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Encyclopedia > Orson Welles
Orson Welles

Orson Welles in 1937 photograph by Carl Van Vechten.
Born George Orson Welles
May 6, 1915(1915-05-06)
Kenosha, Wisconsin, U.S.
Died October 10, 1985 (aged 70)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Years active 1934-1985
Spouse(s) Virginia Nicholson (1934-1940)
Rita Hayworth (1943-1948)
Paola Mori (1955-1985)

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. Welles first gained wide notoriety for his October 30, 1938 radio broadcast of H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds. Adapted to sound like a contemporary news broadcast, it caused a number of listeners to panic. In the mid-1930s, his New York theatre adaptations of an all-black voodoo Macbeth and a contemporary allegorical Julius Caesar became legendary. Welles was also an accomplished magician, starring in troop variety spectacles in the war years. During this period he became a serious political activist and commentator through journalism, radio and public appearances closely associated with Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1941, he co-wrote, directed, produced and starred in Citizen Kane, often chosen in polls of film critics as the greatest film ever made. The rest of his career was often obstructed by lack of funds, incompetent studio interference, and bad luck, both during exile in Europe and brief returns to Hollywood. Despite these difficulties Othello won the 1952 Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and Touch of Evil won the top prize at the Brussels World Fair, while Welles himself considered The Trial and Chimes at Midnight to be the best of his efforts. Download high resolution version (2853x3655, 983 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Carl Van Vechten (June 17, 1880 – December 21, 1964) was an American writer and photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Location of Kenosha within Wisconsin Coordinates: , Country State County Kenosha Settled 1836 Government  - Mayor John M. Antaramian Area  - City 24. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987), was an American actress who attained fame during the 1940s as the eras leading sex symbol. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... // The Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best script not based upon previously published material. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... The Academy Honorary Award is given irregularly by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music... The Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album has been awarded since 1959. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... Donovans brain was a 1942 horror novel by Curt Siodmak. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... A film producer creates the conditions for making movies. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The War of the Worlds (disambiguation). ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... “Newsbreak” redirects here. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... This article is about the state. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Voodoo is a religious tradition originating in West Africa, which became prominent in the New World due to the importation of African slaves. ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ... “Illusionist” redirects here. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... FDR redirects here. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. ... While it is impossible to objectively determine the greatest film of all time, it is possible to discuss the films that have been regarded as the greatest ever. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... ... One of Welles more complicated shoots, Othello was filmed on and off over a period of three years. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Palme dOr The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Touch of Evil (1958) is considered one of the last examples of film noir in the genres classic era (from the early 1940s until the late 1950s). ... The Atomium. ... The Trial (aka Le Procès) is a 1962 film directed by Orson Welles, based on the famous novel by Franz Kafka. ... Orson Welles, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) is generally considered one of Hollywoods greatest directors, as well as a fine actor, broadcaster and screenwriter. ...


Although Welles remained on the margins of the major studios as a director/producer, his larger-than-life personality made him a bankable actor. In his later years he struggled against a Hollywood system that refused to finance his independent film projects, making a living largely through acting, commercials, and voice-over work. Welles received a 1975 American Film Institute Lifetime Achievement award, the third person to do so after John Ford and James Cagney. Critical appreciation for Welles has increased since his death. He is now widely acknowledged as one of the most important dramatic artists of the 20th century, in 2002 being voted in a BFI Top Ten Directors poll by the British Film Institute as the greatest film director of all time.[1][2] A voice-over is a narration that is played on top of a video segment, usually with the audio for that segment muted or lowered. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film, television and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film, television and...

Contents

Biography

Youth and early career (1915 to 1934)

Orson Welles was born in Kenosha, Wisconsin, the second son of Richard Head Welles, then a manufacturer of vehicle lamps, and Beatrice Ives, a concert pianist and suffragette. During Welles' boyhood, he encountered many hardships. In 1919, his parents separated and moved to Chicago. His father then became an alcoholic and stopped working. Welles' mother died of jaundice on May 10, 1924 in a Chicago hospital, four days after Welles' ninth birthday. After his mother's death, Welles would no longer pursue his interest in music. Richard Welles died when Orson was 15, the summer after Orson's graduation from the Todd School for Boys in Woodstock, Illinois. Welles later revealed in interviews that he felt that he had neglected and betrayed his father. Location of Kenosha within Wisconsin Coordinates: , Country State County Kenosha Settled 1836 Government  - Mayor John M. Antaramian Area  - City 24. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement, originally in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The Todd Seminary for Boys, later the Todd School for Boys was located in Woodstock, Illinois. ... Northwest corner of Woodstocks public square Woodstock is a city in McHenry County, Illinois, United States. ...


Maurice Bernstein became his guardian. There is some question about Maurice's suitability as a guardian as evidenced by his history. Born in Russia, he came to Chicago in 1890, studied and became a successful physician. In a very few years, he had several wives, including the Chicago Lyric Opera soprano, Edith Mason. Edith divorced company director Giorgio Polacco to marry Bernstein. Not long thereafter, they divorced and she remarried Polacco. In 1930, Bernstein was living in Highland Park, a suburb of Chicago, as a wealthy physician with another wife and child, claiming to have been born in Illinois to parents from New York. Exterior of the Civic Opera House Lyric Opera of Chicago is one of the leading opera companies in the United States. ...


At Todd, Welles came under the positive influence and guidance of Roger Hill, a teacher who later became Todd's headmaster. Hill provided Welles with an ad hoc educational environment that proved invaluable to his creative experience, allowing Welles to concentrate on subjects that interested him. Welles performed and staged his first theatrical experiments and productions there.


On his father's death, Welles traveled to Europe with the aid of a small inheritance. While on a walking and painting trip through Ireland, he strode into the Gate Theatre in Dublin and claimed he was a Broadway star. Gate manager Hilton Edwards later claimed he didn't believe him but was impressed by his brashness and some impassioned quality in his audition. Welles made his stage debut at the Gate in 1931, appearing in Jew Suss as the Duke. He acted to great acclaim, acclaim that reached the United States. He performed smaller supporting roles as well. On returning to the United States he found his brief fame ephemeral and turned to a writing project at Todd that would become the immensely successful Everybody's Shakespeare, and subsequently, The Mercury Shakespeare. Welles traveled to North Africa while working on thousands of illustrations for the Everybody's Shakespeare series of educational books, a series that remained in print for decades. The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatres Peacock studio theatre space to stage important works by European and American dramatists. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Jud Süß, (The Jew Süss), was the nickname of Joseph Süss Oppenheimer and is the title of an 1827 novella by Wilhelm Hauff, a 1925 historical novel by Lion Feuchtwanger, a 1934 British film and a Nazi propaganda film made in 1940 by Veit Harlan, all of which...


An introduction by Thornton Wilder led Welles to the New York stage. He toured in three off-Broadway productions with Katharine Cornell's company. Restless and impatient when the planned Broadway opening of Romeo and Juliet was canceled, Welles staged a drama festival of his own with the Todd School, inviting Michael MacLiammoir and Hilton Edwards from Dublin's Gate Theatre to appear, along with New York stage luminaries. It was a roaring success. The subsequent revival of Romeo and Juliet brought Welles to the notice of John Houseman, who was then casting for an unusual lead actor and about to take a lead role in the The Federal Theatre Project. Houseman was especially impressed by Welles' youth, wed to what appeared to be an overabundant creative certainty and drive.[citation needed] Image:Thorntonwilderteeth. ... Katharine Cornell, as Lucrece Katharine Cornell (February 16, 1893-June 9, 1974) was born on February 16, 1893 (although most sources cite the incorrect year of 1898) in Berlin, Germany to American parents, and raised in Buffalo, New York. ... John Houseman (September 22, 1902 – October 31, 1988) was a Romanian-born actor and film producer. ... Poster for Festival of American Dance, Los Angeles Federal Theatre Project, WPA, 1937 The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was a New Deal project to fund theater and other live artistic performances in the United States during the Great Depression. ...


By 1935 Welles was supplementing his earnings in the theater as a radio actor in New York City, working with many of the actors who would later form the core of his Mercury Theatre. He married actress and socialite Virginia Nicholson in 1934. They had one daughter, Christopher, who became known as Chris Welles Feder, an author of educational materials for children. Welles also shot an eight-minute silent short film, The Hearts of Age with Nicholson. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Mercury Theatre was a theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. ... Orson Welles student film made while attending the Todd School. ...


Renown in theatre and radio (1936 to 1940)

In 1936, the Federal Theatre Project (part of Roosevelt's Works Progress Administration) put unemployed theatre performers and employees to work. Welles was hired by John Houseman and assigned to direct a project for Harlem's American Negro Theater. Wanting to give his all-black cast a chance to play classics, he offered them Macbeth, moved to Haiti at the court of King Henri Christophe (and with a setting of voodoo witch doctors). Jack Carter played Macbeth. The play was rapturously received and later toured the nation. It is considered a landmark of African-American theatre. At 20 Welles was hailed as a prodigy. Poster for Festival of American Dance, Los Angeles Federal Theatre Project, WPA, 1937 The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was a New Deal project to fund theater and other live artistic performances in the United States during the Great Depression. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ... John Houseman (September 22, 1902 – October 31, 1988) was a Romanian-born actor and film producer. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... The American Negro Theater (ANT) was formed in Harlem on June 5, 1940 by writer Abram Hill and actor Frederick ONeal. ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Portrait as King Henry I. Henri Christophe (October 6, 1767 – October 8, 1820) was a career officer and general in the Haïtian Army. ... Jack Carter (born 24 June 1923) is a standup comedian, actor and host. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...

Welles in a recording studio, 1938
Welles in a recording studio, 1938
An electrical transcription disk of the Orson Welles War of the Worlds broadcast.
An electrical transcription disk of the Orson Welles War of the Worlds broadcast.

After the success of Macbeth, Welles mounted the absurd farce Horse Eats Hat. He consolidated his "White Hope" reputation with Dr Faustus. This was even more ground-breaking theatre than Macbeth, using light as a prime unifying scenic element in a nearly blacked-out stage. In 1937, he rehearsed Marc Blitzstein's pro-union 'labour opera' The Cradle Will Rock. Because of severe federal cutbacks and perhaps rumoured Congressional worries about communist propaganda in the Federal Theatre, the show's premiere at the Maxine Elliott Theatre was cancelled and the theatre locked and guarded by National Guardsmen. In a last-minute theatrical coup Welles announced to waiting ticket-holders that the show was being transferred to the Venice, about twenty blocks away. Cast, crew and audience walked the distance on foot. Since the unions forbade the actors and musicians performing from the stage, The Cradle Will Rock began with Blitzstein introducing the show and playing the piano accompaniment on stage, with the cast performing their parts from the audience. This impromptu performance was a tremendous hit. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1280 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1280 pixel, file size: 43 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Marc Blitzstein (March 2, 1905 – January 22, 1964) was an American composer. ... The 1937 musical The Cradle Will Rock by Marc Blitzstein was originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project. ... Maxine Elliott Theatre Named after U.S. actress Maxine Elliott (Feb. ... The New Century Theatre was a legitimate Broadway theatre located at 932 Seventh Avenue at West 58th Street in midtown Manhattan. ...


