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Encyclopedia > Orkney Islands
Orkney Islands
Image:ScotlandOrkneyIslands.png
Geography
Area
- Total
- % Water
Ranked 16th
990 km²
? %
Admin HQ Kirkwall
ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK
ONS code 00RA
Demographics
Population
- Total (2004)
- Density
Ranked 32nd
19,500
20
Politics
Orkney Islands Council
http://www.orkney.gov.uk/
Control Independent
MPs
MSPs

The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Orkney consists of about 70 small islands 16 km north of Caithness in northern mainland Scotland. The largest island in the group is known as The Mainland, with approximately 20 being inhabited. Island council area of Scotland. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a Physical quantity. ... This is a list of districts of Scotland ordered by area. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Location within the British Isles Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, in northern Scotland. ... The ISO 3166-2 codes for the United Kingdom correspond to the nations administrative divisions. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... This is a list of districts of Scotland ordered by population. ... This is a list of MPs elected in the UK general election, 2005 to the House of Commons for the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom at the United Kingdom general election, 2005, arranged by constituency. ... Alistair Morrison Carmichael (born July 15, 1965) is a Liberal Democrat politician, and Member of Parliament for the Scottish seat of Orkney and Shetland. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... The Right Honourable Jim Wallace QC (born August 25, 1954 in Annan, Dumfries and Galloway) is a Scottish politician, first leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, first Deputy First Minister of the Scottish Executive, and and Member of the Scottish Parliament for Orkney. ... The 32 council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1891 to 1975. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ...


Orkney's administrative capital is Kirkwall on "The Mainland." Home to the St Magnus' Cathedral, it has about 8,000 inhabitants and a large port. The only other burgh is Stromness at the western end of "The Mainland", with a population of only about 2,000. The third largest settlement is St Margaret's Hope, on South Ronaldsay. Location within the British Isles Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, in northern Scotland. ... St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall is the cathedral in the capital of Orkney in Scotland. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... Stromness is the second-largest town in the Orkney Islands and is located on the southwestern edge of the mainland of Orkney. ... St Margarets Hope, known locally as The Hope, is a village in the Orkney Islands, situated off the north-east coast of Scotland. ...


Orkney is also a former county, and a Lieutenancy area, and the Orkney constituency of the Scottish Parliament. The administrative counties of Scotland in 1974 The term Counties of Scotland can variously refer to the Traditional counties of Scotland The former administrative counties of Scotland, which were abolished in 1975. ... The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland are the areas used for the ceremonial lords-lieutenant, the monarchs representatives, in Scotland. ... Orkney is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament which was created in 1999, at the same time as the parliament. ...

Contents


Islands

Stromness in 2006.
Stromness in 2006.

The largest island in Orkney is known as "The Mainland". An older name for it is Hrossey (Horse-island). Other islands can be classified as north or south of "The Mainland." The islands north of "The Mainland" are known collectively as The North Isles, those to the south as The South Isles. The remote Sule Skerry and Sule Stack lie around 60 km west of the archipelago, but form part of the council area. Image File history File links StromnessJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links StromnessJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... The Mainland, Orkney shown within The Orkney Islands The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... Sule Skerry is an extremely remote skerry in the North Atlantic off the north coast of Scotland. ... Sule Stack or Stack Skerry is an extremely remote volcanic stack in the North Atlantic off the north coast of Scotland. ...


The North Isles

Flag of Orkney (unofficial).
Flag of Orkney (unofficial).

The northern group of islands is the most extensive and consists of a large number of moderately sized islands, linked to "The Mainland" by ferries. Most of the islands described as "holms" are very small. Image File history File links Flag_of_Orkney. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Orkney. ... Flag of Orkney The Flag of the Orkney Islands is that of St Magnus, a yellow field with a red Nordic cross. ...

Auskerry is a small island in the east of the Orkney Islands group in Scotland. ... Categories: Stub | Orkney Islands ... Eday shown within Orkney Islands Eday is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Egilsay shown within Orkney Islands Egilsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying east of Rousay. ... Eynhallow is a small island, part of the Orkney Islands Scotland. ... Faray is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying between Eday and Westray. ... Gairsay shown within Orkney Islands Gairsay is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Linga Holm is a tiny uninhabited island (roughly extending to 57ha or 141 acres) situated west of the island of Stronsay. ... North Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands North Ronaldsay is the northernmost of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... Papa Stronsay shown within Orkney Islands Papa Stronsay is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying north east of Stronsay. ... Papa Westray shown within Orkney Islands Papa Westray, also known as Papay, is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around sixty people. ... Rousay shown within Orkney Islands Rousay (from Old Norse Hrólfs-øy meaning Rolfs Island) is a small but hilly island about 3 km (2 mi) off the north side of Orkneys Mainland, which has been nicknamed the Egypt of the north due to its tremendous archaeological diversity... Sanday shown within Orkney Islands Sanday is one of the inhabited islands in the Orkney Islands group off the northern coast of Scotland. ... Shapinsay shown within Orkney Islands Shapinsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Stronsay shown within Orkney Islands Stronsay is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Westray shown within Orkney Islands Westray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around 700 people. ... Wyre shown within Orkney Islands Wyre is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying south east of Rousay. ...

