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Encyclopedia > Orontid Dynasty

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The Orontid Dynasty (in Armenian: Երվանդունիների հարստություն) was the first known Armenian dynasty.[1] The Orontids established their supremacy over Armenia around the time of the Scythian and Median invasion in the 6th century BC. Their descendants continued their rule in the Kingdom of Sophene for a short while and in Commagene until 72 AD. The Armenian Highland shows traces of settlement from the Neolithic era. ... Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of the Euphrates and to the South of Hayasa. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynasty after the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC. Capital Tigranakert Language(s) Armenian Political structure Empire History  - Established 190 BC  - Disestablished 66 BC The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to... Sophene as part of the Empire of Tigranes The Kingdom of Sophene (Armenian: ) was an ancient Armenian kingdom. ... The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. ... Map showing Commagene as a tributary kingdom of the Armenian Empire under Tigranes the Great The Kingdom of Commagene (Greek:Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνή, Armenian: ) was an ancient kingdom of the Hellenistic Age. ... The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... The medieval history of Armenia covers the history of Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Marzpanate period is the time in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia in 428, when most of Armenia was governed by Marzbans (Governors-general of the boundaries), nominated by the Sassanid Persian King. ... Byzantine Armenia is the name given to the Armenian part of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Arab conquest of Armenia was a part of the Muslim conquests which began after the death of the prophet Muhammad. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Ô±Ö€Ö„Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Zakarid Armenia Ca. ... Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... Patriarch Harutyun I The Ottoman rule of Armenia or Ottoman Armenia, beginning with the rule of Selim II (1524 – 1574) becomes the integral part of the Ottoman Empire. ... Russian Armenia (Armenian: Ռուսական Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶) is the period of Armenias history under Russian rule beginning from 1829, when Eastern Armenia became part of the Russian Empire to the declaration of the Democratic Republic of Armenia in 1918. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Motto None Anthem Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland) Map of the Democratic Republic of Armenia from March 1919 to March 1920. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... The military history of Armenia encompasses a period of several thousand years, as the Armenian people have existed as a nation since the Early Bronze Age. ... // 883 BC: Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé. 834-828 BC: Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Mede nobility. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Roman province of Sophene, 120 CE Armenia Sophene was a short-lived (c. ... Roman province of Commagene, 120 CE Commagene (Greek Kομμαγηνη Kommagênê) was a small sometime kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near the Euphrates). ... This article is about the year 72. ...

Contents

Historical background

The name Orontes is the Hellenized form of a masculine name of Iranic origin, Yervand in Armenian. The name is only attested in Greek (Gr.:Ὀρόντης). It's Avestan connection is auruuant (brave, hero) and Middle Persian arwand. Some have suggested a continuity with the Hittite name Arnuwanda. Various Greek transcriptions of the name in Classical sources are spelled as Orontes, Aruandes or Ardoates. The presence of this dynasty is attested from at least 400 BC, and it can be shown to have ruled, originally from Armavir and subsequently Yervandashat. The precise date of the foundation of the Orontid Dynasty is debated by scholars to this day but there is a consensus that it occurred after the destruction of Urartu by the Scythians and the Medes around 612 BC. Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Arnuwanda II was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1323 BC–1322 BC. Categories: Historical stubs | Hittite kings ... Armavir (Ô±Ö€Õ´Õ¡Õ¾Õ«Ö€ in Armenian) is a city located in southwestern Armenia. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Mede nobility. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and Trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia 619 BC _ Death of Zhou xiang...


