church reform set up in the old Soviet Union by the bolshevik government after they confiscated all property of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician. ... This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ... A creditor is a party (e. ...


After Archbishop Platon's return, he was elected Metropolitan of All America and Canada at the third All-American Sobor in November 1922.[9] Soon after, Communist authorities in Russia (in collaboration with the Living Church) attempted to seize Church assets in the United States. In response, the fourth All-American Sobor convened in April 1924. During the sobor, the historic step of declaring the North American diocese to be temporarily self-governing was taken. This was meant to be necessary only until relations with the Russian Church could be normalized, and the justification for the move was the earlier decree by Patriarch Tikhon.[2][10] The diocese was officially incorporated as the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of America.[11]


Despite the conditions set out by Tikhon's decree for this temporary autonomy not being met, the American diocese of the Russian church declared self-governance in 1924, against the protests of the patriarchate, with which it had communication and which was capable of governance had its American branch been willing. The refusal of the American branch to submit to the patriarchate thus based itself officially on a document whose conditions it had not met. In reality, however, it was a fear of Communism and a belief that the patriarchate had been compromised which fueled the rebellion, paired with a desire on the part of the Metropolia to dissociate itself from the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia of which it become part.[12] The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian: , ), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. ...


Despite the declaration of self-governance, Fr. Kedrovsky and the Living Church were awarded the Church's diocesan cathedral in New York City. To prevent further loss of property, the diocese allowed individual parishes to take ownership of their properties, which made them effectively independent. This, combined with the increasing number of ethnic parishes aligning themselves with other Orthodox jurisdictions (as well as some non-Orthodox), led to a unique situation in Orthodox America whereby multiple jurisdictions overlapped geographically. The remainder of the American Church became known informally as the Metropolia (named after Metropolitan Platon). Following Patriarch Tikhon's death, the Russian Orthodox Church, led by Metropolitan Sergius, began cooperating with the Soviet government. In 1933, the Russian Church declared the Metropolia to be schismatic.[2] Patriarch Sergius I (Russian: Сергий I; born Ivan Nikolayevich Stragorodsky (Иван Николаевич Старогородский), January 11, 1867—May 15, 1944) was the 13th Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, from September 8, 1943 until his death. ...


A third Russian Church, the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Church Abroad (also known as the Karlovtsy Synod and later, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia or ROCOR), formed in 1921. The Synod saw itself as representing all Russian Orthodox abroad, including the Metropolia. The Metropolia cooperated with the Synod at first but severed relations with them in 1926, citing the Synod's increasing claims of authority in America. The Synod, for its part, suspended Metropolitan Platon and his clergy.[13] In 1935, an agreement entitled "Temporary Regulations of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad" was signed that normalized relations between the Metropolia and the ROCOR. The 6th All-American Sobor, held in 1937, affirmed that while the Metropolia remained autonomous, it reported to the ROCOR in matters of faith.[2][8][14] The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian: , ), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. ...


The ROCOR, forced to leave Yugoslavia toward the end of World War II, eventually established its base of operations in New York City. In 1946, it was decided at the 7th All-American Sobor that the Metropolia would sever its ties with the ROCOR and attempt to return to the Patriarchate of Moscow. This return was proposed with the stipulation that the Metropolia be allowed to retain its autonomy. When this condition was not met, the Metropolia continued as a self-governing Church.[2][8][14] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Although there were periodic attempts at reconciliation between the Metropolia and the Russian Church over the next few decades, no serious progress was made. During this time, the ethnic character of the Metropolia began to change. Since many Russian immigrants to America aligned themselves with the vocally anti-Communist ROCOR, the Metropolia experienced its growth increasingly through the addition of English-speaking converts. As a result, the ethnic makeup of the Metropolia began to shift away from a purely Slavic one that had included mainly Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Rusyns. [2] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Slav, Slavic or Slavonic can refer to: Slavic peoples Slavic languages Slavic mythology Church Slavonic language Old Church Slavonic language Slav, a former Jewish settlement in the Gaza Strip. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Rusyns, also called Ruthenians, Ruthenes, Rusins, Carpatho-Rusins, and Russniaks, are a modern group of ethnic groups that speak the Rusyn language and are descended from the minority of Ruthenians who did not adopt a Ukrainian national identity and become Ukrainians in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ...


