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Encyclopedia > Orphic

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The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau.

In Greek legend, Orpheus was the chief representative of the arts of song and the lyre, and of great importance in the religious history of Greece. The mythical figure of Orpheus was borrowed by the Greeks from their Thracian neighbours; the Thracian "Orphic Mysteries", rituals of unknown content, were named after him. Download high resolution version (697x1133, 166 KB)Orpheus by Gustave Moreau (1865) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (697x1133, 166 KB)Orpheus by Gustave Moreau (1865) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Orpheus by Gustave Moreau (1865) Gustave Moreau (April 6, 1826 - April 18, 1898) was a French Symbolist painter. ... A Lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, European Turkey, eastern Serbia and Macedonia). ...

Contents

Overview

The name Orpheus does not occur in Homer or Hesiod, but he was known in the time of Ibycus (c. 530 BC), and Pindar (522442 BC) speaks of him as “the father of songs”. Bust of Homer in the British Museum For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Hesiod (Hesiodos) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, believed to have lived around the year 700 BC. From the 5th century BC literary historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer. ... Ibycus, of Rhegium in Italy, Greek lyric poet, contemporary of Anacreon, flourished in the 6th century BC. Notwithstanding his good position at home, he lived a wandering life, and spent a considerable time at the court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... Pindar (or Pindarus) (522 BC – 443 BC), the greatest lyric poet of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 447 BC 446 BC 445 BC 444 BC 443 BC - 442 BC - 441 BC 440 BC...


From the 6th century BC onwards he was looked upon as one of the chief poets and musicians of antiquity, the inventor or perfecter of the lyre, who by his music and singing was able not only to charm the wild beasts, but even to draw the trees and rocks from their places, and to arrest the rivers in their course. As one of the pioneers of civilization, he was supposed to have taught mankind the arts of medicine, writing and agriculture. As closely connected with religious life, he was an augur and seer; practised magical arts, especially astrology; founded or rendered accessible many important cults, such as those of Apollo and Thracian god Dionysus; instituted mystic rites, both public and private; prescribed initiatory and purificatory ritual. (7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Cyrus the Great conquered many... Apollo in art In art, Apollo is usually depicted as a handsome young man, almost always beardless, and often with a lyre or bow in hand. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, European Turkey, eastern Serbia and Macedonia). ... Bacchus by Caravaggio The god Dionysus is occasionally confused with one of several historical figures named Dionysius, a theophoric name that simply means [servant] of Dionysus. ...


Etymology

While several etymologies of the name "Orpheus" have been proposed, the most probable is that it was an actor-noun derived from a hypothetical archaic verb *orphao, "to be deprived, to long for". Cognates would include Greek orphe, "darkness", and English "orphan". "Orpheus" would therefore be semantically close to goao, "to lament, sing wildly, cast a spell", uniting his seemingly disparate roles as disappointed lover, transgressive musician and mystery-priest into a single lexical whole.


Genealogy

According to the best-known tradition, Orpheus was the son of Oeagrus, king of Thrace, and the muse Calliope. Sometimes, Calliope and Apollo were his parents. Orpheus learned music from Linus, or from Apollo, who was also his lover and who gave him his own lyre (made by Hermes out of a turtle shell) as a gift. In Greek mythology, Oeagrus was king of Thrace. ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in south-east Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, north-eastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... For the musical instrument, see Calliope (music). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Linus may refer to: Any of three sons of Apollo from Greek mythology: Son of Apollo and Urania, he was killed by Apollo during a contest. ...


The Argonautic expedition

Despite his Thracian origin he joined the expedition of the Argonauts, whose leader Jason had been informed by Chiron that only by the aid of Orpheus would they be able to pass by the Sirens unscathed. The Sirens lived on three small, rocky islands called Sirenum scopuli and sang beautiful songs that enticed sailors to come to them. They then ate the sailors. When Orpheus heard their voices, he withdrew his lyre and played his music more beautifully than they, drowning out their music. this is a picture of ke ... Jason, in Greek, is a hero of Greek mythology. ... This article is on the Greek mythological character. ... In Greek mythology, the Sirens or Seirenes (Greek Σειρῆνας) were sea nymphs who lived on an island called Sirenum scopuli which was surrounded by cliffs and rocks. ... In Greek mythology, the Sirenum scopuli were three small rocky islands where the Sirens lived and lured sailors to their deaths. ...


