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Encyclopedia > Orogeny

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Orogeny (Greek for "mountain generating") is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within a time frame. For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ...


Orogenic events occur solely as a result of the processes of plate tectonics; the problems which were investigated and resolved by the study of orogenesis contributed greatly to the theory of plate tectonics, coupled with study of flora and fauna, geography and mid ocean ridges in the 1950s and 1960s. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... A mid-ocean ridge or mid-oceanic ridge is an uplifting of the ocean floor that occurs when convection currents beneath the ocean bed force magma up where two tectonic plates meet at a divergent boundary. ...


The physical manifestations of orogenesis (the process of orogeny) are orogenic belts or orogens. An orogen is different from a mountain range in that an orogen may be completely eroded away, and only recognizable by studying (old) rocks that bear the traces of the orogeny. Orogens are usually long, thin, arcuate tracts of rocks which have a pronounced linear structure resulting in terranes or blocks of deformed rocks, separated generally by dipping thrust faults. These thrust faults carry relatively thin plates (which are called nappes, and differ from tectonic plates) of rock in from the margins of the compressing orogen to the core, and are intimately associated with folds and the development of metamorphism. For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... A terrane in paleogeography is an accretion that has collided with a continental nucleus, or craton but can be recognized by the foreign origin of its rock strata. ... Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. ... A thrust fault is a particular type of fault, or break in the fabric of the Earths crust with resulting movement of each side against the other, in which a lower stratigraphic position is pushed up and over another. ... A nappe, in geology, is a large sheetlike body of rock that has been moved far from its original position. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Very tight folds. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ...


The topographic height of orogenic mountains is related to the principle of isostasy, where the gravitational force of the upthrust mountain range of light, continental crust material is balanced against its buoyancy relative to the dense mantle. Isostasy is a term used in Geology to refer to the state of ice above stasy and is angravitational equilibrium between the Earths lithosphere and asthenosphere such that the tectonic plates float at an elevation which depends on their thickness and density. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... The thickness of the Earths crust (km). ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


Erosion inevitably takes its course, removing much of the mountains, leaving the core or mountain roots, which may be exhumed by further isostatic events balancing out the loss of elevated mass. This is the final form of the majority of old orogenic belts, being a long arcuate strip of crystalline metamorphic rocks sequentially below younger sediments which are thrust atop them and dip away from the orogenic core. For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...


History

Before geology, the presence of mountains was explained in Christian contexts as a result of the Biblical Deluge, for Neoplatonic thought, which influenced early Christian writers, assumed that a perfect Creation would have to have been in the form of a perfect sphere. Such thinking persisted into the eighteenth century. Look up deluge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would...


Orogeny was used by Amanz Gressly (1840) and Jules Thurmann (1854) as orogenic in terms of the creation of mountain elevations, as the term mountain building was still used to describe the processes.


Elie de Beaumont (1852) used the evocative "Jaws of a Vise" theory to explain orogeny, but was more concerned with the height rather than the implicit structures orogenic belts created and contained. His theory essentially held that mountains were created by the squeezing of certain rocks. Jean-Baptiste Armand Louis Léonce Elie de Beaumont (September 25, 1798 – September 21, 1874) was a French geologist. ...


Eduard Suess (1875) recognised the importance of horizontal movement of rocks. The concept of a precursor geosyncline or initial downward warping of the solid earth (Hall, 1859) prompted James Dwight Dana (1873) to include the concept of compression in the theories surrounding mountain-building. With hindsight, we can discount Dana's conjecture that this contraction was due to the cooling of the Earth (aka the cooling earth theory). Eduard Suess (August 20, 1831 – April 26, 1914) was a 19th century geologist who was an expert on the geography of the Alps. ... A is for sore ass losers like you your dumbass punk ass trick geosyncline is a largely obsolete term for a subsiding linear trough that was caused by the accumulation of sedimentary rock strata deposited in a basin and subsequently compressed, deformed, and uplifted into a mountain range, with attendant... James Dwight Dana (February 12, 1813 - April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist. ...