Resigning from the Federal Theatre, Welles and Houseman formed their own company, the Mercury Theatre, which included actors such as Agnes Moorehead, Joseph Cotten, Ray Collins, George Coulouris, Frank Readick, Everett Sloane, Eustace Wyatt and Erskine Sanford, all of whom would continue to work for Welles for years. The first Mercury Theatre production was a melodramatic and heavily edited version of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, set in a contemporary frame of fascist Italy. Cinna the Poet dies at the hands not of a mob but a secret police force. According to Norman Lloyd, who played Cinna, "it stopped the show." The applause lasted more than 3 minutes and the production was widely acclaimed. The Mercury Theatre was a theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. ... Agnes Robertson Moorehead (December 6, 1900 – April 30, 1994) was an Oscar-nominated American character actress. ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... Collins in The Racket (1951) Ray Collins (December 10, 1889 – July 11, 1965) was an American actor in film, stage, radio, and television. ... George Coulouris George Coulouris (October 1, 1903- April 25, 1989) was a prominent British film and stage actor. ... Sloane in The Enforcer Everett Sloane (October 1, 1909 – August 6, 1965) was an American television and film actor, songwriter, and theatre director. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ... Norman Lloyd (born November 8, 1914) is an American veteran actor, producer and director with a career in entertainment spanning more than six decades. ...


Welles was increasingly active on radio, as an actor and soon as a director and producer. He played Hamlet for CBS on The Columbia Workshop, adapting and directing the play himself. The Mutual Network gave him a seven-week series to adapt Les Misérables, which he did with great success. Welles was chosen to anonymously play Lamont Cranston, The Shadow, in late 1937 (again for Mutual) and in the summer of 1938 CBS gave him (and the Mercury Theatre) a weekly hour-long show to broadcast radio plays based on classic literary works. The show was titled The Mercury Theatre on the Air, with original music by Bernard Herrmann, who would continue working with Welles on radio and in films for years. For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... The CBS Radio Workshop was an experimental dramatic radio anthology series that aired on CBS from January 27, 1956, until September 22, 1957. ... The Mutual Broadcasting System (1934 - 1999) was a radio network based in the USA. The ancestor of Mutual was the Quality Network, founded in 1929 with four radio stations: WLS in Chicago, WOR in New York City, WLW in Cincinnati, and WXYZ in Detroit. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... The Mercury Theatre was a theatre company founded in New York City by Orson Welles and John Houseman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Their October 30 broadcast, H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds, brought Welles notoriety and instant fame on both a national and international level. The fortuitous mixture of news bulletin format with the between-breaks dial spinning habits of listeners from the rival and far more popular Edgar Bergen/Charlie McCarthy program, created widespread confusion among late tuners. Panic spread among many listeners who believed the news reports of an actual Martian invasion. The resulting panic was duly reported around the world and disparagingly mentioned by Adolf Hitler in a public speech a few months later[citation needed]. Welles' growing fame soon drew Hollywood offers, lures which the independent-minded Welles resisted at first. However, The Mercury Theatre on the Air, which had been a 'sustaining show' (without sponsorship) was picked up by Campbell Soup and renamed The Campbell Playhouse. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... For other uses, see The War of the Worlds (disambiguation). ... Sam Bermans caricature of Charlie McCarthy and Edgar Bergen for 1947 NBC promotion book Edgar John Bergen (February 16, 1903 – September 30, 1978) was an American actor and radio performer, best known as a ventriloquist. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Campbell Playhouse was a sponsored continuation of the Mercury Theater on the Air, a direct result of the instant publicity from the War of the Worlds panic. ...


Welles in Hollywood (1939 to 1948)

RKO Pictures president George Schaefer eventually offered Welles what is generally considered the greatest contract ever offered to an untried director: complete artistic control. RKO signed Welles in a two-picture deal; including script, cast, crew, and most important, final cut. With this contract in hand, Welles (and nearly the entire Mercury Theatre) moved to Hollywood. He commuted weekly to New York to maintain his The Campbell Playhouse commitment. RKO redirects here. ... ...


Welles toyed with various ideas for his first project for RKO Pictures, settling on an adaptation of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, which he worked on in great detail. He planned to film the action with a subjective camera from the protagonist's point of view. However, the darkened international political climate created marketing restrictions across Europe. When a budget was drawn up, RKO's enthusiasm cooled. The anti-fascist tenor of the story was now suddenly problematic. RKO also declined to approve another Welles' project, The Smiler with the Knife, for similar political reasons and ostensibly because they lacked faith in Lucille Ball's ability to carry the leading lady role. RKO redirects here. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. ... For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an iconic American comedienne, film, television, stage and radio actress, glamour girl and star of the landmark sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, The Lucy Show and Heres Lucy. ...


In a sign of things to come, Welles left The Campbell Playhouse in 1940, due to creative differences with the sponsor. The show continued without him, produced by John Houseman. In perhaps another sign of things to come, Welles' first actual experience on a Hollywood film was as narrator for RKO's 1940 production of Swiss Family Robinson. The Swiss Family Robinson is a novel about a Swiss family who are shipwrecked en route for Australia. ...


Welles found a suitable film project in an idea he conceived with screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz (who was then writing radio plays for The Campbell Playhouse). Initially called American, it would eventually become Welles's first feature film, Citizen Kane (1941). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ...


Mankiewicz based his original notion on an expose of the life of William Randolph Hearst, whom he knew socially but now hated, having once been great friends with Hearst's mistress, Marion Davies. Mankiewicz was now banished from her company because of his perpetual drunkenness. Mankiewicz, a notorious gossip, exacted revenge with his unflatteringly depiction of Davies in ‘Citizen Kane’ for which Welles got most of the criticisms. This "larger-than-life" character was also loosely modeled on Robert McCormick, Howard Hughes, and Joseph Pulitzer, because Welles wanted to create a broad, complex character, intending to show him in the same scenes from several points of view. The use of multiple narrative perspectives in Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" also influenced Welles' treatment. Supplying Mankiewicz with 300 pages of notes Welles urged him to write the first drafts of a screenplay under the watchful nursing of John Houseman, who was posted to insure Mankiewicz stayed on the wagon. On Welles's instruction, Houseman wrote the opening narration as a pastiche of The March of Time newsreels. Taking these drafts, Welles drastically condensed and rearranged them, then added scenes of his own. For other people named William Randolph Hearst, see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation) William Randolph Hearst I (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. ... Marion Davies (January 3, 1897 – September 22, 1961) was an American actress. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer (April 18, 1847 – October 29, 1911) was a Hungarian-American publisher best known for posthumously establishing the Pulitzer Prizes and (along with William Randolph Hearst) for originating yellow journalism. ... The March of Time was a newsreel that was shown in movie theaters from 1935 - 1951. ...


The resulting character of Charles Foster Kane is loosely based on parts of Hearst's life. Nonetheless, with perhaps sly and barely disguised malice towards their young boss, Mankiewicz and Houseman cunningly worked in autobiographical allusions to Welles himself, most noticeably in the treatment of Kane's childhood. Welles then added features from other famous American lives to create a general and mysterious personality rather than the narrow journalistic portrait intended by Mankiewicz, whose first drafts included scandalous claims about the death of the film director Thomas Ince, killed on an excursion on a Hearst yacht. Ironically, Mankiewicz later argued, probably astutely, that if this material had been left in Hearst would never have dared to make the public connection to his own life and would have left the film alone. Thomas Harper Ince (November 6, 1882–November 20, 1924) was an American film director. ...


Once scripting was completed Welles attracted some of Hollywood's best technicians, including Gregg Toland, considered one of the finest cinematographers of the time, who walked into his office and announced he wanted to work on the picture. For the cast, Welles primarily used actors from his Mercury Theatre. Grasping that films were a collaboration, he invited suggestions from everyone, but only if they were directed through him. Gregg Toland (1904-1948) was an influential American cinematographer, most noted for his work on Orson Welles Citizen Kane. ...


There was little concern over the Hearst connection when Welles completed production on the film. However, Mankiewicz handed a copy of the final shooting script to his friend Charles Lederer, now husband of Welles' ex-wife Virginia Nicholson and nephew of Hearst's mistress Marion Davies. Hedda Hopper saw a small ad in a newspaper for a preview screening of Citizen Kane and went. Hopper, realizing immediately that the film was based on features of Hearst's life, reported this back to him and threatened to give "Hollywood, Private Lives" if that was what it wanted. Thus began the struggle over the attempted suppression of Citizen Kane. Charles Davies Lederer (born December 31 1906 - died March 5 1976) was an American film writer and director. ... Hedda Hopper on the July 28, 1947 cover of Time Magazine Hedda Hopper (May 2, 1885 – February 1, 1966) was an American actress and gossip columnist, whose long-running feud with friend turned arch-rival Louella Parsons became at least as notorious as many of Hoppers columns. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ...


Hearst's media empire boycotted the film. It exerted enormous pressure on the Hollywood film community by threatening to expose 15 years of suppressed scandals and the fact that most of the studio bosses were Jewish. At one point, the heads of the major studios jointly offered RKO the cost of the film in exchange for the negative and all existing prints, for the express purpose of burning it. RKO declined, and the film was given a limited release. Meanwhile, Hearst successfully intimidated theatre chains by threatening to ban advertising for any of their other films in any of his papers if they showed Citizen Kane. RKO didn't own many theatres, so few moviehouses actually dared to screen Citizen Kane. Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ...


While the film was critically well-received, by the time it reached the general public the positive tide of publicity had waned. It garnered nine Academy Award nominations but won only for Best Original Screenplay, shared by Mankiewicz and Welles. The delay in its release and its uneven distribution contributed to its average result at the box-office, making back its budget and marketing, but RKO lost any chance of a major profit. The fact that Citizen Kane ignored many Hollywood conventions also meant that the film confused and angered the 1940s cinema public. Exhibitor response was scathing; most theater owners complained bitterly about the adverse audience reaction and the many walkouts, and only a few saw fit to acknowledge Welles's artistic technique. RKO shelved the film and did not re-release it until 1956. During the 1950s, the film came to be seen by young French film critics such as Francois Truffaut as exemplifying the "auteur theory," in which the director is the "author" of a film. Truffaut, Godard and others were inspired by Welles' example to make their own films, giving birth to the Nouvelle Vague. In the 1960s Citizen Kane became popular on college campuses, both as a film-study exercise and as an entertainment subject. Its frequent revivals on television, home video, and DVD have enhanced its "classic" status, and it ultimately recouped its costs. Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... François Roland Truffaut (February 6, 1932–October 21, 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking, and remains an icon of the French film industry. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... The New Wave (French: Nouvelle vague) of French cinema was a cinematic movement of the 1960s. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ...


The 1996 documentary The Battle Over Citizen Kane chronicles the battle between Welles and Hearst. In 1999, RKO 281, an HBO docudrama, tells the story of the making of Citizen Kane, starring Liev Schreiber as Orson Welles. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... RKO 281 is a 1999 dramatic film directed by Benjamin Ross and starring Liev Schreiber, James Cromwell, Melanie Griffith, John Malkovich, and Roy Scheider. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... Liev Schreiber (born October 4, 1967) is a Tony Award-winning American actor. ...


After Citizen Kane

Welles' second film for RKO was The Magnificent Ambersons, adapted from the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Booth Tarkington. George Schaefer hoped to make back the money lost by Citizen Kane. Ambersons had already been adapted for The Campbell Playhouse by Welles, who wrote the screen adaptation himself. Toland was not available, so Stanley Cortez was named cinematographer. The meticulous Cortez, however, was slow and the film lagged behind schedule and over budget. The Magnificent Ambersons is an American film released in 1942 and directed by Orson Welles, his second film. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... The Magnificent Ambersons is a 1918 novel by Booth Tarkington. ... Time magazine, December 21, 1925 Newton Booth Tarkington (July 29, 1869 _ May 19, 1946) was an American novelist and dramatist. ... Stanley Cortez (1908-1997) was a cinemataographer. ...


At RKO's request, simultaneously, Welles worked on an adaptation of Eric Ambler's spy thriller, Journey Into Fear, which he co-wrote with Joseph Cotten. In addition to acting in the film, Welles was also producer. Direction was credited solely to Norman Foster. Welles later stated that they were in such a rush that the director of each scene was whoever was closest to the camera. Eric Ambler (28 June 1909 - 22 October 1998) was an influential English writer of spy novels who brought a level of realism to the field that had generally been absent in earlier works. ... Journey Into Fear is a 1943 film centered around a United States Navy engineer attempting to escape Nazi forces following his return to the United States. ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... Film director and movie actor Norman Foster (December 13, 1900 - July 7, 1976) may be best remembered for being married twice - both times to leading ladies. ...