Orontids Kings and satraps of Armenia

Xenophon mentions an Armenian king named Tigranes in his Cyropaedia. He was an ally of Cyrus the Great with whom he hunted. Tigranes paid tribute to Astyages. His elder son was also named Tigranes. Upon the outbreak of hostilities between Medes and Babylonians, Tigranes had renounced his treaty obligations to the Medes. As a successor of Astyages, Cyrus demanded to be paid the same tribute. Strabo collaborates this in his Geography (xi.13.5). In 521 BC, with the disturbances that occurred after the death of Cambyses and the proclamation of Smerdis as King, the Armenians revolted. Darius I of Persia sent an Armenian named Dâdarši to suffocate the revolt, later substituting him for the Persian Vaumisa who defeated the Armenians on May 20, 521 BC. Around the same time, another Armenian by the name of Arakha, son of Haldita, claimed to be the son of the last king of Babylon, Nabonidus, and renamed himself Nebuchadnezzar IV. His rebellion was short lived and was suppressed by Intaphrenes, Darius' bow carrier. Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Tigranes (sometimes Tigran or Dikran) was the name of a number of historical figures, primarily kings of Armenia. ... Cyropaedia (lit. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... Mede nobility. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Darius the Great (c. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Nabonidus (Akkadian Nabû-nāʾid) was the last King of Babylon, who ruled the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 556 BC to 539 BC. His reign was characterized by his lack of interest in the politics and religion of his kingdom, preferring instead to study the older temples and antiquities in... Nebuchadnezzar IV was the self-proclaimed last king of Babylon. ...

An Armenian tribute bearer carrying a metal vessel with griffin handles. 5th century BC.
An Armenian tribute bearer carrying a metal vessel with griffin handles. 5th century BC.

These events are described in detail within the Behistun inscription. After the administrative reorganization of the Persian Empire, Armenia was converted into several satrapies. Armenian satraps regularly intermarried with the family of the King of Kings. These satraps provided contingents to Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BC. Herodotus says that the Armenians in the army of Xerxes "were armed like the Phrygians." In 401 BC Xenophon marched through Armenia with a large army of Greek mercenaries. Xenophon mentions two individuals by the name Orontes, apparently both Persian. One was a nobleman and military officer of high rank, belonging to the royal family; as the commander of the citadel of Sardis, he waged war against Cyrus the Younger and he tried to betray him to Artaxerxes II Memnon shortly before the battle of Cunaxa, but was taken prisoner and sentenced to death by a court martial. Xenophon's Anabasis has a detailed description of the country, there it is also written that the region near the river Centrites was defended by the satrap of Armenia for Artaxerxes II, named Orontes son of Artasyras who had Armenian contingents as well as Alarodians. Tiribaz is mentioned as hipparchos (vice-governor) of Armenia under Orontes, who later became satrap of Lydia. In 401 BC Artaxerxes gave him his daughter Rhodogoune in marriage. In two inscriptions of king Antiochus I of Commagene on his monument at Nemrut an Orontes, called Aroandes (son of Artasouras and husband of Artaxerxes's daughter Rhodogoune), is reckoned, among others, as an ancestor of the Orontids ruling over Commagene, who traced back their family to Darius I. Diodorus Siculus mentions another Orontes, possibly the same, that in 362 BC was satrap of Mysia and was the leaders of the revolting satraps of Asia Minor for which position he was best fitting because of his noble birth and his hatred of the king. Misled by his love of power and fraud, he betrayed his fellow satraps to the king. But he revolted a second time, probably owing to his dissatisfaction with the king's rewards, and launched several attacks, which were continued in the reign of the new king Artaxerxes III Ochus. During that time he also conquered and occupied the town of Pergamum, but finally he must have become reconciled with the king. In 349 he was honored by a decree of the Athenians with the civic rights and a golden wreath. Many coins were struck by him during the Satraps' Revolt in Clazomenae, Phocaea, and Lampsacus. All subsequent Orontids are his descendants. Darius III was the satrap of Armenia following Orontes, from 344 to 336 BC. An Armenian contingent was present at the Battle of Gaugamela under the command of Orontes and a certain Mithraustes. Diodorus mentions that Orontes was a friend of the Macedonian general Peucestas. Armenia formally passed to the Macedonian Empire, as its rulers submitted to Alexander the Great. Alexander appointed an Orontid named Mithranes to govern Armenia following the defeat of Orontes II. With the agreement at Babylon after Alexander's death (323 BC) Armenia was assigned to Neoptolemus1, and kept it till his death in battle in 321 BC. Around 302 BC the capital was transferred from Armavir to Yervandashat by Orontes. Image File history File linksMetadata Armenianpersepolis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Armenianpersepolis. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Persia redirects here. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in 401 BC between Cyrus the Younger and his elder brother Arsaces, who had seized the Persian throne as Artaxerxes II in 404 BC. Cyrus gathered an army of Greek mercenaries under the Spartan general Clearchus, and met Artaxerxes at Cunaxa on the left... The Persian Expedition, Penguin Classics edition of Xenophons Anabasis, translated by Rex Warner Anabasis Aνάβασις is the most famous work of the Greek writer Xenophon. ... Artaxerxes II (c. ... The Alarodian languages are a proposed language family that encompasses two language families of the Caucasus: Northeast or Dagestan (sometimes called Avar or Lezgian which are also the names of its most major members) and North-central or Vaynakh (which includes Chechen and Ingush), as well as the extinct Hurro_Urartian... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Antiochus I Theos was king of the small Middle East kingdom of Kommagene (69 - 40 BC). ... Landscape view of the mountain Nemrut or Nemrud (Turkish: Nemrut DaÄŸ or Nemrut Dağı, Armenian: Õ¶Õ¥Õ´Ö€Õ¸Ö‚Õ©) is a 2,134 meters (7000 ft. ... Roman province of Commagene, 120 CE Commagene (Greek Kομμαγηνη Kommagênê) was a small sometime kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near the Euphrates). ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Mysia. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Artaxerxes III Ochus ruled Persia from 358 BC to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Clazomenae (modern Kelisinan), was an ancient town of Ionia and a member of the Ionian Dodecapolis (Confederation of Twelve Cities), on the Gulf of Smyrna, about 20 miles west of that city. ... Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ... Lampsacus was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 9,000 peltasts,[1] 31,000 hoplites,[1][2] 7,000 cavalry[2] 1,000,000 total (See Size of Persian army) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] The Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) took place in 331 BC between... Peucestas (in Greek Πευκεστας;lived 4th century BC) was son of Alexander, a native of the town of Mieza, in Macedonia, and a distinguished officer in the service of Alexander the Great. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Neoptolemus (in Greek Νεoπτoλεμος; died 321 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. ...

