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Encyclopedia > Orphan
Orphans, by Thomas Kennington
Orphans, by Thomas Kennington

An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (typically a child), who has lost both parents, often through death. One legal definition used in the USA is someone bereft through "death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents" [1]. Common usage limits the term to children, (or the young of animals) who have lost both parents. On this basis half-orphans are those with one surviving parent. Look up orphan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Thomas_kennington_orphans_1885. ... Image File history File links Thomas_kennington_orphans_1885. ...


In certain animal species where the father typically abandons the mother and child at or prior to birth, the child will be called an orphan when the mother dies regardless of the condition of the father. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Populations

Continent Number of
orphans (1000's)
Orphans as percentage
of all children
Africa 34,294 11.9%
Asia 65,504 6.5%
Latin America & Caribbean 8,166 7.4%
  • 2001 figures from 2002 UNICEF/UNAIDS report[1]

Significant charities that help orphans

Prior to the establishment of state care for orphans in First World countries, many private charities existed to take care of destitute orphans.

  • SOS Children's Villages is the world's largest non-governmental, non-denominational child welfare organization. Its mission is to provide stable homes and loving families for orphaned and abandoned children around the world.
  • [2] Food for Orphans, a 501(c)3 charity, is one of the world's leaders in feeding orphans. Their mission is to provide at least one nutritious meal per day to as many orphans as possible. The Food for Orphans program has resulted in amazing results. For every $100US that is donated, 250 meals are provided to orphaned children. All donations are tax-deductible.

SOS Childrens Villages is an independent, non-governmental international development organisation which has been working to meet the needs and protect the interests and rights of children since 1949. ... Thomas John Barnardo (4 July 1845 — 19 September 1905), English philanthropist, and founder and director of homes for destitute children, was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1845. ... Barnardos is an England based charity founded by Doctor Thomas John Barnardo in 1866 to care for vulnerable children and young people. ...

Orphans in literature

Mime offers food to the young Siegfried, an orphan he is raising; Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Siegfried
Mime offers food to the young Siegfried, an orphan he is raising; Illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Siegfried

Orphaned characters are extremely common as literary protagonists, especially in children's and fantasy literature.[2] The lack of parents leaves the characters to pursue more interesting and adventurous lives, by freeing them from familial obligations and controls, and depriving them of more prosaic lives. It creates characters that are self-contained and introspective and who strive for affection. Orphans can metaphorically search for self-understanding through attempting to know their roots. Parents can also be allies and sources of aid for children, and removing the parents makes the character's difficulties more severe. Parents, furthermore, can be irrelevant to the theme a writer is trying to develop, and orphaning the character frees the writer from the necessity to depict such an irrelevant relationship[citation needed]; if one parent-child relationship is important, removing the other parent prevents complicating the necessary relationship. All these characteristics make orphans attractive characters for authors. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 774 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mime offers food to the young Siegfried. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 774 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mime offers food to the young Siegfried. ... An illustration from Alices Adventures in Wonderland Arthur Rackham (September 19, 1867 – September 6, 1939) was a prolific English book illustrator. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Siegfried could refer to: The opera by Richard Wagner; see Siegfried (opera). ... Childrens books redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Orphans are common in fairy tales, such as some variants of Cinderella. Gustave Dorés illustration for Cendrillon Cinderella (French: Cendrillon) is a popular fairy tale embodying a classic folk tale myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. ...


A number of well known authors have written books featuring orphans including Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, Roald Dahl and J.K. Rowling as well as some less well known authors of famous orphans like Little Orphan Annie and the Baudelaire siblings of the Series of Unfortunate Events. One recurring storyline has been the relationship that the orphan can have with an adult from outside his or her immediate family. Some of the most emotive works have been those featuring the relationship between a man and a boy, particularly boys that are coming of age. “Dickens” redirects here. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Roald Dahl (IPA: ) (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a Welsh novelist, short story author and screenwriter of Norwegian parentage, famous as a writer for both children and adults. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... Cover of Cupples & Leon strip collection (1933) Little Orphan Annie is a full page (later half page or tab) American comic strip, created by Harold Gray (1894-1968), that first appeared on August 5, 1924. ... A Series of Unfortunate Events is a childrens book series by Daniel Handler, writing under the pseudonym of Lemony Snicket. ...


See also

For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... // The first orphanages, called orphanotrophia, were founded in the 1st century amid various alternative means of orphan support. ... Charles Loring Brace (19 June 1826 in Litchfield, Connecticut - 11 August 1890) was one of the greatest contributing philanthropists in the field of social reform. ... It has been suggested that Baby mama be merged into this article or section. ... Owen (left) and Mzee Owen and Mzee are a hippopotamus and a tortoise, respectively, that appear to have formed a unique bond of friendship. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), often shortened to hippo, is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Orphans International Worldwide (OIWW) and Orphans International America (OIA) are charitable organizations created to house and educate orphans and abandoned children. ... Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003). ...

References

  1. ^ TvT Associates/The Synergy Project (July 2002). Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Program Strategies. UNAIDS and UNICEF.
  2. ^ Philip Martin, The Writer's Guide to Fantasy Literature: From Dragon's Lair to Hero's Quest, p 16, ISBN 0-87116-195-8

  Results from FactBites:
 
Orphans and Orphanages (2557 words)
No distinction was observed between foundlings and orphans in the beginning of his work with the Association of Charity; nor was there any distinction as to the condition of the children that were aided, other than that they were orphans, or abandoned, or the children of the poor.
It is probable that destitute orphans were cared for under this principle, but apprenticing and indenturing were the only solutions of the difficulties arising from the presence of orphans or dependent children.
The same must be said of the asylums caring for the army of orphans found in the large cities, particularly since they serve as shelters during the period of observation, and in the case of handicapped children during a longer period.
Jewish Orphans in Transnistria (1841 words)
Later, when the gathering of some statistics was attempted, many orphans had perished before any data on their numbers or whereabouts could be compiled.
Prior to the arrival of that commission, groups of aimlessly wandering orphans were gathered from the camps and from country roads.
Eventually, a decision was taken to move the orphans from the different camps to a makeshift orphanage, where they would be sheltered in more hygienic conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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