The cooling Earth theory was the chief paradigm for most geologists until the 1960s. It was, in the context of orogeny, contested hotly by proponents of vertical movements in the crust (similar to tephrotectonics), or convection within the asthenosphere or mantle (geology). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


Gustav Steinmann (1906) recognised different classes of orogenic belts, including the Alpine type orogenic belt, typified by a flysch and molasse geometry to the sediments; ophiolite sequences, tholeiitic basalts, and a nappe style fold structure. A flysch is a sandstone formation, the word comes from the Swiss German language. ... Molasse refers to the sandstones, or less commonly shales, formed as shore deposits, for example that left from the rising Alps, or erosion in the Himalaya. ... Ophiolites are sections of oceanic lithosphere that have been uplifted or emplaced to be exposed within continental crustal rocks. ... Tholeiite (or the preferred name, tholeiitic basalt) is an igneous rock, a type of basalt. ... A nappe, in geology, is a large sheetlike body of rock that has been moved far from its original position. ...


In terms of recognising orogeny as an event, Leopold von Buch (1855) recognised that orogenies could be placed in time by bracketing between the youngest deformed rock and the oldest undeformed rock, a principle which is still in use today, though commonly investigated by geochronology using radiometric dating. Christian Leopold Freiherr von Buch (* April 26th 1774 in Stolpe (Brandenburg), † March 4th 1853 in Berlin) was a German geologist and is remembered as one of the most important contributors to geology in the first half of the nineteenth century. ... Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments. ...


H.J. Zwart (1967) drew attention to the metamorphic differences in orogenic belts, proposing three types, modified by W. S. Pitcher (1979);

  • Hercynotype (back-arc basin type);
  • Alpinotype (ocean trench style);
    • deep, high pressure, thick metamorphic zones
    • metamorphism of many facies, dependent on decrease in pressure
    • few granites or migmatites
    • abundant ophiolites with ultramafic rocks
    • Relatively narrow orogen with large and rapid uplift
    • Nappe structures predominant
  • Cordilleran (arc) type;

The advent of plate tectonics has explained the vast majority of orogenic belts and their features. The cooling earth theory (principally advanced by Descartes) is dispensed with, and tephrotectonic style vertical movements have been explained primarily by the process of isostasy. Back-arc basins (or retro-arc basins) are geologic features, submarine basins associated with island arcs and subduction zones. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Ptygmatic folding in migmatite Migmatite on the coast of Saaremaa. ... Ophiolites are sections of oceanic lithosphere that have been uplifted or emplaced to be exposed within continental crustal rocks. ... Ultramafic (or ultrabasic) rocks are igneous rocks with very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content). ... A nappe, in geology, is a large sheetlike body of rock that has been moved far from its original position. ... Volcanic rock in North America Plutonic rock in North America Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Half Dome, a granite monolith in Yosemite National Park and part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. ... Ptygmatic folding in migmatite Migmatite on the coast of Saaremaa. ... penis, hahaha big long penis. ... Ophiolites are sections of oceanic lithosphere that have been uplifted or emplaced to be exposed within continental crustal rocks. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Chert Chert (IPA: ) is a fine-grained silica-rich cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock that may contain small fossils. ... A nappe, in geology, is a large sheetlike body of rock that has been moved far from its original position. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Isostasy is a term used in Geology to refer to the state of ice above stasy and is angravitational equilibrium between the Earths lithosphere and asthenosphere such that the tectonic plates float at an elevation which depends on their thickness and density. ...


Some oddities exist, where simple collisional tectonics are modified in a transform plate boundary, such as in New Zealand, or where island arc orogenies, for instance in New Guinea occur away from a continental backstop. Further complications such as Proterozoic continent-continent collisional orogens, explicitly the Musgrave Block in Australia, previously inexplicable (see Dennis, 1982) are being brought to light with the advent of seismic imaging techniques which can resolve the deep crust structure of orogenic belts. The Musgrave Block is an east-west trending belt of Proterozoic granulite-gneiss basement rocks approximately 500km long. ...


Physiography

The process of orogeny can take tens of millions of years and build mountains from plains or even the ocean floor. Orogeny can occur due to continental collision or volcanic activity. Frequently, rock formations that undergo orogeny are severely deformed and undergo metamorphism. During orogeny, deeply buried rocks may be pushed to the surface. Sea bottom and near shore material may cover some or all of the orogenic area. If the orogeny is due to two continents colliding, the resulting mountains can be very high (see Himalaya). The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of our solid Earth. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... See Formation of rocks for processes by which rocks are formed. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...


Orogeny usually produces long linear structures, known as orogenic belts. Generally, orogenic belts consist of long parallel strips of rock exhibiting similar characteristics along the length of the belt. Orogenic belts are associated with subduction zones, which consume crust, produce volcanoes, and build island arcs. These island arcs may be added to a continent during an orogenic event. Rock redirects here. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...