Welles was then offered a new radio series by CBS. Called The Orson Welles Show, it was a half-hour variety show of short stories, comedy skits, poetry and musical numbers. Joining the original Mercury Theatre cast was Jiminy Cricket, "on loan from Walt Disney". The variety format was unpopular with the listeners, and Welles was soon forced into full half-hour stories instead. The Logo The Orson Welles Show was an unsold TV pilot. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ...


To further complicate matters during the production of Ambersons and Journey into Fear, Welles was approached by Nelson Rockefeller and Jock Whitney to produce a documentary film about South America. This was at the behest of the federal government's Good Neighbor Policy, a wartime propaganda effort designed to prevent Latin America from allying with the Axis Powers. Welles saw his involvement as a form of national service, because his physical condition excused him from direct military service. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... John Hay Jock Whitney (b. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Good Neighbor policy was the policy of the United States Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in relation to Latin America and Europe during 1933-45. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Blue: Axis powers, co-belligerents and controlled areas Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the...


Expected to film the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Welles rushed to finish the editing on Ambersons and his acting scenes in Journey into Fear. Ending his CBS radio show, he lashed together a rough cut of Ambersons with Robert Wise, who had edited Citizen Kane, and left for Brazil. Unfortunately, to get Ambersons made, Welles had renegotiated away his original contract for final cut. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ...


Wise was to join him in Rio to complete the film but never arrived. Other moves were afoot at RKO. A provisional final cut arranged via phone call, telegram, and shortwave radio was previewed without Welles' approval in Pomona in a double bill, to a mostly negative audience response, in particular to the character of Aunt Fanny played by Agnes Moorehead. Pomona, Nicolas Fouché, c. ...


Whereas Schaefer argued that Welles be allowed to complete his own version of the film, and that an archival copy be kept with the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, RKO was in no mood for such aesthetic niceties. This article is about the museum in New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


RKO studio management was in turmoil as Charles Koerner staged a management coup against Schaefer. It took control of the film, formed a committee which was ordered to remove fifty minutes of Welles' footage, re-shot sequences, rearranged the scene order, and tacked on a happy ending. Schaefer was replaced as RKO President by Koerner, who released the shortened film on the bottom of a double-bill with the Lupe Velez comedy Mexican Spitfire Sees a Ghost, thus providing the last nail in the coffin for both Welles's and Schaefer's careers. Ambersons was an expensive flop for RKO, though it received four Academy Award nominations including Best Picture and Best Supporting Actress for Agnes Moorehead. Lupe Vélez Lupe Vélez (July 18, 1908 - December 13, 1944) was a Mexican actress. ... Agnes Robertson Moorehead (December 6, 1900 – April 30, 1994) was an Oscar-nominated American character actress. ...


Welles' South American documentary, titled It's All True, budgeted at one million dollars with half of its budget coming from the U.S. Government upon completion, was treated scarcely better by RKO. They closed down the production, withdrew most of the crew and kicked the Mercury staff out of the studio while Welles was still in Brazil. Its All True was the title of an unfinished Orson Welles documentary about South America shot in 1942. ...


In It's All True, Welles recreated the journey of the jangadeiros, four poor fishermen who had made a 1500-mile journey on their open raft to petition Brazilian President Vargas about their working conditions. The four had become national folk heroes, Welles first read of their journey in Time. Despite their leader, Jacare, dying during a filming mishap, Welles begged to be able to finish the film. He was given a limited amount of black-and-white stock and a silent camera. He completed the sequence, but RKO refused to let him complete the film. Surviving footage was released in 1993, including a rough reconstruction of the Four Men on a Raft segment. Meanwhile, RKO launched a premeditated publicity campaign against Welles, falsely claiming he had gone to Brazil without a screenplay, and that he had squandered a million dollars. Their official company slogan was pointedly changed to "Showmanship in place of Genius." (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


Unable to continue work as a film director after the twin disasters of The Magnificent Ambersons and It's All True, Welles worked on radio. CBS offered him two weekly series, Hello Americans, based on the research he'd done in Brazil, and Ceiling Unlimited, sponsored by Lockheed, a wartime salute to advances in aviation. Both featured several members of his original Mercury Theatre. Within a few months, Hello Americans was canceled and Welles was replaced as host of Ceiling Unlimited by Joseph Cotten. Welles guest-starred on a great variety of shows, notably guest-hosting Jack Benny's show for a month in 1943. He took an increasingly active role in American and international politics and used journalism to communicate his forceful ideas widely. The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... Jack Benny (February 14, 1894 in Chicago, Illinois – December 26, 1974 in Beverly Hills, California), born Benjamin Kubelsky, was an American comedian, vaudeville performer, and radio, television, and film actor. ...


In 1943 Welles married Rita Hayworth. They had one child, Rebecca Welles, and divorced five years later in 1948. In between, Welles found work as an actor in other directors' films. He starred in the 1943 film adaptation of Jane Eyre, trading credit as associate producer for top billing over Joan Fontaine. He also had a cameo in the 1944 wartime salute Follow the Boys, in which he performed his Mercury Wonder Show magic act and sawed Marlene Dietrich in half after Columbia Pictures head Harry Cohn refused to allow Hayworth to perform. Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987), was an American actress who attained fame during the 1940s as the eras leading sex symbol. ... Rebecca Welles (December 17, 1944 – October 10, 2004) American film and television actress was the daughter of director, writer, actor and producer Orson Wells and Film actress Rita Hayworth. ... Charlotte Brontës novel Jane Eyre (1847) has been the subject of numerous television and film adaptations. ... Joan Fontaine (born October 22, 1917) is an Academy Award-winning British American actress, who became an American citizen in April 1943. ... Follow the Boys, also known as Three Cheers for the Boys, is a 1944 musical film made by Universal Pictures as an all-star cast morale booster to entertain the troops abroad and the civilians at home. ... Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer and entertainer. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... Harry Cohn (July 23, 1891–February 27, 1958), sometimes nicknamed King Cohn, was president and production director of Columbia Pictures. ...


In 1944 Welles was offered a new radio show, broadcast only in California. Orson Welles' Almanac was another half-hour variety show, with Mobil Oil as sponsor. After the success of his stand-in hosting on The Jack Benny Show, the focus was primarily on comedy. His hosting on Jack Benny included several self-deprecating jokes and story lines about his being a "genius" and overriding any ideas advanced by other cast members. The trade papers were not eager to accept Welles as a comedian, and Welles often complained on-air about the poor quality of the scripts. When Welles started his Mercury Wonder Show a few months later, traveling to Armed Forces camps and performing magic tricks and doing comedy, the radio show was broadcast live from the camps and the material took a decidedly wartime flavor. Of his original Mercury actors, only Agnes Moorehead was left. The series was cancelled by year's end due to poor ratings. Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ...


While his suitability as a film director remained in question, Welles' popularity as an actor continued. Pabst Blue Ribbon gave Welles their radio series This Is My Best to direct, but after one month he was fired for creative differences. He started writing a political column for the New York Post, again called Orson Welles Almanac. While the paper wanted Welles to write about Hollywood gossip, Welles explored serious political issues. His activism for world peace took considerable amounts of his time. The Post column eventually failed in syndication because of contradictory expectations and was dropped by the Post. Pabst Blue Ribbon (colloquially PBR) is an American brand of beer with a long history and current popularity among the working classes and retro hipsters. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ...


Post-World War II work (1946-1948)

In 1946, International Pictures released Welles' film The Stranger, starring Edward G. Robinson, Loretta Young and Welles. Sam Spiegel produced the film, which follows the hunt for a Nazi war criminal living under an alias in America. While Anthony Veiller was credited with the screenplay, it had been rewritten by Welles and John Huston. Welles' most imaginative work on the film was cut out by Spiegel, and the result apart from some bravura sequences on the clock tower or evoking the small town atmosphere, was a comparatively conventional Hollywood thriller. It was successful at the box office but Welles resolved not to have a career as a cog in a Hollywood studio. He resumed his struggle for the creative control which had originally brought him to Hollywood. Spoiler warning: The Stranger Its 1946 and Mr. ... Edward Goldenberg Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg, Yiddish: עמנואל גולדנברג; December 12, 1893 – January 26, 1973) was an American stage and film actor of Romanian origin. ... Loretta Young in 1935 Loretta Young (January 6, 1913 – August 12, 2000) was an Academy Award-winning American actress. ... Sam Spiegel (11 November 1901 - 31 December 1985) was a successful independent film producer. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ...


In the summer of 1946, Welles directed a musical stage version of Around the World in Eighty Days, with a comedic and ironic rewriting of the Jules Verne novel by Welles, incidental music and songs by Cole Porter, and production by Mike Todd, who would later produce the successful film version with David Niven. When Todd pulled out from the lavish and expensive production, Welles supported the finances himself. When he ran out of money at one point, he convinced Columbia president Harry Cohn to send him enough to continue the show, and in exchange Welles promised to write, produce, direct and star in a film for Cohn for no further fee. The stage show would soon fail due to poor box-office, with Welles unable to claim the losses on his taxes. He wound up owing the IRS several hundred thousand dollars, and in a few years time Welles would seek tax-shelter in Europe. This article is about the French author. ... Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. ... Michael Todd (real name Avrom Hirsch Goldbogen) (June 22, 1907 or 19091 - March 22, 1958) was an American film producer who is best known for his production of Around the World in Eighty Days 1956, which won an Academy Award for Best Picture. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Harry Cohn (July 23, 1891–February 27, 1958), sometimes nicknamed King Cohn, was president and production director of Columbia Pictures. ...


At the same time in 1946 he began two new radio series, The Mercury Summer Theatre for CBS and Orson Welles Commentaries for ABC. While Summer Theatre featured half-hour adaptations of some of the classic Mercury radio shows from the 1930s, the first episode was a condensation of his Around the World stage play, and remains the only record of Cole Porter's music for the project. Several original Mercury actors returned for the series, as well as Bernard Herrmann. It was only scheduled for the summer months, and Welles invested his earnings into his failing stage play. Commentaries was a political soap-box, continuing the themes from his New York Post column. Again Welles lacked a clear focus, until the NAACP brought to his attention the case of Isaac Woodard. Welles devoted the rest of the run of the series to Woodard's cause, was the first broadcaster to bring it to national attention, and caused shock waves across the nation. Soon Welles was being hung in effigy in the South and The Stranger was banned in several southern states. ABC was unable to find a sponsor for the radio show and soon canceled it. Welles never had a regular radio show in America again and would never direct another anywhere. Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Isaac Woodard, often written Isaac Woodward, was an African American WWII veteran whose maiming hours after being discharged from the U.S. military sparked national outrage and had a profound impact on the growing civil rights movement in the United States. ...