The South Isles

The southern group of islands surrounds Scapa Flow. Hoy is the highest of the Orkney Isles, while South Ronaldsay, Burray and Lamb Holm are linked to "The Mainland" by the Churchill Barriers. The Pentland Skerries lie further south, close to the Scottish mainland. Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... The Churchill Barriers are a series of four causeways in the Orkney Islands, with a total length of 2. ... The Pentland Skerries are a group of four uninhabited islands lying in the Pentland Firth, north east of Duncansby Head and south of South Ronaldsay in Scotland. ...

Burray shown within Orkney Islands Burray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Copinsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying off the east coast of the Orkney Mainland. ... Fara is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying between Flotta and Hoy. ... Flotta shown within Orkney Islands Flotta is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying in Scapa Flow. ... Graemsay shown within Orkney Islands Graemsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland with a population of around thirty people. ... Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... Lamb Holm is a small island in Orkney, Scotland. ... South Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Switha is a small island in Orkney, Scotland south of Flotta, used for grazing sheep. ... The island of Swona (Old Norse for “Swains Island”) is the northern of the two islands situated in the Pentland Firth between the Orkney Islands and Caithness on the Scottish mainland. ...

Geography

The Pentland Firth is a seaway which separates Orkney from the mainland of Scotland. The firth is 11 km wide between Brough Ness on the island of South Ronaldsay and Duncansby Head in Caithness. PD image, from Swedish Wikipedia This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Pentland Firth, which is actually more of a strait than a firth, separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness, which is in the far north of the Highland area of Scotland. ... South Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Duncansby Head is one of the most northerly parts of the Scottish mainland, and is near John O Groats (58°38′43″ N 03°01′23″ W, grid reference ND405733). ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1891 to 1975. ...


Orkney lies between 58° 41' and 59° 24' North, and 2° 22' and 3° 26' West, measures 80 km from northeast to southwest and 47 km from east to west, and covers 973 km². Excepting on the west coasts of the larger islands, which present rugged cliff scenery remarkable both for beauty and for colouring, the group lies somewhat low and is of bleak aspect.


The hilliest island is Hoy; the highest point in Orkney, Ward Hill, is to be found there. The only other islands containing heights of any importance are "The Mainland", with (another) Ward Hill (268 m), and Wideford Hill and Rousay. Nearly all of the islands possess lochs (lakes), and The Loch of Harray and The Loch of Stenness on "The Mainland" attain noteworthy proportions. The rivers are merely streams draining the high land. Excepting on the west fronts of the Mainland, Hoy and Rousay, the coastline of the islands is deeply indented, and the islands themselves are divided from each other by straits generally called "sounds" or "firths", though off the north-east of Hoy the designation "Bring Deeps" is used, south of "The Mainland" is Scapa Flow and to the south-west of Eday is found the Fall of Warness. Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... Ward Hill, on the island of Hoy, is the highest hill in the Orkney Islands. ... Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ...


The very names of the islands indicate their nature: the terminal "a" or "ay" represents the Norse ey, meaning "island", which is scarcely disguised even in the words "Pomona" (an older alternative name for The Mainland) and "Hoy". The islets are usually styled "holms" and the isolated rocks "skerries".


The tidal currents, or races, or "roost" (as some of them are called locally, from the Icelandic) off many of the isles run with enormous velocity, and whirlpools are of frequent occurrence, and strong enough at times to prove a source of danger to small craft.


The charm of Orkney does not lie in their ordinary physical features, so much as in beautiful atmospheric effects, extraordinary examples of light and shade, and rich coloration of cliff and sea.


The islands are notable for the lack of trees, which is partly accounted for by the amount of wind (although the climate in general is temperate). The formation of peat is evidence that this was not always the case, and deliberate deforestation is believed to have taken place at some stage prior to the Neolithic, the use of stone in settlements such as Skara Brae being evidence of the lack of availability of timber for building. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... SKARA BRAE IS ALSO TH E NAME GIVEN TO A WORLD FAMOUS IRISH TRADITIONAL MUSIC BAND FROM RANAFAST CO.DONEGAL, IRELAND. THE TWO MAIN VOCALISTS ARE SISTERS Maighréad Ní Dhomhnaill and Tríona Ní Dhomhnaill and their brother Mícheál ó Domhnaill is a lead member. ...


Most of the land is still taken up by farms, and agriculture is by far the most important sector of the economy, with fishing also being a major occupation. Orkney exports beef, cheese, whisky, beer, fish and seafood. Beef Beef is meat obtained from a bovine. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the curdled milk of cows, goats, sheep, water buffalo or other mammals. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is the name for a broad category of alcoholic beverages distilled from grains, that are subsequently aged in oak casks. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling more than 133 billion litres (35 billion gallons) per year. ... The Guppy, also known as guppie (Poecilia reticulata) is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ...


Geology

The Old Man of Hoy.
The Old Man of Hoy.