Death of Eurydice

But the most famous story in which he figures is that of his wife Eurydice. Eurydice is sometimes known as Agriope. While fleeing from Aristaeus, she was bitten by a serpent which brought her to her death. Distraught, Orpheus played such sad songs and sang so mournfully that all the nymphs and gods wept and gave him advice. Orpheus went down to the lower world and by his music softened the heart of Hades and Persephone (the only person to ever do so), who agreed to allow Eurydice to return with him to earth. But the condition was attached that he should walk in front of her and not look back until he had reached the upper world. In his anxiety he broke his promise, and Eurydice vanished again from his sight. The story in this form belongs to the time of Virgil, who first introduces the name of Aristaeus. Other ancient writers, however, speak of Orpheus' visit to the underworld; according to Plato, the infernal gods only “presented an apparition” of Eurydice to him. Ovid says that Eurydice's death was not caused by fleeing from Aristaeus but dancing with Naiads on her wedding day. In Greek mythology, there were two characters named Eurydice, or Eurydíkê. The more famous was a woman - or a nymph - named Eurydice who was the wife of Orpheus. ... A minor god in Greek mythology, Aristaeus was the son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene, who despised spinning and other womanly arts but spent her days hunting. ... Hades (Greek: - Hadēs or - Háidēs) (unseen) means both the ancient Greek abode of the dead and the god of that underworld. ... Bust of Persephone In Greek mythology, Persephone (per-SE-fo-neh) was the queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the daughter of Demeter. ... For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Statue of a philosopher, presumely Plato, in Delphi. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1640 London edition of Ovids Metamorphoses Publius Ovidius Naso, ( March 20, 43 BC – AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... Naiad by John William Waterhouse, 1893 In Greek mythology, the Naiads (from the Greek νάειν, to flow, and νἃμα, running water) were a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks, as river gods embodied rivers, and some very ancient spirits inhabited the still waters of...


The famous story of Eurydice may actually be a late addition to the Orpheus myths. In particular, the name Eurudike ("she whose justice extends widely") recalls cult-titles attached to Persephone. The myth may have been mistakenly derived from another Orpheus legend in which he travels to Tartarus and charms the goddess Hecate. Bust of Persephone In Greek mythology, Persephone (per-SE-fo-neh) was the queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the daughter of Demeter. ... In Greek mythology, Tartarus, or Tartaros, is both a deity and a place in the underworld - even lower than Hades. ... In later Greek mythology, Hecate (or Hekate; Greek Ἑκάτη Hekátē) was scarcely more than the goddess of witchcraft and sorcery. ...


After the death of Eurydice, Orpheus swore off the love of women and took only young men as his lovers. He is reputed to be the one who introduced male love to the Thracians, teaching them to love the young in the flower of their youth.


Death of Orpheus

Albrecht Dürer envisaged the death of Orpheus in this pen and ink drawing, 1494 (Kunsthalle, Hamburg)

According to a Late Antique summary of Aeschylus's lost play Bassarids, Orpheus at the end of his life disdained the worship of all gods save the sun, whom he called Apollo. One early morning he ascended Mount Pangaion (where Dionysus had an oracle) to salute his god at dawn, but was torn to death by Thracian Maenads for not honoring his previous patron, Dionysus. It is significant that his death is analogous with the death of Dionysus, to whom therefore he functioned as a priest and avatar. Download high resolution version (801x1037, 140 KB)Albrecht Durer, The Death of Orpheus, pan and ink drawing 1494 (Kunsthall, Hamburg The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of... Download high resolution version (801x1037, 140 KB)Albrecht Durer, The Death of Orpheus, pan and ink drawing 1494 (Kunsthall, Hamburg The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of... Self-Portrait, 1493, Oil on Canvas Albrecht Dürer ( May 21, 1471 - April 6, 1528) was a German painter, wood carver, engraver, and mathematician. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization used by historians and other scholars to describe the interval between high Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages in Europe and the Mediterranean world - between the decline of the western Roman Empire from the 3rd century AD onward, to the resurgence of the West... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Apollo in art In art, Apollo is usually depicted as a handsome young man, almost always beardless, and often with a lyre or bow in hand. ... Snow-covered Pangaion hills from the forests of Philippi The Pangaion Hills are a mountain range in Greece, approximately 40 km from Kavala. ... Bacchus by Caravaggio The god Dionysus is occasionally confused with one of several historical figures named Dionysius, a theophoric name that simply means [servant] of Dionysus. ... In Greek mythology, Maenads [MEE-nads] were female worshippers of Dionysus, the Greek god of mystery, wine and intoxication. ... In Hinduism, an Avatar is defined as the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of an Immortal Being, or of the Ultimate Supreme Being. ...


