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Encyclopedia > Orrorin tugenensis
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Orrorin
Fossil range: Miocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Genus: Orrorin
Senut et al, 2001
Species: O. tugenensis
Orrorin tugenensis
Senut et al, 2001

Orrorin tugenensis is considered as the second oldest possible hominin ancestor related to modern humans (other than Sahelanthropus tchadensis) and is the only species classified in genus Orrorin. The name was given by the discoverers who found Orrorin fossils near the village of Tugen, Kenya. By using radiometric dating techniques, the volcanic tuffs where the fossils were found date to between 6.1 and 5.8 million years ago, during the Miocene. The fossils found so far come from at least five individuals. They include a femur, suggesting that Orrorin walked upright; a thick right humerus, suggestive of tree-climbing skills but not brachiation; and teeth that suggest a diet much like that of modern humans. The full molars and small canines suggest that Orrorin ate mostly fruit and vegetables, with occasional meat. Orrorin was about the size of a modern chimpanzee. The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Binomial name Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844 For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (includes extinct ancestors)/Placentalia (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Lufengpithecus (extinct) Ankarapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Dryopithecus (extinct) Ouranopithecus (extinct) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Orrorin (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae... Genera Gorilla Pan (chimpanzees) Homo (humans) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Genera Gorilla Pan (chimpanzees) Homo (humans) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are biologically classified as bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or thinking man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Binomial name Sahelanthropus tchadensis Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an early fossil hominid, approximately 7 million years old from the Miocene. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... In telecommunication and physics, radiometry is the science of radiation measurement. ... The Miocene epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23 to 5. ... If you were looking for an organization, see FEMA. The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone of the human body. ... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ... Brachiation (to brachiate) means moving about by swinging from one arm to another, for example through a tree, using branches as holds. ... Type Species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often abbreviated to chimp, is the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ...


The team that found these fossils in 2000 was led by Martin Pickford. Pickford claims that Orrorin is clearly a hominin; based on this, he dates the split between hominins and other African great apes to at least 7 million years ago. This date is markedly different from those derived using the molecular clock approach. This article is about the year 2000. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ...


If Orrorin proves to be a direct human ancestor, the australopithecines such as Australopithecus afarensis ("Lucy") may be considered a side branch of the hominid family tree: Orrorin is both earlier, by over 1.5 million years, and more similar to us than A. afarensis. The main similarity is that the Orrorin humerus seem closer to H. sapiens in comparison to Lucy's, there is, however, significant controversy over this point, and other researchers assert that Pickford et al. gloss over a number of uncertainties. Other fossils found in these rocks show that Orrorin lived in a wooded environment, not the savanna assumed by many theories of human evolution and, in particular, the origins of bipedalism. This term australopithecine refers to two very closely related hominin genera: Australopithecus Paranthropus When used alone, the term refers to both genera together. ... Binomial name †Australopithecus afarensis Johanson & White, 1978 Australopithecus afarensis is a hominid which lived between 3. ... Savanna is a grassland dotted with trees, and occurs in several types of biomes. ... Human evolution is the part of the theory of evolution by which human beings emerged as a distinct species. ... A biped is an animal that travels across surfaces supported by two legs. ...


References

  • B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi, and Y. Coppens, "First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya)". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie de Sciences, vol. 332, pp. 137-144, 2001.
  • [1]

External links

  • http://www.esi-topics.com/fbp/comments/december-01-Martin-Pickford.html
  • http://cogweb.ucla.edu/EP/Orrorin.html
Part of the series on Human Evolution
Sahelanthropus tchadensis - Orrorin tugenensis
Ardipithecus: A. kadabba - A. ramidus
Australopithecines
Australopithecus : A. afarensis - A. africanus - A. anamensis - A. bahrelghazali - A. garhi
Paranthropus: P. aethiopicus - P. boisei - P. robustus
Humans and Proto-humans
Kenyanthropus platyops
Homo: H. antecessor - H. habilis - H. rudolfensis - H. rhodesiensis - H. cepranensis - H. georgicus - H. erectus - H. ergaster - H. heidelbergensis - H. neanderthalensis - H. floresiensis - H. sapiens idaltu - H. sapiens sapiens

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia: Orrorin (269 words)
Orrorin tugenensis is an extinct species of hominid that is closely related to humans.
Pickford claims that Orrorin is clearly a hominid; based on this, he dates the split between hominids and other African great apes to at least 7 million years ago.
If Orrorin proves to be a human ancestor, Australopithecus afarensis (including "Lucy") would be on a side branch of the hominid family tree: Orrorin is both earlier, by 1.5 million years, and more similar to us than A. afarensis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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