Kingdom of Armenia under the Orontid Dynasty in 250 BC.

Starting from 301 BC Armenia is included within the sphere of influence of the Seleucid Empire, but it maintained a considerable degree of autonomy, retaining its native rulers. According to Polyaenus, in 227 BC the Seleucid rebel king Antiochus Hierax took refuge in Armenian territory governed by King Arsames, founder of the city Arsamosata. Towards the end 212 BC the country is divided between two kings both vassals of the Seleucids: Greater Armenia and Armenia Sophene including Commagene or Armenia Minor. Antiochus III the Great, decided to suppress the local dynasties, he besieged Arsamosata. Xerxes surrendered and implored the clemency of the king, whom he accepted as his sovereign. Antiochus gave his sister Antiochis as a wife to Xerxes, who later murdered Xerxes. Greater Armenia was ruled by an Orontid descendant of Hydarnes, the last Orontid ruler of Greater Armenia (Strabo xi.14.15); he was apparently subdued by Antiochus III the Great, who then divided the land between his generals Artaxias and Zariadres. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 460 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 575 pixels, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Armenia circa 250 BC under the Orontid Dynasty. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 460 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 575 pixels, file size: 24 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Armenia circa 250 BC under the Orontid Dynasty. ... Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under the Artaxiad Dynasty after the conquests of Tigranes the Great, 80 BC. Capital Tigranakert Language(s) Armenian Political structure Empire History  - Established 190 BC  - Disestablished 66 BC The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Polyaenus (died 278 BC), born in Macedonia, was a Greek rhetorician who served as military commander in the Roman army. ... Antiochus Hierax (in Greek AντιoχoÏ‚ Ιεραξ; killed 227 BC), so called from his grasping and ambitious character, was the younger son of Antiochus II, Seleucid king of Syria. ... Arsamosata (Armenian: Ô±Ö€Õ·Õ¡Õ´Õ·Õ¡Õ¿, Arshamshat) was a city in Armenian Sophene near the Euphrates. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