Move toward unity and independence

Prior to the 13th All-American Sobor in November 1967, a proposal was prepared to change the name of the Church from the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of America to the "Orthodox Church in America." The Council of Bishops, already aware of the proposal, forbade a vote on the matter. After much debate however, a non-binding straw poll was permitted. The result of the poll was decidedly in favor of the name change. As a result, the decision to deal with the matter at another Sobor (to be held in two years) was made.[2][15] A straw poll is an informal type of voting where the results of the poll have little or no direct results, other than to gauge opinion. ...


In the early 1960s, the Metropolia resumed communication with the Patriarch of Moscow. In 1968, the Metropolia and the Russian Church communicated informally to resolve long-standing differences. Representatives from the Metropolia sought the right of self-governance, as well as the removal of Russian jurisdiction from all matters concerning the American Church. Official negotiations on the matter began in 1969. On April 10, 1970, Patriarch Alexius I and fourteen bishops of the Russian Church's Holy Synod signed the official Tomos of Autocephaly, which made the newly renamed Orthodox Church in America the fifteenth autocephalous Orthodox Church.[2][11] The name change, as well as the granting of autocephaly, was officially accepted at the 14th All-American Sobor (also known as the 1st All-American Council in recognition of the Church's new-found independence) in October 1970.[16] The OCA's autocephaly is not currently recognized by all other autocephalous Orthodox Churches (e.g., the Church of Constantinople). Most of these churches recognize the OCA as canonical and its sacraments as valid, however. April 10 is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Patriarch Alexius I Patriarch Alexius I (Sergey Simansky) (Russian: Патриарх Алексий I (Сергей Симанский) (October 27, 1877 – April 17, 1970), 13th Patriarch of... The Orthodox Church of Constantinople is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ...


Within the past twenty years, the OCA has established more than 220 new parishes. It is a member of the Standing Conference of Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA), together with the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America (AOCA) and the other member jurisdictions. Serious consideration has been given recently to a possible merger between the OCA and the AOCA. Both groups share a significant common history, in that a Syrian priest, Father Raphael Hawaweeny, was sent by the Moscow Patriarchate in the late 19th century as a missionary to Arabic-speaking Orthodox Christians living in North America. Raphael was ordained a bishop in 1904, and his flock eventually became the AOCA. Bishop Raphael was canonized in March of 2000 by the OCA as St. Raphael of Brooklyn. The Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas (SCOBA) is an Eastern Orthodox organization designed to help cooperation among the several Eastern Orthodox Christian jurisdictions to be found in the Americas. ... The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, headquarted in New York City, is an eparchy of the Church of Constantinople. ... The Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America (often referred to in North America simply as the Antiochian Archdiocese) is the sole jurisdiction of the Antiochian Orthodox Church in the USA and Canada with exclusive jurisdiction over the Antiochian Orthodox faithful in those countries, though these faithful were originally cared... Saint Raphael of Brooklyn (November 20, 1860 – February 27, 1915) was born as Raphael Hawaweeny (Arabic: ‎) in Damascus, Syria. ... Saint Basils Cathedral, a well-known Russian Orthodox church situated in Moscow The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arab Christians are people who are ethnically Arab or culturally and linguistically Arabized and who follow the religion of Christianity. ... Brooklyn (named after the Dutch city Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ...


Recent financial scandal

In the autumn of 2005, the OCA administration was publicly accused of financial misconduct by its former treasurer, Protodeacon Eric Wheeler. Wheeler has alleged that millions of dollars in donations to the church were improperly used for personal expenses or to cover shortfalls in church accounts.[17] In response to these allegations, Metropolitan Herman announced in March 2006 that the law firm of Proskauer Rose LLP had been hired to conduct an internal legal investigation, and an accounting firm to conduct audits. On March 16, 2006 Metr. Herman announced the dismissal of the church's Chancellor, Father Robert S. Kondratick.[18] At a December 2006 joint meeting of the OCA's Holy Synod of Bishops and Metropolitan Council, information concerning the investigation's results to date was presented. The presentation confirmed earlier allegations of financial abuse and a lack of internal financial controls.[19][20] In many governments, a treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury. ... Protodeacon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Founded in 1875, Proskauer Rose is one of the nations largest law firms, providing a wide variety of legal services to clients throughout the United States and around the world from offices in New York, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Boston, Boca Raton, Newark, New Orleans and Paris. ... In some Christian churches, the Chancellor of a diocese is a lawyer who represents the church in legal matters. ...