The film for Cohn wound up being The Lady from Shanghai, filmed in 1947 for Columbia Pictures. Intended to be a modest thriller, the budget skyrocketed after Cohn suggested that Welles' then-estranged second wife Rita Hayworth co-star. Cohn was enraged by Welles' rough-cut, in particular the confusing plot and lack of close-ups, and ordered extensive editing and re-shoots. After heavy editing by the studio, approximately one hour of Welles' first cut had been removed. While expressing dismay at the cuts, Welles was particularly appalled by the soundtrack, objecting to the musical score he thought more suitable for a Disney cartoon and the lack of the ambient soundscape he had designed. The film was considered a disaster in America at the time of release. Welles recalled people refusing to speak to him about it to save him embarrassment. Not long after release, Welles and Hayworth finalized their divorce. Though the film was acclaimed in Europe, it was not embraced in the US for several decades. A similar situation occurred when Welles suggested to Charles Chaplin that he star in a film directed by Welles based on the life of the French serial killer, Henri Désiré Landru. Chaplin instead adapted the idea for his own film, Monsieur Verdoux, with Welles officially credited for the idea. The film proved a failure opening during a time when Chaplin was publicly vilified, but since has gone on to be acclaimed as a classic black comedy. The Lady from Shanghai is a black-and-white film noir directed by and starring Orson Welles. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987), was an American actress who attained fame during the 1940s as the eras leading sex symbol. ... For the Jamaican musician named Charlie Chaplin, see Charlie Chaplin (singer). ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... For Landru, the computer in Star Trek, see The Return of the Archons (TOS episode). ... Monsieur Verdoux is a film by Charles Chaplin that debuted in 1947. ... This article is about a tone of comedy. ...


Unable to find work as a director at any of the major studios, in 1948 Welles convinced Republic Pictures to let him direct a low-budget version of Macbeth, which featured papier mâché sets, cardboard crowns and a cast of actors lip-syncing to a prerecorded soundtrack. Republic did not care for the Scottish accents on the soundtrack and held up release for almost a year. Welles left for Europe, while his co-producer and life-long supporter Richard Wilson reworked the soundtrack. Welles ultimately returned and cut twenty minutes from the film at Republic's request and recorded narration to cover the gaps. The film was decried as another disaster. In the late 1970s, Macbeth was restored to Welles' original version. Republic Pictures Corporation (aka Republic Entertainment) is an independent film, television, and video distribution company that was originally a movie production-distribution corporation with studio facilities, best known for its specialization in quality B pictures, westerns and movie serials. ... Orson Welles made his return to Shakespearean interpretation following his departure from Hollywood with this 1948 version of Macbeth. ... Papier-mâché (French, chewed-up paper) is a construction material that consists of pieces of paper, sometimes reinforced with textiles, stuck together using a wet paste (e. ... Richard Wilson OBE (born July 9, 1936) is a Scottish actor and theatre director, best known for playing Victor Meldrew in the popular BBC situation comedy One Foot in the Grave. ...


During this time, Welles sought to adapt the radio and serial series The Shadow to the big screen. He aimed to direct, produce, write and star in the film, but the project collapsed when he failed to find any investors. The Mark Millar article detailing Welles' attempt at a Batman film is partially inspired by this.


Welles in Europe (1948 to 1956)

Welles left Hollywood for Europe in late 1947, enigmatically saying he had chosen "freedom". This must refer to both acting offers and the possibility of directing and producing films again. There is now compelling evidence that Welles was blacklisted in Hollywood, after years of propaganda by the Hearst empire labeling him a communist and years of FBI investigations prompted by J. Edgar Hoover. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972), known popularly as J. Edgar Hoover, was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ...


In Italy he starred as Cagliostro in the 1948 film Black Magic. His co-star, Akim Tamiroff, impressed Welles so much that he appeared in four of Welles' own productions during the 1950s and 1960s. Count Alessandro di Cagliostro, born Giuseppe Balsamo became a roving adventurer, freemason and alchemist in the late 18th century. ... For other uses, see Black magic (disambiguation). ... Akim Tamiroff (October 29, 1899, Tiflis (now Tbilisi), Georgia - September 17, 1972, Palm Springs, California) was an actor of Armenian ethnicity, trained at the Moscow Art Theatre drama school. ...


The following year, Welles appeared as Harry Lime in The Third Man, written by Graham Greene, directed by Carol Reed, starring Mercury Theatre alumnus Joseph Cotten, and with a memorable zither score by Anton Karas. The film was an international smash hit, but Welles unfortunately turned down a percentage of the gross in exchange for a lump-sum advance. A few years later British radio producer Harry Alan Towers would resurrect the Lime character for radio in the series The Lives of Harry Lime. The 1951 series included new recordings by Karas, was very successful, and ran for 52 weeks. Welles claimed to write a handful of episodes -- a claim disputed by Towers, who maintains they were written by Ernest Borneman -- which would later serve as the basis for the screenplay of Welles' Mr. Arkadin (1955). The Third Man (1949) is a film noir directed by Carol Reed. ... This article is about film noir. ... This article is about the writer. ... Sir Carol Reed (30 December 1906 – 25 April 1976) was an English film director, winner of an Academy Award for his film version of the musical, Oliver! (1968). ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... Concert zither The zither is a musical string instrument, mainly used in folk music, most commonly in German-speaking Alpine Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Harry Alan Towers (born in London on October 19, 1920) is a radio and film producer and screenwriter, who has produced over a hundred feature films and who continues to write and produce well into his eighties. ... The Lives of Harry Lime (original British title The Adventures of Harry Lime) was an old-time radio program produced in London, England during the 1951 to 1952 season. ... Ernst Wilhelm Julius Bornemann (April 12, 1915 – June 4, 1995) was a German crime writer, filmmaker, anthropologist, ethnomusicologist, jazz musician, jazz critic, psychoanalyst, sexologist, and committed socialist. ... Mr. ...

An older Orson Welles

Welles also appeared as Cesare Borgia in the 1949 Italian film Prince of Foxes, with Tyrone Power and Mercury Theatre alumnus Everett Sloane, and as the Mongol warrior Bayan in the 1950 film version of the novel The Black Rose (again with Tyrone Power). During this time, Welles was channeling his money from acting jobs into a self-financed film version of Shakespeare's play Othello. Cesare Borgia. ... Prince of Foxes is a 1949 film based on the Samuel Shellabarger novel Prince of Foxes. ... Tyrone Edmund Power, Jr. ... Sloane in The Enforcer Everett Sloane (October 1, 1909 – August 6, 1965) was an American television and film actor, songwriter, and theatre director. ... The Black Rose (1950) Partly conceived as a follow-up to the movie Prince of Foxes, 20th Century-Foxs The Black Rose, reunites the earlier films two stars, Tyrone Power and Orson Welles. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ...


From 1949 to 1951, Welles worked on Othello, filming on location in Europe and Morocco. The film featured Micheál MacLiammóir as Iago and Hilton Edwards as Desdemona's father Brabantio (Edwards and MacLiammóir ran the Gate Theatre in Ireland and had given Welles his first professional job as actor in 1931). Suzanne Cloutier starred as Desdemona and Campbell Playhouse alumnus Robert Coote appeared as Iago's lackey Roderigo. One of Welles more complicated shoots, Othello was filmed on and off over a period of three years. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Micheál MacLiammóir (born Alfred Willmore) was an Irish actor and dramatist born to a Protestant family on October 25, 1899 in the Kilburn neighborhood of London. ... For other uses, see Iago (disambiguation). ... Hilton Edwards (1903-1982) was an Irish actor and theatrical producer who, with his partner Micheál MacLiammoir, co-founded the Gate Theatre in Dublin. ... Desdemona by Frederic Leighton Desdemona is a fictional character in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. ... Brabantio is a character in the play Othello by William Shakespeare. ... The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatres Peacock studio theatre space to stage important works by European and American dramatists. ... Suzanne Cloutier (July 10, 1927 – December 2, 2003) was a Canadian film actress. ... The Campbell Playhouse was a sponsored continuation of the Mercury Theater on the Air, a direct result of the instant publicity from the War of the Worlds panic. ... Robert Coote (with Robert Ryan) in Berlin Express Robert Coote (February 4, 1909 - November 26, 1982) was a London-born film actor. ...


Filming was suspended several times over the years as Welles ran out of funds and left to find other acting jobs, accounted in detail in MacLiammóir's published memoir Put Money in Thy Purse. When it premiered at the Cannes Film Festival it won the Palme d'Or, but was not given a general release in the United States until 1955 (by which time Welles had re-cut the first reel and re-dubbed most of the film, removing Cloutier's voice entirely), and it played only in New York and Los Angeles. The American release prints had a technically flawed soundtrack, suffering from a complete drop-out of sound at every quiet moment, and it was one of these flawed prints that was restored by Welles's daughter, Beatrice Welles-Smith in 1992 for a wide re-release. The restoration included reconstructing Angelo Francesco Lavagnino's original musical score (which was inaudible) and adding ambient stereo sound effects (which weren't in the original film). Though still active in Italy, Lavagnino was not consulted. The subject of great controversy among film scholars, the restoration went on to a successful theatrical run in America. A print of the US version was released on laser-disc in 1995 and soon withdrawn after a legal challenge by Beatrice Welles-Smith. The original Cannes version has survived but is not commercially available. The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Palme dOr The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... This article is about the state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


In 1952 Welles continued finding work in England, after the success of the Harry Lime radio show. Harry Alan Towers offered Welles another series, The Black Museum, with Welles as host and narrator, and this would also run 52 weeks. Director Herbert Wilcox offered him the part of the murdered victim in Trent's Last Case, based on the novel by E. C. Bentley. And in 1953 the BBC hired Welles to read an hour of selections from Walt Whitman's epic poem Song of Myself. Towers hired Welles again, to play Professor Moriarty in the radio series The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring John Gielgud, and Ralph Richardson. The original BBC radio program was reissued in an audiobook format by Heritage Media. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Trents Last Case Trents Last Case is a detective novel (1913) by E. C. Bentley; a 1920 silent movie based on the book and directed by Richard Garrick; a 1929 silent movie adapted to the screen from the book by... E. C. Bentley (July 10, 1875 – March 30, 1956), was a popular English novelist and humorist of the early twentieth century, and the inventor of the clerihew, an irregular form of humorous verse on biographical topics. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Song of Myself is a poem by Walt Whitman that was included in his book of poems Leaves of Grass. ... Professor Moriarty, illustration by Sidney Paget which accompanied the original publication of The Final Problem. Professor James Moriarty is a fictional character who is the best known antagonist (and archenemy) of the detective Sherlock Holmes. ... The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes is a collection of twelve stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, featuring his famous detective and illustrated by Sidney Paget. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Sir Ralph David Richardson (19 December 1902 – 10 October 1983) was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, did their best to make the transition to film. ...


Late in 1953, Welles returned to America to star in a live CBS Omnibus television presentation of Shakespeare's King Lear. The cast included Micheál MacLiammóir and Alan Badel. While Welles received good notices, he was guarded by IRS agents, prohibited to leave his hotel room when not at the studio, prevented from making any purchases, and the entire sum (less expenses) he earned went to his tax bill. Welles returned to England after the broadcast. Omnibus was a commercially-sponsored educational TV series broadcast in the United States, primarily on Sunday afternoons, from November 9, 1952 to 1961. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ... Alan Badel (1923-1982) The barnstorming actor Alan Badel was born in Rusholme, Lancashire on 10 September 1923. ...


In 1954, director George More O'Ferrall offered Welles the title role in the Lord Mountdrago segment of Three Cases of Murder, costarring Alan Badel. Herbert Wilcox cast him as the antagonist in Trouble in Glen opposite Margaret Lockwood, Forrest Tucker and Victor McLaglen. And director John Huston cast him as Father Mapple in his film adaptation of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, starring Gregory Peck. Three Cases of Murder (1956) is a film starring Orson Welles. ... Margaret Lockwood with Michael Redgrave in The Lady Vanishes (1938) Margaret Lockwood, CBE (15 September 1916 - 15 July 1990) was a British actress. ... Forrest Tucker (right) in Cosmic Monsters. ... Victor Andrew de Bier McLaglen (December 10, 1886[1] - November 7, 1959) was a British boxer and Academy Award winning actor, who later became a naturalized American citizen. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ...