All the islands of this group are built up entirely of Old Red Sandstone. As in the neighbouring mainland county of Caithness, these rocks rest upon the metamorphic rocks of the eastern schists, as may be seen on The Mainland, where a narrow strip is exposed between Stromness and Inganess, and again in the small island of Graemsay; they are represented by grey gneiss and granite. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 62 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 62 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1891 to 1975. ... Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form (from the Greek prefix meta, after, and the noun morphe, form). The protolith is subjected to heat (greater than 150 degrees Celsius) and extreme... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Gneiss Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ...


The upper division of the Old Red Sandstone is found only on Hoy, where it forms the Old Man of Hoy and neighbouring cliffs on the northwest coast. The Old Man of Hoy presents a characteristic section, for it exhibits a thick pile of massive, current-bedded red sandstones, resting, near the foot of the pinnacle, upon a thin bed of amygdaloidal porphyrite, which in its turn lies unconformably upon steeply inclined flagstones. This bed of volcanic rock may be followed northward in the cliffs, and it may be noticed that it thickens considerably in that direction. The Old Man of Hoy is a 460 foot stack of red sandstone perched on a plinth of igneous basalt, close to Rackwick Bay on the west coast of the island of Hoy, in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...


The Lower Old Red Sandstone is represented by well-bedded flagstones over most of the islands; in the south of The Mainland these are faulted against an overlying series of massive red sandstones, but a gradual passage from the flagstones to the sandstones may be followed from Westray southeastwards into Eday. A strong synclinal fold traverses Eday and Shapinsay, the axis being North and South. Near Haco's Ness in Shapinsay there is a small exposure of amygdaloidal diabase, which is (of course) older than that on Hoy. Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Diabase is a mafic, holocrystalline, igneous rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro. ...


Many indications of ice action are found on these islands; striated surfaces are to be seen on the cliffs in Eday and Westray, in Kirkwall Bay and on Stennie Hill in Eday; boulder clay, with marine shells, and with many boulders of rocks foreign to the islands (chalk, oolitic limestone, flint, etc), which must have been brought up from the region of Moray Firth, rests upon the old strata in many places. Local moraines are found in some of the valleys in The Mainland and Hoy. The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of natural clays. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Pebble beach made up of flint nodules eroded out of the nearby chalk cliffs, Cape Arkona, Rügen Flint (or flintstone) is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline silica rock with a glassy appearance. ... Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ...


Climate

The climate is remarkably temperate and steady for such a northerly latitude. The average temperature for the year is 8 °C (46 °F), for winter 4 °C (39 °F) and for summer 12 °C (54 °F). The winter months are January, February and March, the last being the coldest. Spring never begins before April, and it is the middle of June before the warmth grows comfortable. September is frequently the finest month, and at the end of October or the beginning of November the "peedie" (or little) summer or milder weather may occur.


The average annual rainfall varies from 850 mm (33 in.) to 940 mm (37 in.). Fogs occur during summer and early autumn, and furious gales may be expected four or five times in the year.


To tourists, one of the fascinations of the islands is their nightless summers. On the longest day, the sun rises at 03:00 and sets at 21:25 — and darkness is unknown, it being possible to read at midnight. Winter, however, is long and depressing. On the shortest day the sun rises at 09:10 and sets at 15:17.


The soil generally is a sandy loam or a strong but friable clay, and very fertile. Large quantities of seaweed as well as lime and marl are available for manure. Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... Seaweed-covered rocks in the UK Biologists, specifically Phycologists, consider seaweed to refer any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic, and thus differentiated from most algae that tend to be microscopic in size [1]. Seaweeds are usually types of brown or red algae that... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ...


Economy

The woollen trade once promised to reach considerable dimensions, but towards the end of the 18th century was superseded by the linen (for which flax came to be largely grown); and when this in turn collapsed before the products of the mills of Dundee, Dunfermline and Glasgow, straw-plaiting was taken up, though only to be killed in due time by the competition of the south. The kelp industry was formerly of at least minor importance. Wool in a shearing shed Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Wool sheep, Royal Melbourne Show Wool is the fibre derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep and goats, but the hair of other mammals... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax (and historically, cannabis) plant. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... Dundee (Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh) is the forth largest city in scotland with a population of 143,090 (2003). ... The Royal Burgh of Dunfermline (in Gaelic, Dùn Phàrlain), is a town and burgh in Fife, Scotland, that sits on high ground 3 miles from the shore of the Firth of Forth, northwest of Edinburgh. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Kelp are large seaweeds, belonging to the brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales. ...


For several centuries the Dutch practically monopolised the herring fishery, but when their supremacy was destroyed by the salt duty, the Orcadians failed to seize the opportunity thus presented, and George Barry (died 1805) recorded that in his day the fisheries were almost totally neglected. The industry, however, revived, concentrating on herring, cod and ling, but also catching lobsters and crabs. Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the temperate, shallow waters of the North Atlantic... Species Gadus morhua Gadus macrocephalus Gadus ogahvgfgvbc Cod surfacing This article is about codfish; for other meanings, see COD. Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of fish, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name of a variety of other fishes. ... Ling can refer to more than one thing: Ling (Molva molva) is a freshwater fish related to burbot. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Sections The term crab is often applied to several different groups of short (nose to tail) decapod crustaceans with thick exoskeletons, but only members of the Brachyura are true crabs. ...