Recognition of autocephaly

Currently, only the Russian, Bulgarian, Georgian, Polish, and Czech and Slovak Churches recognize the autocephaly of the OCA. Among the Churches that do not recognize it is the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, which argues that the Russian Church did not have the authority to grant autocephaly. Canon 28 of the Council of Chalcedon, which asserted the jurisdiction of the bishop of Constantinople in dioceses located "among the barbarians," is cited as proof of the Ecumenical Patriarchate's authority in the matter.[21][22] The Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church (Czechoslovak Orthodox Church up to 1993) traces its roots to the Church of the Czech Brethren of the 1920s. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ...


Apologists for the OCA's autocephaly claim that the decree did not need the approval of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, as it was an internal matter for the Russian Orthodox Church to decide. Also cited is the fact that many autocephalous Churches, the Russian Church included, were not recognized as such for many years.[22][23] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Despite the recognition by a few of the Orthodox churches of the OCA's autocephaly, some (notably Bulgaria and Russia) maintain parishes inside the OCA's claimed territory, making the recognition ambiguous.


Membership figures

The exact number of OCA parishioners is debated. According to the 2006 edition of the Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches, the OCA has 1,064,000 members, an increase of 6.4 percent from 2005. This figure places the OCA as the 24th largest Christian denomination in the United States, and second to the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America.[24] A study by Alexei D. Krindatch of the Patriarch Athenagoras Orthodox Institute, performed in 2000, presented a substantially lower figure—115,100 adherents (baptized Orthodox who attend services on at least an occasional basis and their children) and 39,400 full members (persons older than 18, paying annual Church membership fees). The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, by comparison, was listed as having 440,000 adherents.[25] In response to the study, an OCA representative stated the Church had "around 750,000 adults and children."[26] First published as the Federal Council Year Book in 1916, The Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches is a comprehensive descriptive and statistical listing of major religious bodies and other important religion-related organizations in the U.S.A. and Canadian. ... The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, headquarted in New York City, is an eparchy of the Church of Constantinople. ...


In 2004, a Fr. Jonathan Ivanoff stated in a presentation at the OCA's Evangelization Conference that the Church's census population in 2004 was 27,169, and that membership from 1990–2000 declined 13 percent. It further stated that the OCA population in the continental United States declined between six and nine percent per year.[27]


Name

According to the April 1970 Tomos of Autocephaly granted by the Russian Orthodox Church, the official name of the Church is The Autocephalous Orthodox Church in America.[28] The more comprehensive March 1970 Agreement of Tomos of Autocephaly, however, states in Article VIII that the legal name of the Church was changed to "Orthodox Church in America" (with no definite article).[29] An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ...


In 2005, Tikhon (Fitzgerald), Bishop of San Francisco, Los Angeles, and the West, commented that the official name of the jurisdiction is The Orthodox Church in America (TOCA), but the definite article was dropped due to a printing error.[30] There has not yet been any official announcement from the central administration of the Church, and the former uses (Orthodox Church in America and OCA) remain the most common both within and outside the jurisdiction. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Structure and administration

Episcopacy

The supreme canonical authority of the OCA is the Holy Synod of Bishops, composed of all the Church's diocesan bishops. The ex officio chairman of the Holy Synod is the metropolitan, currently Metropolitan Herman (Swaiko). The Holy Synod meets twice annually, however special sessions can be called either by the metropolitan or at the request at least three diocesan bishops.[31] Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ...


Metropolitan

See also: List of primates of the Orthodox Church in America

The primate of the OCA is the metropolitan. He also serves as the bishop of one of the Church's dioceses. With the other bishops of the Church, the metropolitan is considered the first among equals. His official title is "Metropolitan of All-America and Canada." His role is to manage the welfare of the Church, and to act as its representative with other Orthodox Churches, religious organizations, and secular authorities. The metropolitan is elected, when necessary, by the Holy Synod at an All-American Council (a general council of OCA clergy and laity). There are no age or term limits for the metropolitan, and he may retire at any time, but usually does so only for health-related reasons.[32] This article is a list of primates of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA). ... Catholic Patriarchal (non cardinal) coat of arms Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment. ...