Welles' next turn as director was the film Mr. Arkadin (1955), produced by Louis Dolivet Welles' political mentor from the 1940s. It was filmed in France, Germany, Spain and Italy. Based on several episodes of the Harry Lime radio show, it stars Welles as a paranoid billionaire who hires a petty smuggler to delve into the secrets of his seedy past. Welles' absurd and obvious makeup has been the subject of much derision, but it may have been the intent to show a character who was in disguise and hiding his true identity. The film stars Robert Arden, who had worked on the Harry Lime series, Welles' third wife, Paola Mori, whose voice was completely dubbed by actress Billie Whitelaw, and guest stars including Akim Tamiroff, Michael Redgrave, Katina Paxinou, and Mischa Auer. Frustrated by Welles' slow progress in the editing room, producer Dolivet removed Welles from the project and finished the film without him. Eventually five different versions of the film would be released, two in Spanish and three in English. The version which Dolivet completed was retitled Confidential Report and was the version furthest from Welles's original intention. In 2005 Stefan Droessler of the Munich Filmmuseum oversaw a reconstruction of what might have been Welles' original intention. It was released by the Criterion Company on DVD and is considered by Welles scholar and director Peter Bogdanovich to be the best version available. Mr. ... Robert Arden (11 December 1922, London - 25 March 2004, London) was a London-born film and television actor who worked mostly in the US and UK. His most famous role was the lead of Mr. ... Billie Whitelaw, CBE (born June 6, 1932) is a distinguished English actress for both stage and film. ... Akim Tamiroff (October 29, 1899, Tiflis (now Tbilisi), Georgia - September 17, 1972, Palm Springs, California) was an actor of Armenian ethnicity, trained at the Moscow Art Theatre drama school. ... Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave CBE (March 20, 1908—March 21, 1985) was an English actor of great renown. ... Katina Paxinou (17 December 1900 - 22 February 1973) was an Academy Award-winning Greek film and theatre actress. ... Mischa Auer (17 November 1905 in St. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ...


Also in 1955 Welles directed two television series for the BBC. The first was Orson Welles' Sketchbook, a series of six 15-minute shows featuring Welles drawing in a sketchbook to illustrate his reminiscences for the camera (including such topics as the filming of It's All True and the Isaac Woodard case), and the second was Around the World with Orson Welles, a series of six travelogues set in different locations around Europe (such as Venice, the Basque Country between France and Spain, and England). Welles served as host and interviewer, his commentary including documentary facts and his own personal observations (a technique he would continue to explore). A seventh episode of this series, based on the Gaston Dominici case, was suppressed at the time by the French government, but was reconstructed after Welles's death and released to video in 1999. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Around The World With Orson Welles was a series of six short travelogues originally written and directed by Orson Welles for Associated-Rediffusion in 1955. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...


In 1956 Welles completed Portrait of Gina, posthumously aired on German television under the title 'Viva Italia', a 30-minute personal essay on Gina Lollobrigida and the general subject of Italian sex symbols. Dissatisfied with the results -- Welles recalled he had worked on it a lot and the result was something that looked as though it had been worked on a lot -- he left the only print behind at the Hotel Ritz in Paris. The film cans would remain in a lost and found locker at the hotel for several decades, where they were rediscovered after Welles' death. Portrait of Gina was a documentary-essay Orson Welles filmed in 1958 with funding from ABC TV; the film is about 30 minutes long, and was done in a style akin to F For Fake and The Fountain of Youth, though it is not as innovative as those productions. ... Gina Lollobrigida (born July 4, 1927 in Subiaco, Italy), is a Golden Globe Award-winning Italian actress and photojournalist. ... For other uses, see Ritz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Return to Hollywood (1956 to 1959)

In 1956, Welles returned to Hollywood, guesting on radio shows (notably as narrator of Tomorrow, a nuclear holocaust drama produced by the Federal Civil Defense Administration). He guest starred on television shows, including I Love Lucy and began filming a projected pilot for Desilu, owned by his former protégé Lucille Ball and her husband Desi Arnaz, who had recently purchased the defunct RKO studios. The film was The Fountain of Youth, based on a story by John Collier. Originally deemed not viable as a pilot, the film wasn't aired until 1958. It won the Peabody Award for excellence. The Federal Civil Defense Administration, or FCDA, was established by President Harry S. Truman to show the public how they could survive a nuclear war, if they were prepared. ... I Love Lucy is a popular American situation comedy, starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance and William Frawley. ... Desilu Productions was a company jointly owned by American actors Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz. ... Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an iconic American comedienne, film, television, stage and radio actress, glamour girl and star of the landmark sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, The Lucy Show and Heres Lucy. ... Desi Arnaz (born Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III) (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986) was a Cuban American musician, actor and television producer. ... John Collier (May 3, 1901-April 6, 1980) was a British-born author and screenplay writer best known for his short stories, many of which appeared in The New Yorker during the 1930s, 40s, and 50s. ... The George Foster Peabody Awards, more commonly referred to as the Peabody Awards, are annual international awards given for excellence in radio and television broadcasting. ...


Welles' next feature film role was in Man in the Shadow for Universal Pictures in 1957, starring Jeff Chandler. Man in the Shadow is a 1957 thriller starring Jeff Chandler, Orson Welles, Colleen Miller, Ben Alexander, and John Larch. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Jeff Chandler can refer to different people: Jeff Chandler: a cinema actor Jeff Chandler: a boxer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Welles stayed on at Universal to co-star with Charlton Heston in the 1958 film of Whit Masterson's novel Badge of Evil (which Welles famously claimed never to have read). Originally only hired as an actor, Welles was promoted to director by Universal Studios at the suggestion (and insistence) of Charlton Heston. Reuniting many actors and technicians with whom he'd worked in Hollywood in the 1940s (including cameraman Russell Metty [The Stranger], make-up artist Maurice Siederman (Citizen Kane), and actors Joseph Cotten, Marlene Dietrich, and Akim Tamiroff), filming proceeded smoothly, with Welles finishing on schedule and on budget, and the studio bosses praising the daily rushes. Out of the blue, the studio wrested Touch of Evil from Welles' hands, re-edited it, re-shot scenes, and shot new exposition scenes to clarify the plot. Despite the trauma of having the film ripped from his creative control for no ostensible reason, Welles wrote a 58-page memo outlining suggestions and objections. The studio followed a few of the ideas, but cut another 30 minutes from the film and released it. Even in this state, the film was widely praised across Europe, awarded the top prize at the Brussels World's Fair. Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... Cover art by Glen Orbik Whit Masterson is a pen name for a partnership of two authors, Robert Allison “Bob” Wade (1920-present) and H. Bill Miller (1920-61). ... Badge of Evil is a novel written by Whit Masterson (actually the pseudonym of authors Robert Wade and Bill Miller) and published in 1956. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... Russell Metty (born 1906, died 1978) was an American cinematographer, who worked on many films during the forties, fifties and sixties. ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer and entertainer. ... Touch of Evil (1958) is considered one of the last examples of film noir in the genres classic era (from the early 1940s until the late 1950s). ... The Atomium. ...


In 1978, the long preview version of the film was rediscovered and released. In 1998, editor Walter Murch and producer Rick Schmidlin, consulting the original memo, used a workprint version to attempt to restore the film as close as possible to the memo. This is at best a compromise that should not be mistaken for Welles' original intent. Welles stated in that memo that the film was no longer his version — it was the studio's, but as such, he was still prepared to help them with it. Walter Murch speaking 13 March 2005 Walter Scott Murch (born July 12, 1943) is an Academy Award–winning film editor/sound mixer. ... Rick Schmidlin (b. ...


As Universal reworked Evil, Welles began filming his adaptation of Miguel Cervantes' novel Don Quixote in Mexico, starring Mischa Auer as Quixote and Akim Tamiroff as Sancho Panza. While filming would continue in fits and starts for several years, Welles would never complete the project. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 - April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... Mischa Auer (17 November 1905 in St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Welles continued acting, notably in The Long, Hot Summer (1958) and Compulsion (1959), but soon returned to Europe to continue his pattern of self-producing low budget films over which he would have creative control and final cut. The Long, Hot Summer is a 1958 film directed by Martin Ritt. ... Compulsion directed by Richard Fleischer, was a film made in 1959. ...


Return to Europe (1959 to 1970)

Welles returned to Europe and resumed acting jobs. He continued shooting Don Quixote in Spain, but replaced Mischa Auer with Francisco Reiguera.


In Italy in 1959, Welles directed his own scenes as King Saul in Richard Pottier's film David and Goliath. In Hong Kong he co-starred with Curt Jurgens in Lewis Gilbert's film Ferry to Hong Kong. Saul or Shaul (שָׁאוּל Demanded, Standard Hebrew Šaʾul, Tiberian Hebrew Šāʾûl) was the first king of Israel according to the Old Testament of the Bible, as taught in Judaism. ... Jürgens in a scene from Der Kommissar (1973) Curd Jürgens (December 13, 1915 - June 18, 1982) was a German stage and motion-picture actor. ... Lewis Gilbert (born March 6, 1920) is a British film director born in London, England. ... Ferry To Hong Kong (1959) is a male melodrama/adventure movie directed by Lewis Gilbert and starring Curt Jurgens, Sylvia Syms, Orson Welles, Jeremy Spencer, Noel Purcell and Milton Reid. ...


In 1960 in Paris he co-starred in Richard Fleischer's film Crack in the Mirror. In Yugoslavia he starred in Richard Thorpe's film The Tartars. He also staged a play at the Gate Theatre in Dublin which compressed five of Shakespeare's history plays in order to focus on the story of Falstaff. Keith Baxter played Prince Hal and Welles called the adaptation Chimes at Midnight. Richard Fleischer (born December 8, 1916) is an American film director. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Richard Thorpe (February 24, 1896 - May 1, 1991) was an American film director. ... The Gate Theatre, in Dublin, was founded in 1928 by Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir, initially using the Abbey Theatres Peacock studio theatre space to stage important works by European and American dramatists. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Adolf Schrödter: Falstaff and his page Sir John Falstaff is a fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal, the future King Henry V. A fat, vainglorious, and cowardly knight, Falstaff leads the apparently wayward Prince Hal into trouble, but he... With Orson Welles (left) in the film Chimes at Midnight Keith Baxter (born April 29, 1933) is a Welsh theatre, film, and television actor. ... Orson Welles, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) is generally considered one of Hollywoods greatest directors, as well as a fine actor, broadcaster and screenwriter. ...


By this time he had completed filming on Quixote. Though he would continue toying with the editing well into the 1970s, he never completed the film. On the scenes he did complete, Welles voiced all the actors and provided the narration. In 1992 a version of the film was completed by director Jess Franco, though not all the footage Welles shot was available to him. What was available had decayed badly. While the Welles footage was greeted with interest, the post-production by Franco was met with harsh criticism. Jesus (or Jess) Franco (born May 12, 1930 as Jesús Franco Manera) is a Spanish film director, writer, cinematographer and actor. ...


In 1961 Welles directed In the Land of Don Quixote, a series of eight half-hour episodes for the Italian television network RAI. Similar to the Around the World with Orson Welles series, they presented travelogues of Spain and included Welles' wife, Paola, and their daughter, Beatrice. Though Welles was fluent in Italian, the network was not interested in his providing Italian narration because of his accent, and the series sat unreleased until 1964, by which time the network had added Italian narration of its own. Ultimately, the episodes were restored with the original musical score Welles had approved, but sans narration. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1962 Welles directed his adaptation of The Trial, based on the novel by Franz Kafka and produced by Alexander Salkind and Michael Salkind. The cast included Anthony Perkins as Josef K, Jeanne Moreau, Romy Schneider, Paola Mori and Akim Tamiroff. While filming exteriors in Zagreb, Welles was informed that the Salkinds had run out of money, meaning that there could be no set construction. No stranger to shooting on found locations, Welles soon filmed the interiors in the Gare d'Orsay, at that time an abandoned railway station in Paris. Welles thought the location possessed a "Jules Verne modernism" and a melancholy sense of "waiting", both suitable for Kafka. The film failed at the box-office. Peter Bogdanovich would later observe that Welles found the film riotously funny. During the filming, Welles met Oja Kodar, who would later become his muse, star and partner for 20 years. The Trial (aka Le Procès) is a 1962 film directed by Orson Welles, based on the famous novel by Franz Kafka. ... Kafka redirects here. ... Alexander Salkind (June 2, 1921 – March 8, 1997) was the second of three generations of successful international film producers. ... Anthony Perkins (April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American stage and screen actor best known for his role as Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho and its three sequels. ... Jeanne Moreau (French IPA: ; born 23 January 1928) is a BAFTA Awards-winning French actress, screenwriter and director. ... Romy Schneider (September 23, 1938 – May 29, 1982) was a German-Austrian actress. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... Gare dOrsay site seen from The Louvre in March 2006. ... This article is about the French author. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ... Oja Kodar is a Croatian actress, screenwriter and director. ...