Ovid (Metamorphoses XI) also recounts that the Thracian Maenads, Dionysus' followers, spurned by Orpheus, first threw sticks and stones at him as he played, but his music was so beautiful even the rocks and branches refused to hit him. Enraged, the Maenads tore him to pieces during the frenzy of their Bacchic orgies. Medieval folkore put additional spin on the story: in Albrecht Dürer's drawing (illustration, left) the ribbon high in the tree is lettered Orfeus der erst puseran ("Orpheus, the first sodomite"). For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1640 London edition of Ovids Metamorphoses Publius Ovidius Naso, ( March 20, 43 BC – AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, northeastern Greece, European Turkey, eastern Serbia and Macedonia). ... In Greek mythology, Maenads [MEE-nads] were female worshippers of Dionysus, the Greek god of mystery, wine and intoxication. ... Self-Portrait, 1493, Oil on Canvas Albrecht Dürer ( May 21, 1471 - April 6, 1528) was a German painter, wood carver, engraver, and mathematician. ... Sodomy is a term of religious origin to characterize certain sexual acts and behaviours as a perversion of the human capacity for union through sexuality. ...


His head and lyre?still singing mournful songs?floated down the swift Hebrus to the Mediterranean shore. There, the winds and waves carried them on to the Lesbian shore, where the inhabitants buried his head and a shrine was built in his honour near Antissa. The lyre was carried to heaven by the Muses, and was placed amongst the stars. The Muses also gathered up the fragments of his body and buried them at Leibethra below Mount Olympus, where the nightingales sang over his grave. His soul returned to the underworld, where he was re-united at last with his beloved Eurydice. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Lesbos (Λέσβος) is a prefecture of Greece, part of the periphery North Aegean. ... A Lyre is a stringed musical instrument well known for its use in Classical Antiquity. ... For other uses see Muse (disambiguation). ... This article refers to a mountain in Greece. ... Binomial name Luscinia megarhynchos (Brehm, 1831) The Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae. ...


In Attic vase painting, however, the women who attack Orpheus appear to be normal Thracian women, who are irritated that the bard's songs have stolen their husbands away from them. An attic is the story in a non-flat roof of a building. ...


Orphic poems and rites

A large number of Greek religious poems in hexameter were attributed to Orpheus, as they were to similar miracle-man figures like Bakis, Musaeus, Abaris, Aristeas, Epimenides, and the Sybil. Of this vast literature, only two examples survive whole: a set of hymns composed at some point in the 2nd or 3rd century AD, and an Orphic Argonautica composed somewhere between the 4th and 6th centuries AD. Earlier Orphic literature, which may date back as far as the 6th century BC, survives only in papyrus scraps or in quotations by later authors. Hexameter is a literary and poetic form, consisting of six metrical feet per line as in the Iliad. ... Bakis was a semi-legendary ancient Greek seer of the 6th or 7th century BC, a native of Boeotia. ... Musaeus was the name of three Greek poets. ... Abaris the Hyperborean was a legendary or semi-legendary sage, healer and priest known to the ancient Greeks. ... Aristeas was a semi-legendary Greek poet and miracle-worker, a native of Proconnesus in Asia Minor, c. ... Epimenides of Knossos (Crete) was a semi-mythical 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet, who is said to have fallen asleep for fifty-seven years in a Cretan cave sacred to Zeus, after which he reportedly awoke with the gift of prophecy. ... In antiquity, the oracular seeresses of the Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean were referred to by the Greek term Sibyls. ... See also hymn - a program to decrypt iTunes music files. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC - other centuries) (600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Cyrus the Great conquered many... Blank papyrus. ...


In addition to serving as a storehouse of mythological data along the lines of Hesiod's Theogony, Orphic poetry was recited in mystery-rites and purification rituals. Plato in particular tells of a class of vagrant beggar-priests who would go about offering purifications to the rich, a clatter of books by Orpheus and Musaeus in tow (Republic 364c-d). Those who were especially devoted to these ritual and poems often practiced vegetarianism, abstention from sex, and refrained from eating eggs — which came to be known as the Orphikos bios, or "Orphic way of life". Hesiod (Hesiodos) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, believed to have lived around the year 700 BC. From the 5th century BC literary historians have debated the priority of Hesiod or of Homer. ... Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of Greek mythology. ... Statue of a philosopher, presumely Plato, in Delphi. ... Musaeus was the name of three Greek poets. ... The Republic is an influential dialogue by Plato, written in the first half of the 4th century BC. This Socratic dialogue mainly is about political philosophy and ethics. ... Vegetarianism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The members of many species of living things are divided into two or more categories called sexes (or loosely speaking, genders). ...