In recent years, the Orkney economy has seen growth in areas other than the traditional agriculture, livestock farming, and fishing. These include tourism; food and beverage manufacture; jewellery, knitwear, and other crafts production; construction; and oil transportation through the Flotta oil terminal. Public services also play a significant role. Flotta shown within Orkney Islands Flotta is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying in Scapa Flow. ...


Communications

Frequent ferry services operate on the following routes:

Most of the larger islands have their own airfield or airstrip. Loganair operates regular services to six islands from Kirkwall. These include the shortest scheduled air service in the world, between the islands of Westray and Papa Westray. The flight is scheduled at two minutes' duration but can take less than a minute if the wind is in the right direction. Lerwick is the only town and main port of the Shetland Islands, found more than 100 miles off the north coast of Scotland. ... This article is about the Scottish city. ... Thurso is a small town in Caithness on the north coast of Scotland. ... Location within the British Isles. ... The Pentland Firth, which is actually more of a strait than a firth, separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness, which is in the far north of the Highland area of Scotland. ...


There are ideas being discussed to build an undersea tunnel between Orkney and the Scottish mainland, at a length of about 9-10 miles (15-16 km) or (more likely) one connecting the Mainland to Shapinsay. (Links: [1] [2] both 2005).


Media

The islands are currently served by two weekly local newspapers,Orkney Todayand The Orcadian, both published every Thursday. In addition, a local radio station operates, with a second hoping to return to the isles in the near future. Radio Orkney, the local opt-out of BBC Radio Scotland, broadcasts twice daily, with local news and entertainment. The Superstation Orkney, Orkney's first commercial radio station, will begin broadcasting on 105.4FM in 2006. The station was granted a community radio licence in September 2005 by Ofcom. The Orcadian is the oldest Orkney newspaper, first published in 1854. ... BBC Radio Scotland is the BBCs national radio network for Scotland, broadcasting since 1976 on 92-95 FM and 810 medium wave. ... The Office of Communications, usually known as Ofcom, is the UKs communications regulator. ...


Heritage

Skara Brae.
Skara Brae.

Located on Mainland is the 'Heart of Neolithic Orkney' a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. This comprises a group of Neolithic monuments which consist of a large chambered tomb (Maes Howe), two ceremonial stone circles (the Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brodgar) and a settlement (Skara Brae), together with a number of unexcavated burial, ceremonial and settlement sites. The group constitutes a major prehistoric cultural landscape which gives a graphic depiction of life in this remote archipelago in the far north of Scotland some 5,000 years ago. Image File history File links SkaraBraeJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links SkaraBraeJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Site #86: Memphis and its Necropolis, including the Pyramids of Giza (Egypt). ... Maes Howe is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney (off northern Scotland). ... The Stenness Watch Stone stands next to the modern bridge leading to the Ring of Brodgar. ... Ring of Brodgar The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar) is a neolithic henge and stone circle in The Mainland Orkney, Scotland, somewhat similar to Stonehenge in England. ... SKARA BRAE IS ALSO TH E NAME GIVEN TO A WORLD FAMOUS IRISH TRADITIONAL MUSIC BAND FROM RANAFAST CO.DONEGAL, IRELAND. THE TWO MAIN VOCALISTS ARE SISTERS Maighréad Ní Dhomhnaill and Tríona Ní Dhomhnaill and their brother Mícheál ó Domhnaill is a lead member. ...


Viking settlers comprehensively occupied Orkney, and the islands became a possession of Norway until being given to Scotland during the 15th century as part of a dowry settlement. Evidence of the Viking presence is widespread, and includes the settlement at the Brough of Birsay, the vast majority of place names, and runic inscriptions at Maeshowe and other ancient sites. The term Viking is used to denote the ship-borne explorers, traders and warriors who originated in Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Sweden and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Brough of Birsay is a small (210,000 m²) tidal island off the north west coast of The Mainland of Orkney, in the parish of Birsay. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


History

Ring of Brodgar.
Ring of Brodgar.

Main article: History of the Orkney Islands Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 96 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 96 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... // Before the Norse Evidence of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Orkney Islands still exists in numerous weems or underground houses, chambered mounds, barrows or burial mounds, Brochs or round towers, and stone circles and standing stones. ...


The original inhabitants were Picts, evidence of whose occupation still exists in numerous "weems" or underground houses, chambered mounds, barrows or burial mounds, "brochs" or round towers, and stone circles and standing stones. Such implements as have survived are of the rudest description, and include quern-stones for grinding materials including grain, stone whorls and bone combs employed in primitive forms of woollen manufacture, and specimens of simple pottery ware. The Pictish Strathpeffer eagle stone, Highland, Scotland. ... Quern-stones are a pair of stone tools for hand grinding a wide variety of materials. ... Oats, barley, and some products made from them Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible grains or seeds (actually a fruit called a caryopsis). ...


The Romans were aware of, and probably circumnavigated, the Orkney Islands, which they called "Orcades". There is evidence that they traded, either directly or indirectly, with the inhabitants. However, they made no attempt to occupy the islands. Octavian, widely known as Augustus, founder of the Roman empire The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ...