Taconic orogeny
Taconic orogeny

Download high resolution version (448x780, 28 KB)United States Geological Survey figure of the Taconic orogeny Source URL: http://vulcan. ... Download high resolution version (448x780, 28 KB)United States Geological Survey figure of the Taconic orogeny Source URL: http://vulcan. ...

List of orogenies

North American orogenies

North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Caledonian orogeny is a hypothetical series of events in geologic history explaining a group of highland formations that are very similar in composition, stratigraphy and fossils: the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. ... Illustration of the Taconic orogeny The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight region. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... The Acadian orogeny is a middle Paleozoic deformation, especially in the northern Appalachians, between Alabama and Newfoundland. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... In geology, a period or age is a time span of many millions of years that are assumed to have had similar characteristics. ... The Antler orogeny is an orogeny that extensively deformed Paleozoic rocks of the Great Basin in Nevada during Late Devonian and Early Mississipian time. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... The Appalachian orogeny is a geological event that formed the Appalachian Mountains. ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Illustration of the Taconic orogeny The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight region. ... The Acadian orogeny is a middle Paleozoic deformation, especially in the northern Appalachians, between Alabama and Newfoundland. ... The Appalachian Orogeny, a result of three separate continental collisions. ... The Grenville orogeny was an episode of mountain-building (orogeny) associated with the assembly of the ancient supercontinent Rodinia. ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... In geology, Rodinia (from the Russian родина, or motherland) refers to one of the oldest known supercontinents, which contained most or all of Earths then-current landmass. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... The Nevadan Orogeny was a major mountain building event that took place along the western edge of ancient North America between the Mid to Late Jurassic(between about 180 and 146 million years ago). ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The Ouachita orogeny was a mountain building event that resulted in the folding and faulting of exposed strata in the Ouachita Geosyncline in the southern portion of Laurentia, in what is now Southern United States (~from Texas to Arkansas). ... Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range located in west central Arkansas and east central Oklahoma. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that is a separate classification that divides the Phanerozoic Eon into three parts timeframes. ... The Appalachian orogeny is a geological event that formed the Appalachian Mountains. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Seismic map New Madrid Seismic Zone - USGS The New Madrid Seismic Zone, also known as the Reelfoot Rift or the New Madrid Fault Line, is a major seismic zone, located in the mideastern United States. ... The Penokean orogeny was a mountain-building episode that occured in the early Proterozoic about 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Sevier orogeny was a mountain-building event that affected western North America between aproximately 140 million years ago (Ma), and 50 Ma. ... The Trans-Hudsonian orogeny was a major orogenic event in North America during the Proterozoic. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... North America cratons and basement rock. ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ...

European orogenies

For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Caledonian orogeny is a hypothetical series of events in geologic history explaining a group of highland formations that are very similar in composition, stratigraphy and fossils: the mountains and hills of northern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland and west Norway. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of geological events that raised the Ural Mountains starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, ca. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Mediterranean Ridge is a wide ridge in the bed of the Mediterranean Sea, running along a rough quarter circle from Calabria, south of Crete, to the southwest corner of Turkey, and from there eastwards south of Turkey, including Cyprus. ...

Asian orogenies

For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains in western India running approximately 300 miles northeast-southwest across Rajasthan state. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... The Cimmerian plate is an ancient tectonic plate that comprises parts of present-day Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. ... Fig 1: The earth in the Early Permian. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ...

South American orogenies

  • Andean orogeny
    • Andes Mountains, 0-200 Myr ago.

South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...

African orogenies

A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Pan-African orogeny was a series of major Neoproterozoic orogenic events (mountain building) which related to the formation of the supercontinents Gondwana and Pannotia about 900 million years ago. ... The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 542 +/- 0. ...