Dioceses

For more details on this topic, see List of the dioceses of the Orthodox Church in America.

The diocese is the basic church body that comprises all the parishes of a determined geographical area. It is governed by the Diocesan Bishop, with the assistance of a Diocesan Assembly and a Diocesan Council. The OCA is currently composed of twelve geographic and three ethnic dioceses. The boundaries of the ethnic dioceses overlap those of certain geographic ones. These dioceses are the result of smaller ethnic jurisdictions joining the OCA at some point in its history, usually after having broken from other bodies. Dioceses are established by the Holy Synod whenever needed, and the Synod may also modify the boundaries of an existing diocese.[33] In the Orthodox Church in America (OCA), the Diocese is the basic church body that comprises all the parishes of a determined geographical area. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... An ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry (Smith 1987). ...


All-American Council

According to the Statute of the Orthodox Church in America, the All-American Council is the "highest legislative and administrative authority within the Church."[34] The Council is composed roughly of the Metropolitan, all bishops, priests, and selected lay delegates. The purpose of the All-American Council is to discuss and vote on Church matters. When necessary, the Council has also elected new metropolitans.


The period between All-American Councils is set at three years, although this is not always the case. The first thirteen Councils (held from 1907–1970) are referred to as All-American Sobors, reflecting the American Church's jurisdictional ties to the Russian Orthodox Church. The fourteenth Sobor (held 1970) is jointly known as the 1st All-American Council, reflecting the autocephalous status of the OCA. The most recent All-American Council (14th) was held in Toronto in July 2005, with the 15th tentatively scheduled for 2008.


Metropolitan Council

The Metropolitan Council is the permanent executive body of the Church's administration. It is tasked with implementing the decisions of the All-American Council, as well as handling the Church's budgetary concerns. The Council is headed by a chairman (the current Metropolitan), and is composed of the OCA's chancellor, secretary, treasurer, and selected clergy and lay delegates. It usually meets twice per year, but in December 2006 a rare joint meeting between the Metropolitan Council and the Holy Synod of Bishops was held.[35]

Autocephalous and Autonomous Churches of Eastern Orthodoxy
Autocephalous Churches
Four Ancient Patriarchates: Constantinople | Alexandria | Antioch | Jerusalem
Russia | Serbia | Romania | Bulgaria | Georgia
Cyprus | Greece | Poland | Albania | Czechia and Slovakia | OCA*
Autonomous Churches
Sinai | Finland | Estonia* | Japan* | China* | Ukraine | Western Europe* | Bessarabia* | Moldova* | Ohrid* | ROCOR**
The * designates a church whose autocephaly or autonomy is not universally recognized.
The ** designates a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church.