Orontids of Commagene

In Nemrut Dagi, opposite the statues of Gods there are a long row of pedestals, on which stood the steles of the Greek ancestors of Antiochos. At a right angle to this row stood another row of steles, depicting his Orontid and Achaemenid ancestors. From these steles the ones of Darius and Xerxes are well preserved. In front of each stele is a small altar. Inscriptions have been found on two of those altars. Much attention was given by Antiochos that everyone would be aware that he was related to the dynasty of the King of Kings, Darius I, by the marriage of princess Rhodogune to his ancestor Orontes. The father of Rhodogune was the Persian king, Artaxerxes. In 401 BC he defeated his younger brother, who tried to throw him from his throne. Because of the help Artaxerxes received from his military commander and satrap of Armenia, Orontes, he gave his daughter in marriage to him. Their descendant, Orontid Mithradates I Kallinikos married Seleucid Princess Laodike Thea Philadelphos.


Orontid Kings in Armenian tradition

  • Orontes I Sakavakyats (570-560 BC)
  • Tigranes Orontid (560-535 BC)
  • Vahagn (530-515 BC)
  • Hidarnes I (late 6th c. BC)
  • Hidarnes II (early 5th c. BC)
  • Hidarnes III (middle of 5th c. BC)
  • Ardashir (2nd half of 5th c. BC)

Attested Kings and Satraps

Darius III or Codomannus (c. ...

Orontid Dynasty

  • Orontes I (336-331 BC)
  • Mithranes (331-323 BC)
  • Perdiccas (non-dynastic) (323 BC)
  • Neoptolemus (non-dynastic) (323-321 BC)
  • Eumenes (non-dynastic) (321 BC)
  • Mihran (321-317 BC)
  • Orontes II (317- 300 BC)
  • Sames (260-243 BC)
  • Arsames I (243-226 BC)
  • Charaspes
  • Arsames II
  • Xerxes (226-212 BC)
  • Abdissares (212 BC)
  • Orontes III (212–200 BC)
  • Seleucid rule (200-189 BC)
  • Artaxiad rule (189-163 BC)

Perdiccas (d. ... Neoptolemus (in Greek Νεoπτoλεμος; died 321 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Sames (Basque: Samatze) is a small village and commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département of southwestern France. ... Arsames I was the King of Sophene and the son of Sames. ... Charaspes was a Scythian king ruling in the Black Sea region. ... Arsames II was the King of Sophene who offered asylum to Antiochus Hierax. ... Xerxes (died c. ... Abdissares was a King of Sophene and only attested by his coins. ...

Orontid Kings of Commagene

Antiochus I Theos was king of the small Middle East kingdom of Kommagene (69 - 40 BC). ... Antiochus IV Epiphanes, (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφαής), was last king of Commagene (38, 41–72), an ally of Rome against Parthia and a royal descendant of Syrian King Seleucus I Nicator. ...

See also

The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. ... Roman province of Commagene, 120 CE Commagene (Greek Kομμαγηνη Kommagênê) was a small sometime kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near the Euphrates). ... The Kingdom of Commagene was a small Hellenistic (Greek) kingdom in southern Anatolia, near Antioch, which began life as a tributary state of the Seleucid Empire and later became an independent kingdom, before eventually being annexed by Rome in 72. ...

Notes

1 Photius, Bibliotheca, cod. 82

References

  1. ^ Teeratsyan, G. "Yervanduneener". (Երվանդունիներ). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. III. Yerevan, Armenian SSR, 1977 p. 640
  • Cyril Toumanoff, A note on the Orontids
  • Hakop Manandian, Analytical Study of the History of Armenian People

External links


 
 

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