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Encyclopedia > Orkney
Orkney
Àrcaibh
Logo Coat of arms
Flag of Orkney Coat of arms
Location
Image:ScotlandOrkneyIslands.png
Geography
Area Ranked 16th
 - Total 990 km²
 - % Water  ?
Admin HQ Kirkwall
ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK
ONS code 00RA
Demographics
Population Ranked 32nd
 - Total (2006) 19,800
 - Density 20 / km²
Scottish Gaelic
 - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}}
Politics
Orkney Islands Council
http://www.orkney.gov.uk/
Control Independent
MPs
MSPs
Scotland

Orkney (also known as the Orkney Islands, Isles of Orkney, or the Orkneys[2]) is an island group in northern Scotland, situated 10 miles north of the coast of Caithness. Orkney comprises over 70 islands; around 20 are inhabited. The largest island, known as the Mainland, has an area of 202 square miles, making it the sixth-largest Scottish island and the ninth-largest island surrounding the island of Great Britain. The largest settlement and administrative centre is Kirkwall. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of Orkney The Flag of the Orkney Islands is that of St Magnus, a yellow field with a red Nordic cross. ... Island council area of Scotland. ... Map of Scotland Although Scotland is a relatively small country, with a land area of 78 772 km², its geography is highly varied, from the rural lowlands, to the barren highlands, and from large cities to uninhabited islands. ... This is a list of council areas of Scotland ordered by area. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... The ISO 3166-2 codes for the United Kingdom correspond to the nations administrative divisions. ... The Office for National Statistics coding system is a hierarchical code used in the United Kingdom for tabulating census and other statistical data. ... This is a list of the council areas of Scotland ordered by population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This is a list of Members of Parliament at the House of Commons in Westminster representing constituencies in Scotland, arranged by party. ... Alistair Morrison Carmichael (born July 15, 1965) is a Liberal Democrat politician, and Member of Parliament for the Scottish seat of Orkney and Shetland. ... The Scottish Parliament is composed of 129 members called Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs) or, in Gaelic, Buill Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPnA). ... Liam McArthur is a Scottish Liberal Democrat politician and Member of the Scottish Parliament for Orkney. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... This is a list of the islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Scottish islands. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ...


Orkney is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, a constituency of the Scottish Parliament, a lieutenancy area, and a former county. The local council is Orkney Islands Council, the only Council in Scotland in which all the elected members are independent. The 32 council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ... Orkney is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament which was created in 1999, at the same time as the parliament. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland are the areas used for the ceremonial lords-lieutenant, the monarchs representatives, in Scotland. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Orkney has been inhabited for at least 5,500 years. Originally inhabited by neolithic tribes and then by the Picts, Orkney was invaded and finally annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse. It was subsequently annexed to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry agreement. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For the ancient tribe that inhabited what is now Scotland, see the Picts. ...


Orkney contains some of the oldest and best preserved Neolithic sites in Europe, and the "Heart of Neolithic Orkney" is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Heart of Neolithic Orkney refers to a group of Neolithic monuments found in the Scottish island of Orkney. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Contents

Origin of the name

The name of the islands is first recorded by the ancient geographer Claudius Ptolemaeus (born AD 90, died AD 168), who called them Orcades. The old Gaelic name for the islands was Insi Orc which means the "Island of the Orcs". An orc is a young pig or boar. When the Norwegian Vikings arrived on the islands they interpreted the word orc to be orkn which is Old Norse for pinnipeds or common seal. The suffix ey means island. Thus the name became Orkneyjar which was shortened to Orkney in English. This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Binomial name bobbi Linnaeus,, 1758 Common or Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) are true seals of the Northern Hemisphere. ...


History

Ring of Brodgar
Ring of Brodgar

// Before the Norse Evidence of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Orkney Islands still exists in numerous weems or underground houses, chambered mounds, barrows or burial mounds, Brochs or round towers, and stone circles and standing stones. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 96 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 96 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ...