Welles plays a film director in La Ricotta - Pier Paolo Pasolini's segment of the Ro.Go.Pa.G. movie. This was a short film written and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini in 1962 and was part of the omnibus film RoGoPaG. It is often considered the most memorable portion of RoGoPaG and the height of Pasolinis creative powers and social criticism. ... Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 – November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. ...


Welles continued taking what work he could find acting, narrating or hosting other people's work, and began filming Chimes at Midnight, which was completed in 1966. Filmed in Spain, it was a condensation of five Shakespeare plays, telling the story of Falstaff and his relationship with Prince Hal. The cast included Keith Baxter, John Gielgud, Jeanne Moreau and Margaret Rutherford, with narration by Ralph Richardson. Music was again by Angelo Francesco Lavagnino. Jess Franco served as second unit director. Orson Welles, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) is generally considered one of Hollywoods greatest directors, as well as a fine actor, broadcaster and screenwriter. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Adolf Schrödter: Falstaff and his page Sir John Falstaff is a fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal, the future King Henry V. A fat, vainglorious, and cowardly knight, Falstaff leads the apparently wayward Prince Hal into trouble, but he... With Orson Welles (left) in the film Chimes at Midnight Keith Baxter (born April 29, 1933) is a Welsh theatre, film, and television actor. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Jeanne Moreau (French IPA: ; born 23 January 1928) is a BAFTA Awards-winning French actress, screenwriter and director. ... Dame Margaret Rutherford DBE (11 May 1892–22 May 1972) was an English Academy Award-winning character actress who first came to prominence following World War II in the film adaptations of Noel Cowards Blithe Spirit, and Oscar Wildes The Importance of Being Earnest. ... Sir Ralph David Richardson (19 December 1902 – 10 October 1983) was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, did their best to make the transition to film. ...


In 1966, Welles directed a film for French television, an adaptation of The Immortal Story, by Isak Dinesen. Released in 1968, it stars Jeanne Moreau, Roger Coggio and Norman Eshley. The film had a successful run in French theaters. At this time Welles met Kodar again, and gave her a letter he had written to her and had been keeping for four years; they would not be parted again. They immediately began a collaboration both personal and professional, which would continue for the rest of his life. The first of these was an adaptation of Isak Dinesen's The Heroine, meant to be a companion piece to The Immortal Story and starring Kodar. Unfortunately, funding disappeared after one day's shooting. After completing this film, he appeared in a brief cameo as Cardinal Wolsey in Fred Zinnemann's adaptation of A Man for All Seasons -- a role for which he won considerable acclaim. The Immortal Story is a 1968 film direct by Orson Welles and starring Jeanne Moreau. ... Blixen in Kenya, 1918 Isak Dinesen (April 17, 1885-September 7, 1962) was a pen name for the Danish author Karen Blixen. ... Norman Eshley (born 30 May 1945 in Bristol, England) is an English actor best known for his roles on television. ... Blixen in Kenya, 1918 Isak Dinesen (April 17, 1885-September 7, 1962) was a pen name for the Danish author Karen Blixen. ... Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (c. ... Fred Zinnemann (April 29, 1907–March 14, 1997) was an Austrian-American film director. ... A Man for All Seasons is a 1966 film based on Robert Bolts play of the same name about Sir Thomas More. ...


In 1967 Welles began directing The Deep, based on the novel Dead Calm by Charles F. Williams and filmed off the shore of Yugoslavia. The cast included Jeanne Moreau, Laurence Harvey and Kodar. Personally financed by Welles and Kodar, they could not obtain the funds to complete the project, and it was abandoned a few years later after the death of Harvey. The surviving footage was eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München. The name Deep has a number of uses: Articles with similar titles The Deep is a 1975 novel by John Crowley. ... Dead Calm is a 1963 novel by Charles F. Williams, which was the basis for the unreleased film The Deep (by Orson Welles) and the later film Dead Calm (by Phillip Noyce). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Laurence Harvey (October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award-nominated Lithuanian-born actor who achieved fame in British and American films. ...


In 1968 Welles began filming a TV special for CBS under the title Orson's Bag, combining travelogue, comedy skits and a condensation of Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice with Welles as Shylock. Funding for the show sent by CBS to Welles in Switzerland was seized by the IRS, reputedly due to the anger of Richard Nixon over a record Welles had not written but had narrated, the political satire The Begatting of the President. Without funding, the show was not completed. The surviving portions were eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München. Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Shylock After the Trial by John Gilbert (late 19th century) Shylock is a central character in Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice who famously demanded a pound of flesh from the title character. ... Nixon redirects here. ...


In 1969, Welles authorised the use of his name for a cinema in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Orson Welles Cinema remained in operation until 1986, with Welles making a personal appearance there in 1977. Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1630 Incorporated 1636 Government  - Type Mayor-City Council  - Mayor Kenneth Reeves (D) Area  - Total 7. ... Ad as it appeared in The Real Paper in June 1973 Orson Welles Cinema was a well-remembered movie theater which operated at 1001 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, Massachusetts from the late 1960s into the mid-1980s, often showcasing independent films, foreign films and revivals. ...


Drawn by the numerous offers he received to work in television and films, and upset by a tabloid scandal reporting his affair with Kodar, Welles abandoned the editing of Don Quixote and moved back to America in 1970.


Return to United States and final years (1970 to 1985)

Welles returned to Hollywood, where he continued to self-finance his own film and television projects. While offers to act, narrate and host continued, Welles also found himself in great demand on talk shows, and made frequent appearances for Dick Cavett, Johnny Carson, Dean Martin, and Merv Griffin. Welles's primary focus in this period was filming The Other Side of the Wind, a project that took six years to film but has remained unfinished and unreleased. An early role was portraying Louis XVIII of France in Waterloo (1970). Richard Alva Dick Cavett (born November 19, 1936) is an Emmy-winning American television talk show host known for his conversational style and in-depth discussion of issues. ... For other persons named John Carson, see John Carson (disambiguation). ... Dean Martin (born Dino Paul Crocetti, June 7, 1917 – December 25, 1995) was an Italian-American singer, film actor, and comedian. ... Mervyn Edward Merv Griffin, Jr. ... The Other Side of the Wind is an unreleased 1972 film directed by Orson Welles and starring John Huston, Peter Bogdanovich, Dennis Hopper and Stéphane Audran. ... Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), was a King of France and Navarre. ... Waterloo was a Soviet-Italian film of 1970, directed by Sergei Bondarchuk and produced by Dino De Laurentiis. ...


In 1971 Welles directed a short adaptation of Moby-Dick, a one-man performance on a bare stage, reminiscent of his stage production Moby Dick Rehearsed from the 1950s. Never completed, it was eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München. He also appeared in La Décade prodigieuse, co-starring with Anthony Perkins and directed by Claude Chabrol, based on a detective novel by Ellery Queen. Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... Moby Dick Rehearsed is the title of a play written and directed by Orson Welles. ... Anthony Perkins (April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American stage and screen actor best known for his role as Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho and its three sequels. ... Claude Chabrol (French IPA: ) (born June 24, 1930, Paris) is a French film director and has become well-known since his first film, Le Beau Serge (1958) for his chilling tales of murder, including Le Boucher (1970). ... Frederic Dannay (left), with James Yaffe (1943) Ellery Queen is both a fictional character and a pseudonym used by two American cousins from Brooklyn, New York: Daniel (David) Nathan, alias Frederic Dannay (October 20, 1905–September 3, 1982) and Manford (Emanuel) Lepofsky, alias Manfred Bennington Lee (January 11, 1905–April...


In 1971 the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences gave him an honorary award "For superlative artistry and versatility in the creation of motion pictures". Welles pretended to be out of town and sent John Huston to claim the award. Huston criticized the Academy for awarding Welles while they refused to give him any work. Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ...


In 1972 Welles acted as on-screen narrator for the film documentary version of Alvin Toffler's 1970 book Future Shock. Alvin Toffler Alvin Toffler (born October 3, 1928) is an American writer and futurist, known for his works discussing the digital revolution, communications revolution, corporate revolution and technological singularity. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Future Shock is a controversial book written by the sociologist and futurologist Alvin Toffler in 1970. ...


In 1973 Welles completed F for Fake, a personal essay film about art forger Elmyr d'Hory and the biographer Clifford Irving. Based on an existing documentary by Francois Reichenbach, it included new material with Oja Kodar, Joseph Cotten, Paul Stewart and William Alland. F for Fake (1974) (original French title, Vérités et Mensonges) is the last major film completed by Orson Welles. ... Elmyr de Hory (born Elmyr Dory-Boutin) (1906 – December 11, 1976) was a famous Hungarian-born painter and art forger. ... For the politician, see Clifford Irving (politician). ... Paul Stewart was a movie actor who appeared in Citizen Kane, Edge of Doom and the film noir classic Kiss Me Deadly. ... William Alland (March 4, 1916 - November 11, 1997) was an actor, producer, writer and director of science fiction and western films. ...

Welles as Long John Silver in the film Treasure Island
Welles as Long John Silver in the film Treasure Island

Working again for a British producer, Welles played Long John Silver in director John Hough's 1973 adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's novel Treasure Island, which had been the second story broadcast by The Mercury Theatre on the Air in 1938. Welles also contributed to the script, his writing credit was attributed to the pseudonym 'O. W. Jeeves'. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (942x724, 49 KB) Studio: Prism Leisure Corporation DVD Release Date: 1 Sep 2003 This image is a screenshot from a copyrighted film, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by the studio which produced the film, and possibly also... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (942x724, 49 KB) Studio: Prism Leisure Corporation DVD Release Date: 1 Sep 2003 This image is a screenshot from a copyrighted film, and the copyright for it is most likely owned by the studio which produced the film, and possibly also... For other uses, see Long John Silver (disambiguation). ... John Hough (born 1941) is a British film and television director. ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ...


In 1975, the American Film Institute presented Welles with their third Lifetime Achievement Award (the first two going to director John Ford and actor James Cagney). At the ceremony, Welles screened two scenes from the nearly finished The Other Side of the Wind. By 1976, Welles had almost completed the film. Financed by Iranian backers, ownership of the film fell into a legal quagmire after the Shah of Iran was deposed. Written by Welles, the story told of a destructive old film director looking for funds to complete his final film. It starred John Huston and the cast included Peter Bogdanovich, Susan Strasberg, Norman Foster, Edmond O'Brien, Cameron Mitchell, and Dennis Hopper. As of 2006, all legal disputes concerning ownership of the film have been settled and end money for completing the film is being sought, in part from the Showtime cable network. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... The Other Side of the Wind is an unreleased 1972 film directed by Orson Welles and starring John Huston, Peter Bogdanovich, Dennis Hopper and Stéphane Audran. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ... Susan Elizabeth Strasberg (May 22, 1938 – January 21, 1999) was an American actress. ... Film director and movie actor Norman Foster (December 13, 1900 - July 7, 1976) may be best remembered for being married twice - both times to leading ladies. ... Edmond OBrien (September 10, 1915–May 9, 1985) was an American film actor who is perhaps best remembered for his role in D.O.A.. Born in New York, New York, OBrien made his film debut in 1938, and gradually built a career as a highly regarded supporting... Cameron Mitchell (November 4, 1918 – July 6, 1994) was a well-loved American film and television actor with close ties to one of Canadas most successful families, and considered, by Lee Strasberg, to be one of the founding members of The Actors Studio in New York City. ... Dennis Lee Hopper (born May 17, 1936) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and film-maker. ... This article is about the pay TV channel. ...