If, as seems likely, the Dalriadic Gaels established a footing in the islands towards the beginning of the 6th century, their success was short-lived, and the Picts regained power and kept it until dispossessed by the Norsemen in the 9th century. In the wake of the Scots incursionists followed the Celtic missionaries about 565. They were companions of Saint Columba and their efforts to convert the folk to Christianity seem to have impressed the popular imagination, for several islands bear the epithet "Papa" in commemoration of the preachers. Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... The Gaels are an ethno-linguistic group in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, whose language is one that is Gaelic (Goidelic), a division of Insular Celtic languages. ... Norsemen (the Norse) is the indigenous or ancient name for the people of Scandinavia, including (but not limited to) the Vikings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... A separate article is titled Columba (constellation). ...


Vikings having made the islands the headquarters of their buccaneering expeditions (carried out indifferently against their own Norway and the coasts and isles of Scotland), Harold Hårfagre ("Fair Hair") subdued the rovers in 875 and annexed both Orkney and Shetland to Norway. The martyrdom of Earl Magnus resulted in the building of St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall. The islands remained under the rule of Norse earls until 1231, when the line of the jarls became extinct. In that year the earldom of Caithness was granted to Magnus, second son of the Earl of Angus, whom the king of Norway apparently confirmed in the title. Recent studies from the field of population genetics reveal a significant percentage of Norse ethnic heritage – up to one third of the Y chromosomes on the islands are derived from western Norwegian sources, as opposed to the Shetlands, where over half the male lineage is Norse. The term Viking is used to denote the ship-borne explorers, traders and warriors who originated in Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Sweden and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse:Haraldr hinn hárfagri, Icelandic:Haraldur hinn hárfagri, Norwegian:Harald HÃ¥rfagre) (c. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Saint Magnus, Earl Magnus Erlendsson of Orkney, was the first earl of Orkney to bear that name, and ruled from 1108 to about 1116 or 1117. ... St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall dominates the skyline of Kirkwall, the main town of Orkney, a group of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... An Earl or Jarl was an Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian title, meaning chieftain and it referred especially to chieftains set to rule a territory in a kings stead. ... The title of Earl of Angus is an ancient one in the Peerage of Scotland, currently held by the Duke of Hamilton. ...


Some jarls of Orkney:

In 1468 Orkney and Shetland were pledged by Christian I of Denmark and Norway for the payment of the dowry of his daughter Margaret, betrothed to James III of Scotland, and as the money was never paid, their connection with the crown of Scotland has been perpetual. In 1471 James bestowed the castle and lands of Ravenscraig, in Fife, on William, Earl of Orkney, in exchange for all his rights to the earldom of Orkney, which, by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland, passed on February 20, 1472, was annexed to the Scottish crown. Ragnvald Eysteinsson, The Wise (830-890) (Old Norse: Rögnvaldr Mærajarl), Earl of Sunnmøre, Nordmøre and Romsdal, was born in Maer Nord-Trøndelag, Norway and died at the Orkney Islands. ... Einar Ragnvaldson, Turf-Einar (d. ... Torfinn Hausakljuv (d. ... Events Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia Births February 29 - Pope Paul III (died 1549) Juan del Encina, Spanish poet, dramatist and composer Charles I of Savoy John, Elector of Saxony (died 1532) Juan de Zumárraga, Spanish Franciscan prelate and first bishop of Mexico... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the groomss family to that of the bride to permit their marriage. ... Margaret of Denmark (June 23, 1456 - before July 14, 1486) was the daughter of King Christian I of Denmark (1448-81), Norway (1450-81), and Sweden (1457-64), and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... The list of monarchs of Scotland concerns the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Fife (Fìobh in Gaelic) is a council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with landward boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. ... William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, 3rd Earl of Orkney(until 1470), Baron of Roslin (1410-1484) was a Scottish nobleman and the builder of Rosslyn Chapel. ... The Orkney Isles, along with the Shetland Isles to their immediate north, lie off the northernmost tip of Caithness Scotland. ... List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament to 1707 is a list of Acts of Parliament of the Parliament of Scotland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 20 - The Orkneys and Shetlands are annexed to the crown of Scotland Discovery of Newfoundland by Didrik Pining and João Vaz Corte-Real. ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ...


In 1564 Lord Robert Stewart, natural son of James V of Scotland, who had visited Kirkwall twenty-four years before, was made sheriff of Orkney and Shetland, and received possession of the estates of the udallers; in 1581 he was created earl of Orkney by James VI of Scotland, the charter being ratified ten years later to his son Patrick, but in 1615 the earldom was again annexed to the crown. There are different people named Robert Stewart: Robert II King of Scots Robert Stewart, 1st Marquess of Londonderry Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney Robert Stewart, Social Care 2 At Cardonald College Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh Sir Robert Stewart (composer) Robert John Stewart author and occultist Robert L. Stewart (astronaut... James V (April 10, 1512 – December 14, 1542) was king of Scotland (September 9, 1513 – December 14, 1542). ... Sheriff is both a political and a legal office held under English common law, Scots law or U.S. common law, or the person who holds such office. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ...