This article treats the manner in which the Eastern Orthodox Churches are organized, rather than the doctrines, traditions, practices, or other aspects of Eastern Orthodoxy. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Pentarchy, a Greek word meaning government of five, designates the Five Great Sees or early Patriarchates, which were the five major centres of the Christian church in the early Middle Ages: Rome (Sts. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Greek: ) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as Antiochian Orthodox Church claims to be one of the five churches that composed the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church before the Great Schism. ... The Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, properly called the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, is regarded by Orthodox Christians as the mother church of all of Christendom, because it was in Jerusalem that the Church was established on the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit on the... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church The MONTENEGRO Orthodox Church (crnogorski: Crnogorska Православна Црква / Crnogorska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the Church of Montenegro is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia. ... The Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church (Czechoslovak Orthodox Church up to 1993) traces its roots to the Church of the Czech Brethren of the 1920s. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... St. ... The Metropolis of Western Europe is an autonomous body in the Eastern Orthodox Church under the patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... The Metropolis of Bessarabia is one of the six metropolies of the Romanian Orthodox Church. ... The Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric (Macedonian: Pravoslavna Ohridska Arhiepiskopija) was formed in 2002 following a failure in negotiations between the Serbian Orthodox Church and the canonically-unconstitutional and unrecognized Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC). ... The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Russian: , ), also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, ROCA, or ROCOR) is a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ukaz No. 362
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Stokoe, Mark and Leonid Kishkovsky. Orthodox Christians in North America 1794–1994. Orthodox Church in America, 1995. ISBN 0-8664-2053-3
  3. ^ a b c Biography of Bishop Joasaph (Bolotov). Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  4. ^ Biography of St. Innocent of Alaska. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  5. ^ a b Biography of Bishop Paul (Popov). Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  6. ^ a b Biography of St. Tikhon of Moscow. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  7. ^ Synopsis of the 1st All-American Sobor. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  8. ^ a b c Ware, Timothy. The Orthodox Church (2nd Edition). Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-14-014656-3
  9. ^ Synopsis of the 3rd All-American Sobor. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  10. ^ Synopsis of the 4th All-American Sobor. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  11. ^ a b Church History — The Twentieth Century 1900–1925. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  12. ^ ROCOR and OCA - OrthodoxWiki article
  13. ^ Church History - The Twentieth Century 1925-1950. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  14. ^ a b Synopsis of the 6th All-American Sobor. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  15. ^ Synopsis of the 13th All-American Sobor. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  16. ^ Synopsis of the 14th All-American Sobor / 1st All-American Council. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  17. ^ Cooperman, Alan. "Accusations of Misused Money Roil Orthodox Church", February 26, 2006, p. A09. Retrieved on 2006-12-24. 
  18. ^ Administrative Committee meets. Retrieved on 2006-12-24.
  19. ^ Rodgers, Ann. "Orthodox Church 'stunned' by extent of financial abuse", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. 
  20. ^ OCA Holy Synod and Metropolitan Council conclude first day of joint meeting. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  21. ^ Erickson, John H. "Chalcedon Canon 28: Yesterday and Today". St Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  22. ^ a b Metropolitan Theodosius (Lazor). "The path to autocephaly and beyond: 'Miles to go before we sleep'". The Orthodox Church, Vol. 31. Retrieved on 2006-12-20.
  23. ^ Recognition of the OCA. Retrieved on 2006-12-24.
  24. ^ "2006 Yearbook of Churches reflects 'robust immigrant history in U.S.". Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  25. ^ "How many Eastern Orthodox are there in the USA?". Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  26. ^ Dart, John (8 May 2002). "Who's counting? - Doing the numbers on membership". Christian Century. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  27. ^ Ivanoff, Jonathan (30 August 2004). "Understanding Parish Revitalization". Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  28. ^ "The Tomos of Autocephaly". Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  29. ^ "Article VIII - Name of Autocephalous Church". Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  30. ^ Comments of Bishop Tikhon (Fitzgerald). Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  31. ^ "The Episcopacy". Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  32. ^ "Article IV - The Metropolitan". Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  33. ^ "Article VI - The Diocese". Retrieved on November 8, 2006.
  34. ^ "Article III - The All-American Council". Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
  35. ^ "Metropolitan Council, Holy Synod to hold joint session". Retrieved on December 19, 2006.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the PG, is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

References

  • Constance J. Tarasar (Gen. Ed.) Orthodox America: The Orthodox Church in America Syosett, New York 1975

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Orthodox Church in America - OrthodoxWiki (1945 words)
Churches that do recognize its autocephaly are mainly those in former Communist lands (most of which had thus come under the influence of the Church of Russia), including the Church of Russia, the Church of Bulgaria, the Church of Poland, the Church of Georgia, and the Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia.
According to apologists for OCA autocephaly, it is common for recognition of autocephaly to be granted belatedly; however opponents regard the grant as not being within the purview of Moscow's prerogatives (see Byzantine response to OCA autocephaly).
The Statute of the Orthodox Church in America
Orthodox-Catholic Church of America -- History (7964 words)
Statistics published in 1991 by the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America indicates that 80 percent of all Orthodox in America are either American born or American reared from infancy.
It is a sad commentary that the established church, with a clear and definite message to apply to the salvation of both souls and nations, was mute in a Western world and society perishing for need of the truth and the effectual power of Christ and His Church.
As to the Russo-American Church, its positive attitude toward the Orthodox-Catholic Church of America was nobly articulated in a June 1915 letter which Father Ingram Irvine, head of the English department of St. Nicholas Russian Cathedral, addressed to Archbishop Vilatte, "Archbishop of America".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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