In 1979 Welles completed his documentary Filming Othello, which featured Michael MacLiammoir and Hilton Edwards. Made for West German television, it was also released in theaters. That same year, Welles completed his self-produced pilot for The Orson Welles Show television series, featuring interviews with Burt Reynolds, Jim Henson and Frank Oz and guest-starring The Muppets and Angie Dickinson. Unable to find network interest, the pilot was never broadcast. The Logo The Orson Welles Show was an unsold TV pilot. ... Burton Leon Reynolds, Jr. ... Jim Henson, born James Maury Henson (September 24, 1936 – May 16, 1990), was the most widely known American puppeteer in modern American television history. ... Frank Oz (born May 25, 1944) is an American film director, actor and puppeteer. ... For the slang term, see Muppet (slang). ... Angie Dickinson (born September 30, 1931) is a Golden Globe-winning American television and film actress, perhaps best known for her role as Sergeant Leann Pepper Anderson in the 1970s crime drama Police Woman. ...


Beginning in the late 1970s, Welles participated in a series of famous television commercial advertisements, acting as the on-camera spokesman for the Paul Masson wine company. The sign-off phrase of the commercials — "We will sell no wine before its time" — became a national catchphrase. He was also the voice behind the long-running Carlsberg "Probably the best lager in the world" campaign.[3] The "probably" tag is still in use today. During coverage of these commercials on Ads Infinitum, Victor Lewis Smith, a critic of Masson wines, fondly remarked that Welles endorsements of the wine were proof he was "a genius, but a lying bastard" and promptly showed an outtake of Welles being impossible to work with in a commercial shoot. For the Olympic competitor, see Paul Masson (cycling). ... Note: Carling beer is not produced by the Carlsberg brewery. ... Victor Lewis-Smith is a British comic broadcaster, producer, critic and prankster. ...


In 1979 he also appeared in the biopic "The Secret Life of Nikola Tesla." Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ...


In 1982 the BBC broadcast The Orson Welles Story for the Arena series. Interviewed by Leslie Megahey, Welles examined his past in great detail, and several people from his professional past were interviewed as well. It was reissued in 1990 as With Orson Welles: Stories of a Life in Film. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ...


Welles was the unseen voice of Robin Masters during the early years of Magnum, P.I.. Magnum, P.I. is an American television show that followed the adventures of Thomas Magnum (played by Tom Selleck), a private investigator living in Hawaii. ...


During the 1980s, Welles worked on such film projects as The Dreamers, based on two stories by Isak Dinesen and starring Oja Kodar, and The Orson Welles Magic Show, which reused material from his failed TV pilot. Another project he worked on was Filming The Trial, the second in a proposed series of documentaries examining his feature films. While much was shot for these projects, none of them were completed. All of them were eventually restored by the Filmmuseum München. Blixen in Kenya, 1918 Isak Dinesen (April 17, 1885-September 7, 1962) was a pen name for the Danish author Karen Blixen. ...


Welles in his later years was unable to get funding for his many film scripts, but came close with The Big Brass Ring and The Cradle Will Rock. Arnon Milchan had agreed to produce The Big Brass Ring if any one of six actors - Warren Beatty, Clint Eastwood, Paul Newman, Jack Nicholson, Robert Redford, or Burt Reynolds - would sign on to star. All six declined for various reasons. Independent funding for The Cradle Will Rock had been obtained and actors had signed on, including Rupert Everett to play the young Orson Welles, location filming was to be done in New York City with studio work in Italy. While pre-production went without a problem, three weeks before filming was to begin the money fell through. Allegedly Welles approached Steven Spielberg to ask for assistance in rescuing the film, but Spielberg declined. The scripts to both films were published posthumously. After a studio auction, he complained that Spielberg spent $50,000 for the Rosebud sled used in Citizen Kane, but would not give him a dime to make a picture. Welles retaliated by publicly announcing the sled to be a fake, the original having been burned in the film, but he later recanted the claim. The Big Brass Ring is a 1999 drama film, starring William Hurt, Nigel Hawthorne, Irene Jacob and Miranda Richardson (who was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance). ... The 1937 musical The Cradle Will Rock by Marc Blitzstein was originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project. ... Arnon Milchan (1945-) is movie producer and businessman. ... The Big Brass Ring is a 1999 drama film, starring William Hurt, Nigel Hawthorne, Irene Jacob and Miranda Richardson (who was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance). ... Henry Warren Beatty (born March 30, 1937), better known as Warren Beatty, is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ... For other uses, see Clint Eastwood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ... John Joseph Nicholson (born April 22, 1937), known as Jack Nicholson, is a three time Academy Award-winning American actor internationally renowned for his often dark-themed portrayals of neurotic characters. ... Robert Redford (born Charles Robert Redford, Jr. ... Burton Leon Reynolds, Jr. ... The 1937 musical The Cradle Will Rock by Marc Blitzstein was originally a part of the Federal Theatre Project. ... Rupert James Hector Everett (born May 29, 1959) is a Golden Globe-nominated English actor and a former singer. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ...


Death

Welles died of a heart attack at his home in Hollywood, California at age 70 on October 10, 1985. He had various projects underway, including a film adaptation of King Lear, The Orson Welles Magic Show, and The Dreamers. His final interview had been recorded the day before, on The Merv Griffin Show and with his biographer Barbara Leaming. The last film roles before his death included voice work in the animated films The Enchanted Journey, on-screen in Henry Jaglom's film Someone to Love, released in 1987 and the 1986 film The Transformers: The Movie, providing the booming voice for the villainous Transformer Unicron. Heart attack redirects here. ... ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ... The Merv Griffin Show was a long-running American television talk show, starring singer Merv Griffin. ... Henry Jaglom (born 1941, London, United Kingdom) is a film director who specializes in independently made dramas loosely based on characters from his actual life, and often starring these very same individuals. ... Someone to Love directed by Harry Jaglom, is a film made in 1987. ... Unicron is a fictional character from the Transformers universes and toyline. ...


Unfinished projects

Welles' exile from Hollywood and reliance on independent production meant that many of his later projects were filmed piecemeal or were not completed. In the mid-1950s, Welles began work on the Cervantes' masterpiece Don Quixote, initially a commission from CBS television. Welles expanded the film to feature length, developing the screenplay to take Quixote and Sancho Panza into the modern age. Filming stopped with the death of Francisco Reiguera, the actor playing Quixote, in 1969. Orson Welles continued editing the film through the next few decades and had supposedly completed a rough cut in the mid 1970s. By his death however, the footage of many scenes had been lost around the world during Welles' travels. A search continues for Orson Welles' later edits and other missing footage, but they likely no longer exist. An incomplete version of the film was released in 1992. Cervantes redirects here. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 1970 Welles began shooting The Other Side of the Wind, about the effort of a film director (played by John Huston) to complete his last Hollywood picture, and is largely set at a lavish party. Although in 1972 the film was reported by Welles as being "96% complete", the negative remained in a Paris vault until 2004, when Peter Bogdanovich (who also acted in the film) announced his intention to complete the production. Footage is included in the documentary Working with Orson Welles (1993). The Other Side of the Wind is an unreleased 1972 film directed by Orson Welles and starring John Huston, Peter Bogdanovich, Dennis Hopper and Stéphane Audran. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ...


Other unfinished projects include The Deep, an adaptation of Charles Williams' Dead Calm — abandoned in 1970 one scene short of completion due to the death of star Laurence Harvey — and The Big Brass Ring, the script of which was adapted and filmed by George Hickenlooper in 1999. Charles Williams Charles Williams (August 13, 1909 – ca. ... Dead Calm is a 1963 novel by Charles F. Williams, which was the basis for the unreleased film The Deep (by Orson Welles) and the later film Dead Calm (by Phillip Noyce). ... Laurence Harvey (October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award-nominated Lithuanian-born actor who achieved fame in British and American films. ... The Big Brass Ring is a 1999 drama film, starring William Hurt, Nigel Hawthorne, Irene Jacob and Miranda Richardson (who was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for her performance). ... George Hickenlooper (born May 15, 1965 in St. ...


The 1995 documentary Orson Welles: One-Man Band, included on the Criterion Collection DVD release of F for Fake, features scenes from several of these unfinished projects, as well as footage from an adaptation of The Merchant of Venice starring Welles that was never aired due to vital footage being allegedly stolen; several short subjects such as the titular One-Man Band, a Monty Python-esque spoof in which Welles plays all but one of the characters (including two characters in drag); footage of Welles reading chapters from Moby-Dick; and a comedy skit taking place in a tailor shop and co-starring Charles Gray. One short, also included in the documentary, is a comedy routine in which Welles (filmed in the 1970s) plays a reporter interviewing a king, also played by Welles, but in footage shot in the 1960s; Welles finished the skit and edited it together years later. The documentary also includes two completed and edited sequences from the unreleased The Other Side of the Wind, and footage from an unbroadacast television pilot for a talk show (he is shown interviewing The Muppets and discussing his rationale for doing the talk show, which was produced in the round). The documentary is built around a college lecture given by Welles not long before his death, in which he displays frustration at being unable to complete so many projects. According to Oja Kodar, interviewed in the documentary, Welles always traveled with camera equipment and would shoot film whenever the mood struck him, even if there were no immediate prospects for commercial release of such material. The Criterion Collection is a joint venture between Janus Films and The Voyager Company that was begun in the mid 1980s for the purpose of releasing authoritative consumer versions of classic and important contemporary films on the laserdisc and DVD formats. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... Charles Gray (August 29, 1928 - March 7, 2000) was an English actor, born Donald Marshall Gray in Bournemouth, Hampshire, (now Bournemouth, Dorset) Charles Gray as Ernst Blofeld in Diamonds Are Forever Donald Gray attended Bournemouth School along side Benny Hill, whose school had been evacuated to the same buildings, during... A television pilot is a test episode of an intended television series. ... For the slang term, see Muppet (slang). ... Theatre-in-the-round or arena theatre is any theatre space in which the audience surrounds the stage area. ...