Australian orogenies

Basic geological regions of Australia, by age. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Basic geological regions of Australia, by age. ... // The Yilgarn Craton is a huge craton which constitutes the bulk of the Western Australian land mass. ... The Gascoyne Comlex is a terrane of granite and migmatite-gneiss which occurs at the northern edge of the Archaean Yilgarn in Western Australia. ... Basic geological regions of Australia, by age. ... Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia Mount Isa is a city in North-West Queensland, Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... The Gascoyne Comlex is a terrane of granite and migmatite-gneiss which occurs at the northern edge of the Archaean Yilgarn in Western Australia. ... The Musgrave Block is an east-west trending belt of Proterozoic granulite-gneiss basement rocks approximately 500km long. ... The Gascoyne Comlex is a terrane of granite and migmatite-gneiss which occurs at the northern edge of the Archaean Yilgarn in Western Australia. ... // Overview The Petermann Orogen is an intracontinental event that affected basement rocks of the northern Musgrave Province and Proterozoic sediments of the (now) southern Amadeus Basin between ~550-535 Ma. ... The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 542 +/- 0. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Central Australia is a term used to describe the area of land surrounding and including Alice Springs in Australia. ... The Adelaide Geosyncline (also known as Adelaide Rift Complex) is a major geological province in central South Australia. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... VIC redirects here. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... VIC redirects here. ... NSW redirects here. ... The Alice Springs Orogeny was a major tectonic (mountain building) episode in central Australia responsible for the formation of a series of large mountain ranges[1]. The episode started at about 450 million years ago and concluded about 300 million years ago[2],[3]. The orogeny was centred in an... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Hunter-Bowen Orogeny was a significant arc accretion event in the Permian and Triassic affecting approximately 2,500km of the Australian continental margin. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ...

Antarctic orogenies

  • Napier orogeny (4000 ± 200 Myr ago.)
  • Rayner orogeny (~ 3500 Myr ago.)
  • Humboldt orogeny (~ 3000 Myr ago.)
  • Insel orogeny (2650 ± 150 Myr ago.)
  • Early Ruker orogeny (2000 - 1700 Myr ago.)
  • Late Ruker / Nimrod orogeny (1000 ± 150 Myr ago.)
  • Beardmore orogeny (633 - 620 Myr ago.)
  • Ross Orogeny (~ 500 Myr ago.)

Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ...

New Zealand orogenies

  • Tuhua Orogeny (370 to 330 Myr ago)
  • Rangitata Orogeny (142 to 99 million years ago)
  • Kaikoura Orogeny (24 million years ago to present day)

The Rangitata Orogeny (an orogeny named after the Rangitata River), was a long period of uplift and collision in New Zealand. ... The Kaikoura Orogeny is a New Zealand orogeny that has given birth to the Southern Alps. ...

See also

Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of our solid Earth. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...

References

  • Élie de Beaumont, J.-B., 1852. Notice sur les Systèmes de Montagnes ("Note on Mountain Systems"), Bertrand, Paris, 1543 pp. (English synopsis in Dennis (1982))
  • Buch, L. Von, 1902. Gesammelte Schriften, Roth & Eck, Berlin.
  • Dana, James D., 1873. On some results of the Earth's contraction from cooling, including a discussion of the origins of mountains, and the nature of the Earth's interior. American Journal of Science, 5, pp. 423-443.
  • Dennis, John G., 1982. Orogeny, Benchmark Papers in Geology, Volume 62, Hutchinson Ross Pulishing Company, New York ISBN 0-87933-394-4
  • Hall, J., 1859. Palaeontology of New York, in New York National Survey No. 3, Part 1, 533 p.
  • Suess, Eduard, 1875. Die Entstehung Der Alpen lit. The Origin Of The Alps, Braumüller, Vienna, 168 p.
  • Harms, Brady, Cheney, 2006. "EXPLORING THE PROTEROZOIC BIG SKY OROGENY IN SOUTHWEST MONTANA", 19th annual Keck symposium.

Jean-Baptiste Armand Louis Léonce Élie de Beaumont (September 25, 1798 – September 21, 1874) was a French geologist. ... The American Journal of Science was founded in 1818 by Professor Benjamin Silliman, who edited and financed it himself, and it is the oldest American journal in continuous publication. ...

External links

  • Maps of the Acadian and Taconic orogenies
  • Antarctic Geology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Orogeny (1334 words)
Orogeny is the variety of processes that occur during mountain-building, including:
Shallow-water sedimentary rocks on the inner side of the mountain belt, thick deep-water sedimentary rocks in the heart of the mountain belt.
Mountains are high because orogeny shortens and thickens the crust, and isostasy causes the thicker crust to rise.
Earth Science: Plate Tectonics Present to Cambrian (710 words)
Orogeny continues in the Mediterranean region and India nears its junction with southern Asia.
The Atlantic lengthens and widens, the Sevier orogeny continues, and the Caribbean arc is formed.
The western fringe of Pangaea was adjacent to a long subduction zone that formed the eastern margin of the Pacific "ring of fire".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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