The islands were the rendezvous of Montrose's expedition in 1650 which culminated in his imprisonment and death. During the Protectorate they were visited by a detachment of Cromwell's troops, who initiated the inhabitants into various industrial arts and new methods of agriculture. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 - 21 May 1650), was a Scottish nobleman and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. ... The Protectorate in English history refers specifically to the English government of 1653 to 1659 under the direct control of Oliver Cromwell, who assumed the title of Lord Protector of the newly declared Commonwealth of England (later the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) after the English Civil War. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ...


In 1707 the islands were granted to the earl of Morton in mortgage, redeemable by the Crown on payment of 30,000 pounds, and subject to an annual feu-duty of 500 pounds; but in 1766 his estates were sold to Sir Lawrence Dundas, ancestor of the Earls of Zetland. Morton is the name of several people, places, and things in the English language. ... The Marquess of Zetland (Shetland) is a title in the peerage of the United Kingdom created for Laurence Dundas, 2nd Earl of Zetland along with the title Earl of Ronaldshay on 22 August 1892. ...


In early times both the archbishop of Hamburg and the archbishop of York disputed with the Norwegians ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Orkneys and the right of consecrating bishops; but ultimately the Norwegian bishops, the first of whom was William the Old (consecrated in 1102), continued the canonical succession. The see remained vacant from 1580 to 1606, and from 1638 till the Restoration, and, after the accession of William III, the episcopacy was finally abolished (1697), although many of the clergy refused to conform. Hamburgs Motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... William III of England (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots...


The toponymy of the Orkneys is wholly Norse, and the Norse tongue, at last extinguished by the constant influx of settlers from Scotland, lingered until the end of the 18th century. Readers of Scott's Pirate will remember the frank contempt which Magnus Troil expressed for the Scots, and his opinions probably accurately reflected the general Norse feeling on the subject. When the islands were given as security for the princess's dowry, there seems reason to believe that it was intended to redeem the pledge, because it was then stipulated that the Norse system of government and the law of Saint Olaf should continue to be observed in Orkney and Shetland. Thus the udal succession and mode of land tenure (that is, absolute freehold as distinguished from feudal tenure) lingered to some extent, and the remaining udallers held their lands and passed them on without written title. By the mid 1800s Orkney was firmly under the rule of Scotland, with absentee sheriffs holding nominal power. For example Lord Neaves, the esteemed Scottish jurist held the sheriff position on Orkney from 1845 to 1852. Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... Portrait of Sir Walter Scott, by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (14 August 1771–21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. ... Olav II Haraldsson ( 995 – 1030), king from 1015–1028, called during his lifetime the Fat and afterwards known as Saint Olaf, was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvesson came to Norway. ... ... Fee simple, also known as fee simple absolute or allodial, is a term of art in common law. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Lord Neaves as a judge. ...


During World War I and World War II, the Royal Navy had a major base at Scapa Flow. The base was closed in 1956. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First World War, also known as... Combatants Allies: Poland, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ...


In the Arthurian legend, Orkney is the home to King Lot, Sir Gareth, Sir Gaheris, Sir Gawaine, and Sir Agravain. Sir Gareth was a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian Legend. ...


Language

The older Norn was replaced by Lowland Scots which in turn is being replaced by Scottish English. However, Orkney does have its own dialect, referred to by the locals as 'Orcadian'. Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Scots is an Anglic variety spoken in Scotland, where it is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands (especially the Hebrides). ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Orcadian dialect is a dialect of Insular Scots belonging to Scots language. ...


Orcadian people

Some well-known Orcadians: The Orkney Islands are one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and form a traditional county and Lieutenancy area. ...

  • Magnus Erlendsson (Saint Magnus) (c1070 – c1117), Earl of Orkney c1105 – 1117
  • Rognvald Kali Kolssson (Saint Rognvald) (c1103 – 1158), Earl of Orkney 1136 – 1158
  • James Atkine (1613 – 1687), bishop first of Moray and afterwards of Galloway
  • Murdoch McKenzie (died 1797), the hydrographer
  • Malcolm Laing (1762 – 1818), author of the History of Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms
  • William Sinclair (1766 – 1818), Chief Factor at the Hudsons Bay Company
  • Mary Brunton (1778 – 1818), author of Self-Control, Discipline and other novels
  • Samuel Laing (1780 – 1868), author of A Residence in Norway, and translator of the Heimskringla, the Icelandic chronicle of the kings of Norway
  • Thomas Stewart Traill (1781 – 1862), professor of medical jurisprudence at Edinburgh University and editor of the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Samuel Laing (1812 – 1897), chairman of the London, Brighton. & South Coast railway, and introducer of the system of "parliamentary" trains with fares of one penny a mile
  • Dr. John Rae (1813 – 1893), an Arctic explorer
  • Rev. Matthew Armour (1820-1903), Sanday’s radical Free Kirk Minister
  • William Balfour Baikie (1825 – 1864), traveller in Africa
  • Walter Traill Dennison (1826 - 1894), Orcadian folklorist
  • Edwin Muir (1887 – 1959), author and poet
  • Stanley Cursiter (1887 – 1976), artist
  • Eric Linklater (1899 – 1974), novelist, playwright, journalist, essayist, and poet
  • George Mackay Brown (1921 – 1996), poet, author, playwright.
  • Luke Sutherland, writer of novels Jelly Roll, Sweatmeat and Venus as a Boy