The post-classical Orpheus

In the Divine Comedy Dante sees the shade of Orpheus along with those of numerous other "virtuous pagans" in Limbo. This article is about the epic poem. ... This article is about Catholic theology. ...


This story of Orpheus and Eurydice has been the subject of operas through the history of western classical music: This article is about opera as an art form. ... Classical music is music considered classical, as sophisticated and refined, in a regional tradition. ...

In a 1985 article in 19th Century Music musicologist Owen Jander controversially argued that the 2nd movement (Adanate con moto) of Beethoven's 4th Piano Concerto was programatically modelled after the Orpheus myth. Portrait of Claudio Monteverdi in Venice, 1640, by Bernardo Strozzi Claudio Monteverdi ( May 15, 1567 (baptised) – November 29, 1643) was an Italian composer, violinist and singer. ... Orfeo (LOrfeo, favola in musica) is one of the earliest works recognized as an opera, composed by Claudio Monteverdi with text by Alessandro Striggio for the annual carnival of Mantua. ... Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 – November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ... Orfeo ed Euridice is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. ... Orfeo ed Euridice is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. ... Jacques Offenbach (June 20, 1819 – October 4, 1880), composer and cellist, the creator of La vie Parisienne and an originator of the operetta form, a precursor of the modern musical comedy. ... Operetta (literally, little opera) is a performance art-form similar to opera, though it generally deals with less serious topics. ... Orphée aux enfers is an operetta in two acts by Jacques Offenbach. ... Darius Milhaud (September 4, 1892 - June 22, 1974) was a French-Jewish composer and teacher. ... Harrison Paul Birtwistle (born July 15, 1934) is a British composer, widely seen as one of the most significant modern composers from that country. ... The Mask of Orpheus is an opera with music by Harrison Birtwistle and a libretto by Peter Zinovieff. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ...


The Tennessee Williams play Orpheus Descending is a modern retelling of the Orpheus myth set in 1950's America. Sarah Ruhl's play Eurydice is an interpretive retelling of the myth of Orpheus from the point of view of his wife, Eurydice. Thomas Lanier Williams (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the pen name Tennessee Williams, was a noted playwright. ... Orpheus Descending is a play by Tennessee Williams. ... Eurydice is a play by Sarah Ruhl which retells the myth Orpheus from the perspective of Eurydice, his wife. ...


Film retellings and reinterpretations include:

The Czech-German poet Rainer Maria Rilke, sometimes called the last of the romantic authors, wrote the Sonnets to Orpheus immediately following the Duino Elegies. Orphée (also known as Orpheus) is a 1949 movie directed by Jean Cocteau starring Jean Marais. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, and filmmaker. ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Black Orpheus (Orfeu Negro) is a 1959 Brazilian film by French director Marcel Camus. ... Marcel Camus (April 21, 1912 - January 13, 1982) was a French film director. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Rainer Maria Rilke (born 4 December 1875 in Prague; died 29 December 1926 in Val-Mont (Switzerland)) was an important poet in the German language. ...


The tale of Orpheus was mixed with Celtic fairy lore in the Middle English metrical romance Sir Orfeo. The myth of Orpheus was also retold in The Sandman comic books by Neil Gaiman, and in the Hugo Award-winning novella, Goat Song by Poul Anderson. A Celtic cross. ... by Sophie Anderson A fairy, or faery, is a creature from stories and mythology, often portrayed in art and literature as a minuscule humanoid with insect-like wings. ... Middle English - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... As a literary genre, romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... Cover of The Sandman #1, by Dave McKean. ... Neil Richard Gaiman (born November 10, 1960 in Portchester, England) is the author of numerous science fiction and fantasy works, including many comic books. ... The Hugo Award is given every year for the best science fiction or fantasy stories of the previous year, and for related areas in fandom, art and dramatic presentation. ... Poul Anderson (November 25, 1926 - July 31, 2001) was a prolific science fiction author of the Golden Age; some of his short stories were first published using the pseudonyms A. A. Craig, Michael Karageorge, and Winston P. Sanders. Poul Anderson also wrote fantasy books, such as the King of Ys...


Russell Hoban's "The Medusa Frequency" alludes heavily to the Orpheus myth. In fact, the head of Orpheus is a central character, albeit inside another character's mind... Russell Conwell Hoban (born February 4, 1925) is an American writer of fantasy, science fiction, mainstream fiction, poetry, childrens books, and unclassifiable works which contain fantasy elements within a modern urban setting. ...