Prehistory and Iron Age

A charred hazelnut shell, recovered during the excavations at Longhowe in Tankerness in 2007, has been dated to 6820-6660 BC.[1] Apart from this, the earliest known settlement is at Knap of Howar, a Neolithic farmstead on the island of Papa Westray. It dates from 3,500 BC. The village of Skara Brae, Europe's best preserved Neolithic settlement, is believed to have been inhabited from around 3100 BC. Other remains from that era include the Standing Stones of Stenness, the Maeshowe passage grave, the Ring of Brodgar and other standing stones. Many of the Neolithic settlements were abandoned around 2500 BC due to changes in the climate. At Knap of Howar on the Orkney island of Papa Westray a Neolithic farmstead has been wonderfully well preserved, and is claimed to be the oldest stone house in northern Europe, with radiocarbon dating showing that it was occupied from 3500 BC to 3100 BC, earlier than the very similar... Papa Westray shown within Orkney Islands Papa Westray, also known as Papay, is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around sixty people. ... (37th century BC - 36th century BC - 35th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Sumeria Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Domestication of the chicken Categories: Centuries | 36th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... (32nd century BC – 31st century BC – 30th century BC – other centuries) (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC) Events 3000 BC – Menes unifies Upper and Lower Egypt, and a new capital is erected at Memphis. ... The Stenness Watch Stone stands next to the modern bridge leading to the Ring of Brodgar. ... Maeshowe Maeshowe Entrance Maeshowe (or Maes Howe) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney, Scotland. ... A passage tomb near the town of Sligo in Ireland A Passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or Passage tomb is a tomb, usually dating to the Neolithic, where the burial chamber is reached along a distinct, and usually low, passage. ... The Ring of Brodgar The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar) is a Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ...


The Iron Age inhabitants were Picts, evidence of whose occupation still exists in "weems" or underground houses, and "brochs" or round towers. If, as seems likely, the Dalriadic Gaels established a footing in the islands towards the beginning of the 6th century, their success was short-lived, and the Picts regained power and kept it until dispossessed by the Norsemen in the 9th century. In the wake of the Scots, incursionists followed the Celtic missionaries about 565. They were companions of Saint Columba and their efforts to convert the folk to Christianity seem to have impressed the popular imagination, for several islands bear the epithet "Papa" in commemoration of the preachers. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... A dugout or dug-out, also known as an earth-house or mud hut, is a shelter for humans or domestic animals based on a hole or depression dug into the ground. ... Dun Carloway broch, Lewis, Scotland The Broch is an Iron Age dry stone structure of a type which is only found in Scotland. ... Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Goidelic kingdom on the western seaboard of Scotland and the northern coasts of Ireland, situated in the traditional Scottish and Northern Irish counties of Argyll, Bute and County Antrim. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx (the inhabitants of the British... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... A separate article is titled Columba (constellation). ...


Anglo-Saxon settlement

There is linguistic and documentary evidence that Anglo-Saxons settled in Orkney at least a century before they colonised what is now England, but being a minority group they were ultimately subsumed into the Norwegian population (see below). So among the already rich ethnic heritage of every Orcadian (George Mackay-Brown’s “fine mixter-maxter”) can now be counted a few early English genes. Orcadians are descended from the very earliest English inhabitants of the British Isles. [2]


Norwegian rule

Harald Hårfagre took control over Orkney in 875
Harald Hårfagre took control over Orkney in 875

Orkney and Shetland saw a significant influx of Norwegian settlers towards the end of the 8th century and first half of the 9th century. This was due to the overpopulation of Norway in comparison to the resources and arable land available there at the time. History once held that the Norwegians largely replaced the original population on the islands, the Picts, though contemporary DNA studies refute this, suggesting instead a slight majority of aboriginal Pictish genes. The nature of the shift in population is the subject of differing theories as little hard evidence remains. These theories range from complete genocide to intermarriage and cultural domination through a gradual majority dominance. According to Dr. Jim Wilson, an Edinburgh scientist with a company named EthnoAncestry, archaeogenetic evidence suggests that "Vikings, who colonised Orkney, did so by eradicating nearly every male member of its Pictish population" (Observer, Dec. 31, 2006). Image File history File links King Haraldr hárfagri receives the kingdom out of his fathers hands. ... Image File history File links King Haraldr hárfagri receives the kingdom out of his fathers hands. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ...