Statue of St. ... Malcolm Laing (1762 - 1818), was a country gentleman in Orkney. ... Mary Brunton (1778 - 1818), novelist, daughter of Col. ... Samuel Laing was a Scottish writer, born 1780, died 1868. ... Dr. Thomas Stewart Traill (October 29, 1781- July 30, 1862) was a Scottish professor of medical jurisprudence at the University of Edinburgh. ... Jurisprudence is essentially the theory and philosophy of law. ... Samuel Laing was a Scottish writer, born 1780, died 1868. ... John Rae John Rae (September 30, 1813 – July 22, 1893) was a Scottish , specifically Orcadian explorer of the Arctic . ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... Matthew Armour (April 12, 1820 – March 23, 1903), Rev. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sanday shown within Orkney Islands Sanday is one of the inhabited islands in the Orkney Islands group off the northern coast of Scotland. ... The Free Church of Scotland (1843-1900) was a Scottish denomination formed by the withdrawal of a large section of the established Church of Scotland in a schism known as the Disruption of 1843. ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... William Balfour Baikie (August 21, 1824—November 30, 1864) was a Scottish explorer, naturalist and philologist, eldest son of Captain John Baikie, R.N,, was born at Kirkwall, Orkney. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... Walter Traill Dennison (1826 - 1894) was a Scottish farmer and folklorist. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Folkloristics is the formal academic study of folklore and mythology. ... Edwin Muir (15 May 1887 - 3 January 1959) was a Scottish poet and novelist. ... Scottish artist born in the Orkney Islands in 1887. ... Eric Robert Russell Linklater (1899-1974) was a Scottish writer, known for more than 20 novels, also short stories, travel writing and autobiography, and military history. ... George Mackay Brown (1921 - 1996), was a poet, author and dramatist. ... Luke Sutherland writer of novels Jelly Roll, Sweatmeat and Venus as a Boy. ...

Constituencies

The Orkney Islands are represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom as part of the Orkney and Shetland constituency, which elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Orkney and Shetland is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ...


In the Scottish Parliament the Orkney Islands are themselves the Orkney constituency, which elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system. Also, the Orkney Islands are within the Highlands and Islands electoral region. For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Orkney is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament which was created in 1999, at the same time as the parliament. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... The Highlands and Islands is one of the eight electoral areas for the Scottish Parliament through which 7 of the 56 Additional Members System MSPs are elected. ... The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs. ...


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


See also

The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is an unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands from their capture by the Norwegian king in the 9th century onwards until about 1200 AD. The saga was written around 1200 AD by an unknown... A trowe or trow is a mythical creature of the Orkney Islands, which may have been based on the Scandinavian troll. ... Udal law is a near-defunct Norse derived legal system, which was formerly found in the Shetland islands and Orkney. ... The Churchill Barriers are a series of four causeways in the Orkney Islands, with a total length of 2. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

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Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils. They have been in use since April 1, 1996, under the provisions of the Local Government etc. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Local Government etc. ... City of Aberdeen crest City of Aberdeen (Mòr-bhaile Obar Dheathain in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Angus (Aonghas in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties and also one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland and a Lieutenancy area. ... Argyll and Bute (Earra-Ghaidheal agus Bòd in Gaelic) is both one of 32 unitary council areas; and a Lieutenancy Area in Scotland. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Dumfries and Galloway (Dùn Phris agus Gall-Ghaidhealaibh in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland. ... City of Dundee (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Dèagh in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... Logo of East Ayrshire Council East Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... East Dunbartonshire (Siorrachd Dhùn Bhreatainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary authority areas in Scotland. ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. ... East Renfrewshire (Siorrachd Rinn Friù an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... Western Isles redirects here. ... City of Edinburgh (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Èideann in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... Falkirk (an Eaglais Bhreac in Gaelic) is one of the 32 council areas in Scotland. ... Fife (Fìobh in Gaelic) is a council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with landward boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. ... The City of Glasgow Council (Mòr-bhaile Ghlaschu in Gaelic) is one of the 32 Scottish unitary authorities, formerly Glasgow District Council and Glasgow Corporation in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Highland unitary authority area (Roinn na Gàidhealtachd in Gaelic) is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands and the largest local government area in Scotland. ... Inverclyde (Inbhir Chluaidh in Gaelic) is one of 32 council areas in Scotland. ... The central portions of the old province of Lothian in Scotland, centred around Edinburgh, became known as Midlothian, Scotland. ... Moray (Moireibh in Gaelic), one of the 32 unitary council regions (or areas) of Scotland, lies in the north-east of the country and borders on the regions of Aberdeenshire and Highland. ... North Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir a Tuath in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... North Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ... Perth and Kinross (Peairt agus Ceann Rois in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. ... Renfrewshire (Siorrachd Rinn Friù in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary authority regions in Scotland. ... Scottish Borders (often referred to locally as The Borders or The Borderland) is one of 35 local government unitary council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... South Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir a Deas in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, covering the southern part of Ayrshire. ... South Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig a Deas in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, covering the southern part of the traditional county of Lanarkshire. ... Stirling (Sruighlea in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland with a population of about 85,000. ... West Dunbartonshire (Siorrachd Dhùn Bhreatainn an Iar in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary authority areas in Scotland. ... West Lothian or Linlithgowshire (Lodainn an Iar in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy area. ...