In popular culture

  • His last filmed appearance was on the television show Moonlighting. He recorded an introduction to an episode entitled "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice," which was partially filmed in black and white. The episode aired five days after his death and was dedicated to his memory.
  • He was the voice of Robin Masters, the famous writer and playboy in the TV series Magnum, P.I.. Welles's sudden death forced the character to be largely written out of the series.
  • Orsonwelles, a genus of linyphiid spiders from the Hawaiian Islands, was named in Welles' honor in 2002. Many species - like Orsonwelles othello, Orsonwelles macbeth, Orsonwelles falstaffius, Orsonwelles ambersonorum - are named after well-known characters played by the late actor.
  • A statue of Welles was recently unveiled in Split, Croatia. It was sculptured by Oja Kodar – Welles’ companion during the final years of his life. [4]

Vincent Phillip DOnofrio (born June 30, 1959) is an American actor and producer. ... Maurice LaMarche (born March 30, 1958) is a Canadian voice actor and former stand up comedian. ... Ed Wood is a biopic directed by Tim Burton, starring Johnny Depp as the cross-dressing cult movie maker Edward D. Wood, Jr. ... Angus Macfadyen (born September 21, 1963) is a Scottish actor. ... For the original 1937 musical, see The Cradle Will Rock. ... Liev Schreiber (born October 4, 1967) is a Tony Award-winning American actor. ... RKO 281 is a 1999 dramatic film directed by Benjamin Ross and starring Liev Schreiber, James Cromwell, Melanie Griffith, John Malkovich, and Roy Scheider. ... Heavenly Creatures is a 1994 fantasy thriller film directed by Peter Jackson and written with his partner Fran Walsh. ... Danny Huston is a Hollywood film director, the brother of actress Anjelica Huston, the son of legendary director John Huston, and the grandson of Academy Award-winning actor Walter Huston. ... Fade to Black is a theater and film phrase, meaning to slowly turn off lights until the audience cannot see anything. ... Paul Shenar (born 12 February 1936 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States; died from AIDS 11 October 1989 in West Hollywood, California, United States) was an actor. ... The Night That Panicked America is an American made-for-television movie that was originally broadcast on the ABC network on October 31, 1975. ... Second City Television, or SCTV, was a Canadian television sketch comedy show offshoot from the Toronto troupe of The Second City. ... This article is about the television series. ... This is a list of audio plays based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who produced by Big Finish Productions. ... Invaders from Mars is a Big Finish Productions audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Maurice LaMarche (born March 30, 1958) is a Canadian voice actor and former stand up comedian. ... The Incredible Shrinking Man is a 1957 science fiction film directed by Jack Arnold and adapted for the screen by Richard Matheson from his novel The Shrinking Man. ... This article is about the series. ... Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Paramount Pictures, 1979; see also 1979 in film) is the first feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series and is released on Friday, December 7. ... Moonlighting is a television series that first aired on ABC in the United States from 1985 to 1989 with a total of 66 episodes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Part of the AFI 100 Years. ... Robin Masters was a fictional character on the American television series Magnum, P.I. He was the alleged celebrity author/multi-millionaire owner of Robins Nest, the estate mansion where Magnum and Higgins resided, and was the owner of the Ferrari that Magnum drove. ... Magnum, P.I. is an American television show that followed the adventures of Thomas Magnum (played by Tom Selleck), a private investigator living in Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera many, see text The bowl and doily and dwarf spiders, also known as money spiders (family Linyphiidae) include nearly 4250 species in over 550 genera worldwide. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Filmography

Further information: Orson Welles filmography

Awards and nominations

Academy Awards Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...

BAFTA Awards The 14th Academy Awards may be most famous as the year Citizen Kane did not win Best Picture. ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; the awards are voted on by other people within the industry. ... Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... // The Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best script not based upon previously published material. ... The accounting firm of Price Waterhouse was hired to count the ballots, after the fiasco of leaked voting results in 1939 by the Los Angeles Times. ... The Magnificent Ambersons is an American film released in 1942 and directed by Orson Welles, his second film. ... The 43rd Academy Awards were presented April 15, 1971 at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion, Los Angeles. ... The Academy Honorary Award is given irregularly by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to celebrate motion picture achievements that are not covered by existing Academy Awards. ... BAFTA Award The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), is a British organisation that hosts annual awards shows for film, television, childrens film and television, and interactive media. ...

Cannes Film Festival Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role has been presented to its winners since 1952 and actors of all nationalities are eligible to receive the award. ... Orson Welles, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) is generally considered one of Hollywoods greatest directors, as well as a fine actor, broadcaster and screenwriter. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ...

Golden Globe Awards Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Palme dOr The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ...

  • 1982: Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture — Butterfly (nominated)

Venice Film Festival The 40th Golden Globe Award, honoring the best in film and television for 1982, were given on 29 January 1983. ... Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association in 1944 for a performance in a motion picture released in the previous year. ... Butterfly was a 1982 film based on the 1947 novel The Butterfly by James M. Cain. ... The Venice Film Festival ( ) is the oldest film festival in the world. ...

Grammy Awards The Golden Lion (it: Leone dOro) is the name of the highest prize given to a film at the Biennale Venice Film Festival. ... The Stranger is a 1946 film noir/drama starring Orson Welles and Loretta Young. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music...

AFI Life Achievement Award The Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album has been awarded since 1959. ... Donovans brain was a 1942 horror novel by Curt Siodmak. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • 1975 (won)

References

Further reading

  • Anderegg, Michael: "Orson Welles, Shakespeare and Popular Culture", Columbia University Press, 1999
  • Bazin, Andre: "Orson Welles", Harper and Row, 1978
  • Benamou, Catherine: "It's All True: Orson Welles’s Pan-American Odyssey", University of California Press, 2007 (forthcoming)
  • Beja, Morris, ed.: "Perspectives on Orson Welles", G.K Hall, 1995
  • Berg, Chuck and Erskine, Tom, ed.: "The Encyclopedia of Orson Welles", Checkmark Books, 2003
  • Bessy, Maurice: "Orson Welles: An investigation into his films and philosophy", Crown, 1971
  • Bogdanovich, Peter and Welles, Orson "This Is Orson Welles", HarperPerennial 1992, ISBN 0-06-092439-X
  • Brady, Frank: "Citizen Welles", Charles Scribner's Sons, 1989
  • Callow, Simon: The Road to Xanadu. Jonathan Cape, 1995.
  • Callow, Simon: Hello Americans. Jonathan Cape, 2006.
  • Carringer, Robert: "The Making of Citizen Kane", University of California Press, 1985
  • Carringer, Robert: "The Magnificent Ambersons: A Reconstruction", University of California Press, 1993
  • Ciment, Michel: 'Les Enfants Terrible' in "American Film", Dec. 1984 (French)
  • Comito, Terry, ed.: "Touch of Evil", Rutgers, 1985
  • Conrad, Peter: "Orson Welles: The Stories of His Life", Faber and Faber, 2003
  • Cowie, Peter: The Cinema of Orson Welles, Da Capo Press, 1973.
  • Davies, Anthony: "Filming Shakespeare's Plays", Cambridge University Press, 1988
  • Drazin, Charles: "In Search of the Third Man", Limelight, 2000
  • Estrin, Mark: "Orson Welles Interviews", University Press of Mississippi, 2002
  • France, Richard, ed.: "Orson Welles on Shakespeare", Routledge, 2001
  • France, Richard: "The Theatre of Orson Welles", Bucknell University Press, 1977
  • Garis, Robert: "The Films of Orson Welles", Cambridge University Press, 2004
  • Gottesman, Ronald, ed.: "Focus on Citizen Kane", Prentice Hall, 1971
  • Gottesman, Ronald, ed.: "Focus on Orson Welles", Prentice Hall, 1976
  • Greene, Graham: "The Third Man", Faber and Faber, 1991
  • Heyer, Paul: "The Medium and the Magician: Orson Welles, The Radio Years", Rowman and Littlefield, 2005
  • Heylin, Clinton. Despite the System: Orson Welles Versus the Hollywood Studios, Chicago Review Press, 2005.
  • Higham, Charles: "The Films of Orson Welles", University of California Press, 1970
  • Higham, Charles: "Orson Welles: The Rise and Fall of an American Genius", St. Martin's Press, 1985
  • Howard, James: "The Complete Films of Orson Welles", Citadel Press, 1991
  • Jorgens, Jack J.: "Shakespeare on Film", Indiana University Press, 1977
  • Leaming, Barbara: "Orson Welles", Viking, 1985
  • Lyons, Bridget Gellert, ed.: "Chimes at Midnight", Rutgers, 1988
  • Mac Liammóir, Micháel. Put Money in Thy Purse: The Filming of Orson Welles' Othello, Virgin, 1994
  • McBride, Joseph: "Orson Welles", Harcourt Brace, 1977
  • McBride, Joseph: Orson Welles, Da Capo Press, 1996.
  • McBride, Joseph: "Whatever Happened to Orson Welles? A Portrait of an Independent Career", University Press of Kentucky, 2006
  • Mulvey, Laura: "Citizen Kane", BFI, 1992
  • Naremore, James. The Magic World of Orson Welles, Southern Methodist University Press, 1989.
  • Naremore, James, ed.: "Orson Welles's Citizen Kane: A Casebook", Oxford University Press, 2004
  • Noble, Peter: "The Fabulous Orson Welles", Hutchinson and Co., 1956
  • Perkins, V.F.: "The Magnificent Ambersons", BFI, 1999
  • Rosenbaum, Jonathan: 'Orson Welles's Essay Films and Documentary Fictions', in "Placing Movies", University of California Press, 1995
  • Rosenbaum, Jonathan: 'The Battle Over Orson Welles', in "Essential Cinema", Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004
  • Rosenbaum, Jonathan: 'Orson Welles as Ideological Challenge' in "Movie Wars", A Capella Books, 2000
  • Rosenbaum, Jonathan: "Discovering Orson Welles", University of California Press, 2007 (forthcoming)
  • Shakespeare Bulletin, Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 2005: Special Welles issue.
  • Simon, William G., ed.: "Persistence of Vision: The Journal of the Film Faculty of the City University of New York", Number 7, 1988: Special Welles issue
  • Simonson, Robert. “Orson's Shadow Talkback Series Continues May 4 with Welles' Daughter.” 03 May 2005 <http://www.playbill.com/news/article/92728.html>.
  • Taylor, John Russell: "Orson Welles: A Celebration", Pavilion, 1986
  • Taylor, John Russell: "Orson Welles", Pavilion, 1998
  • Walsh, John Evangelist: "Walking Shadows: Orson Welles, William Randolph Hearst and Citizen Kane", The University of Wisconsin Press, 2004
  • Walters, Ben; Welles. London: Haus Publishing, 2004 (Paperback: ISBN 978-1-904341-80-2).
  • Welles, Orson: "Les Bravades", Workman, 1996
  • Welles, Orson and Bogdanovich, Peter: This is Orson Welles, Da Capo Press, 1998.
  • Welles, Orson: "Mr. Arkadin", Harper Collins, 2006
  • Welles, Orson: "The Big Brass Ring", Black Spring Press, 1991
  • Welles, Orson: "The Cradle Will Rock", Santa Teresa Press, 1994
  • Welles, Orson: "The Other Side of the Wind", Cahiers du cinéma/ Festival International du Film de Locarno, 2005
  • White, Rob: "The Third Man", BFI, 2003
  • Wood, Bret: "Orson Welles: A Bio-Bibliography", Greenwood blue, 1990

This Is Orson Welles is a 1992 book by Peter Bogdanovich and Orson Welles, two directors, one the legendary creator of Citizen Kane, the other a former journalist-turned-popular-moviemaker of The Last Picture Show fame. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Welles, Orson
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Welles, George Orson (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION broadcaster, director, and actor
DATE OF BIRTH May 6, 1915
PLACE OF BIRTH Kenosha, Wisconsin, United States
DATE OF DEATH October 10, 1985
PLACE OF DEATH Los Angeles, California, United States
is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Location of Kenosha within Wisconsin Coordinates: , Country State County Kenosha Settled 1836 Government  - Mayor John M. Antaramian Area  - City 24. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Orson Welles - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3308 words)
Welles was born in 1915 in Kenosha, Wisconsin to Richard Head Welles, a wealthy inventor, and Beatrice Ives, a concert pianist.
Welles performed and staged his first theatrical productions while attending the Todd School for Boys in Woodstock, Illinois and was brought under the guidance of the principal, Roger Hill.
Welles was very active on radio, first as an actor and soon as a director and producer.
Encyclopedia4U - Orson Welles - Encyclopedia Article (674 words)
George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 - October 10, 1985) is commonly considered one of Hollywood's greatest directors, as well as a fine actor and screenwriter.
Dickie Welles was terribly unsuited to this role and became a homeless drunk.
Orson inherited the role of wonder boy and seemed magically adept at it, though his personal relationships surely suffered because of it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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