A modernised version of the myth of Orpheus is told in Nick Cave's song The Lyre Of Orpheus from the double album Abattoir Blues/The Lyre of Orpheus. Nicholas Edward Cave (born September 22, 1957) is a musician, songwriter, poet, author, and actor. ... Abattoir Blues/The Lyre of Orpheus is the 13th studio album released by Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. ...


Orpheus appears as a member of Odysseus's last voyage from Ithaca in Nikos Kazantzakis' epic poem The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel. Odysseus Laërtiadês (Greek: , son of Laertes), or simply Odysseus (meaning man of wrath according to Homer) or more likely (from Greek οδηγός: odigos, a guide; the one showing the way. ... Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Nikos Kazantzakis Nikos Kazantzakis (February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete - October 26, 1957, Freiburg, Germany) was a Greek novelist, poet, playwriter and thinker. ... Odyssey, poem of Greek writer, poet and philosopher Nikos Kazantzakis, the largest of his works. ...


Spoken-word myths - audio files

Orpheus myths as told by story tellers
1. Orpheus and the Thracians, read by Timothy Carter, music by Steve Gorn, compiled by Andrew Calimach
Bibliography of reconstruction: Pindar, Pythian Odes, 4.176 (462 BC); Roman marble bas-relief, copy of a Greek original from the late 5th c. (c. 420 BC); Aristophanes, The Frogs 1032 (c. 400 BC); Phanocles, Erotes e Kaloi, 15 (3rd c. BC); Apollonios Rhodios, Argonautika, i.2 (c. 250 BC); Apollodorus, Library and Epitome 1.3.2 (140 BC); Diodorus Siculus, Histories I.23, I.96, III.65, IV.25 (1st c. BC); Conon, Narrations, 45 (50 - 1 BC); Virgil, Georgics, IV.456 (37 - 30 BC); Horace, Odes, I.12; Ars Poetica 391-407 (23 BC); Ovid, Metamorphoses X.1-85, XI.1-65 (AD 8); Seneca, Hercules Furens 569 (1st c. AD); Hyginus, Poetica Astronomica II.7 Lyre (2st c. AD); Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.30.2, 9.30.4, 10.7.2 (AD 143 - 176); Anonymous, The Clementine Homilies, Homily V Chapter XV.-Unnatural Lusts (c. AD 400); Anonymous, Orphic Argonautica (5th c. AD); Stobaeus, Anthologium (c. AD 450); Second Vatican Mythographer, 44. Orpheus

Pindar (or Pindarus) (522 BC – 443 BC), the greatest lyric poet of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... A bust of Aristophanes Aristophanes (c. ... Apollodorus was a popular name in the ancient world. ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the Province of Enna). ... For the Pope of this name, see Pope Conon. ... For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1640 London edition of Ovids Metamorphoses Publius Ovidius Naso, ( March 20, 43 BC – AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... Seneca has several significant meanings: Seneca the Elder Seneca the Younger Seneca tribe Seneca crater Seneca (plant) Seneca College, Toronto, Ontario Places in the United States of America: Seneca, Pennsylvania Seneca, South Carolina Seneca, Wisconsin Seneca County, New York Seneca, New York Seneca Lake Seneca Falls (village), New York Senecaville... Hyginus can refer to: Gaius Julius Hyginus (c. ... Pausanias was Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Joannes Stobaeus, so called from his native place Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors. ...

References

Ovid, Metamorphoses X, 1-105; XI, 1-66; Apollodorus, Bibliotheke I, iii, 2; ix, 16 & 25; Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica I, 23- 34; IV, 891-909. For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1640 London edition of Ovids Metamorphoses Publius Ovidius Naso, ( March 20, 43 BC – AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the poem Metamorphoses written by the poet Ovid. ... Apollodorus was a popular name in the ancient world. ... The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ... Apollonius of Rhodes (Apollonius Rhodius), librarian at Alexandria, was a poet, the author of Argonautica, a literary epic retelling of ancient material concerning Jason and the Argonauts quest for the Golden Fleece in the mythic land of Colchis. ... This article or section should be merged with Jason. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
"Creative Power in Orphic Myths" by I. M. Oderberg (1941 words)
When the Orphic Mysteries were at their purest, they embodied the myth of Zagreus, son of Zeus All-Father of the manifested cosmos (not the Olympian Zeus of whim and fancy).
The Orphic School lasted a very long time, though there were eras when the original teaching was obscured by the introduction of alien matter sometimes considered better because current at the time.
The dedicated Orphics of whatever period in history not merely acted the dramatic portrayals of their "dismembered" god but lived the symbolic immersion in matter and the later ascent into perfected, self-conscious awareness of divinity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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