 
United Kingdom | Scotland | Counties of Scotland
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Subdivisions created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The administrative counties of Scotland in 1974 The term Counties of Scotland can variously refer to the Traditional counties of Scotland The former administrative counties of Scotland, which were abolished in 1975. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1888 (52 & 53 Vict. ...


Aberdeenshire | Angus | Argyll | Ayrshire | Banffshire | Berwickshire | Bute | Caithness | Clackmannanshire | Dumfriesshire | Dunbartonshire | East Lothian | Fife | Inverness-shire | Kincardineshire | Kinross-shire | Kirkcudbrightshire | Lanarkshire | Midlothian | Moray | Nairnshire | Orkney | Peeblesshire | Perthshire | Renfrewshire | Ross and Cromarty | Roxburghshire | Selkirkshire | Shetland | Stirlingshire | Sutherland | West Lothian | Wigtownshire The historic county of Aberdeenshire (Siorrachd Obar Dheathain in Gaelic) was until 1975 a county of Scotland. ... Angus (Aonghas in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties and also one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland and a Lieutenancy area. ... Argyll, archaically Argyle (Airthir-Ghaidheal in Gaelic, translated as [the] East Gael, or [the] East Irish), sometimes called Argyllshire, is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir in Scottish Gaelic) was a county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. ... Banffshire (Siorrachd Bhanbh in Gaelic) is a small traditional county in the north of Scotland. ... Berwickshire (Siorrachd Bhearaig in Gaelic) is a committee area of the Scottish Borders Council and a Lieutenancy area of Scotland, on the border with England. ... The County of Bute (Siorrachd Bhòid in Gaelic), commonly also known as Buteshire, is one of the registration counties of Scotland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic) is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1891 to 1975. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Dumfriesshire (Siorrachd Dhùn Phris in Gaelic) was a county of Scotland. ... Dunbartonshire is one of the Traditional counties of Scotland, in that part of the country formerly called Lennox (which was a title of nobility). ... East Lothian (Lodainn an Ear in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. ... Fife (Fìobh in Gaelic) is a council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with landward boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. ... Inverness-shire (Siorrachd Inbhir Nis in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties of Scotland. ... Kincardineshire, also known as The Mearns (from A Mhaoirne meaning The Stewartry) is a traditional county on the coast of Northeast Scotland. ... Kinross-shire was a county of Scotland. ... Kirkcudbrightshire (pronounced Kir-COO-bri-shir, also known as the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright or as East Galloway, and Siorrachd Chille Chuithbheirt in Gaelic) is a traditional county of south-western Scotland, bounded on the north and north-west by Ayrshire, on the west and southwest by Wigtownshire, on the south... Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... The central portions of the old province of Lothian in Scotland, centred around Edinburgh, became known as Midlothian, Scotland. ... Moray, or the anglified Morayshire or Elginshire (Mhoireibh in Gaelic) was a county of Scotland, bordering the former Nairnshire to the west, Inverness-shire to the south, and Banffshire to the east. ... Nairnshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Narann in Gaelic) is a small traditional county of Scotland, centred around Nairn, the traditional county town. ... Peeblesshire (Siorrachd nam Pùballan in Gaelic) is a traditional county in Scotland. ... Perthshire (Siorrachd Pheairt in Gaelic) is a traditional county in central Scotland, which extends from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south. ... Renfrewshire was a county of Scotland until their abolition in 1975. ... Ross and Cromarty: administrative county (1889-1975) Image:RossCromDistrict. ... Roxburghshire (Siorrachd Rosbroig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... Selkirkshire (Siorrachd Shalcraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... Stirlingshire (Siorrachd Sruighlea in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland, based around Stirling, the traditional county town. ... Sutherland (Cataibh in Gaelic) is a traditional county which is now within the Highland local government area of Scotland. ... West Lothian or Linlithgowshire (Lodainn an Iar in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy area. ... Wigtownshire is a small traditional county in the south west of Scotland. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Orkney Islands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2880 words)
Orkney is also a former county, and a Lieutenancy area, and the Orkney constituency of the Scottish Parliament.
Nearly all of the islands possess lochs (lakes), and The Loch of Harray and The Loch of Stenness on "The Mainland" attain noteworthy proportions.
The toponymy of the Orkneys is wholly Norse, and the Norse tongue, at last extinguished by the constant influx of settlers from Scotland, lingered until the end of the 18th century.
South Orkney Islands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (586 words)
The South Orkney Islands are a group of islands in the Southern Ocean.
Interestingly, the South Orkney Islands are located at roughly the same latitude south as the Orkney Islands are north (60°S vs 59°N), although it is not known if this was a factor behind the naming of the islands.
Laurie Island is the easternmost of the islands.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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