Vikings having made the islands the headquarters of their buccaneering expeditions (carried out indifferently against their own Norway and the coasts and isles of Scotland), Harald Hårfagre ("Harald Fair Hair") subdued the rovers in 875 and annexed both Orkney and Shetland to Norway. Ragnvald, Earl of Møre received Orkney and Shetland as an earldom from the king as reparation for his son being killed in battle in Scotland. Ragnvald gave the earldom on to his brother Sigurd the Mighty. Eirik Bloodaxe followed his father on the throne, but when his half-brother Håkon the Good returned to Norway from England Eirik's support disappeared and he fled the country. He was given Nordimbraland (Northumberland) as a fief by King Athelstan of England and settled in Jorvik (York), but was expelled by Athelstan's brother Edmund in 941 because of his raids in Ireland and Brittany. Eirik fled to Orkney and lived there until he was killed in the Battle of Stainmore in England in 954. His sons continued to live on Orkney and challenged Håkon the Good's rule of Norway several times under the leadership of Harald Greyhide. The sons of Eirik eventually gained control of Norway. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse: Haraldr hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald HÃ¥rfagre), (c. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Ragnvald Eysteinsson, The Wise (830-890) (Old Norse: Rögnvaldr Mærajarl), Earl of Sunnmøre, Nordmøre and Romsdal, was born in Maer Nord-Trøndelag, Norway and died at the Orkney Islands. ... The Earl of Orkney was originally a Norse jarl ruling Orkney, Shetland and parts of Caithness and Sutherland. ... Eirik Bloodaxe (Old Norse:Eiríkr blóðöx, Icelandic:Eiríkur blóðöx, Norwegian:Eirik Blodøks) (cirka 885 – 954), was the second king of Norway (930-934) and the eldest son of his father Harald Fairhair. ... Haakon I (ca. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... Harald II (-976), surnamed Gråfell (Norwegian) / Graafeld (Danish) / Greyhide (English), was the son of Eric Bloodaxe and a grandson of Harald Finehair. ...

Olav Tryggvason Christianized Orkney. Painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo
Olav Tryggvason Christianized Orkney. Painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo

The islands were Christianized by Olav Tryggvasson in 995 when he stopped in the islands on his way from Ireland to Norway. The King summoned Sigurd jarl (Earl Sigurd) and ordered him to let himself be baptised in the Christian faith. Sigurd was unwilling, but gave in when the King threatened to kill his son Hvelp. The islands received their own bishop in the early 1000's. From 1153 to 1472 the Kirkjuvåg bishopric was subordinate to the bishop of Nidaros (today's Trondheim). Image File history File links Painting by Norwegian artist Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831-1892). ... Image File history File links Painting by Norwegian artist Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831-1892). ... Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892) was a Norwegian painter, who specialized in painting historical motifs and images from Norse mythology. ... Olaf Tryggvason (Old Norse: Óláfr Tryggvason, Norwegian: Olav Tryggvason), (960s-September 9? 1000), was King of Norway from 995 to 1000. ... Nidaros was the old name of Trondheim, Norway, in the middle ages. ... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ...


The martyrdom of Earl Magnus resulted in the building of St. Magnus' Cathedral in Kirkwall. The islands remained under the rule of Norse earls until 1231, when the line of the jarls became extinct. In that year, the Earldom of Caithness was granted to Magnus, second son of the Earl of Angus, whom the king of Norway apparently confirmed in the title. Recent studies from the field of population genetics reveal a significant percentage of Norse ethnic heritage — up to one third of the Y chromosomes on the islands are derived from western Norwegian sources, whereas in Shetland over half the male lineage is Norse. Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Statue of St. ... St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall dominates the skyline of Kirkwall, the main town of Orkney, a group of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... The title Earl of Caithness has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland, and has a very complex history. ... The title of Earl of Angus is an ancient one in the Peerage of Scotland, currently held by the Duke of Hamilton. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... This article is about the general scientific term. ... ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) St Magnus - quite old . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) St Magnus - quite old . ... St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall dominates the skyline of Kirkwall, the main town of Orkney, a group of islands off the north coast of Scotland. ...

The Norðr-eyjar

Likewise a Norse kingdom, The Kingdom of Mann and the Isles existed in the British Isles from 1079 till 1266. In 1164 it was split into the Kingdom of the Hebrides (Sodor) and the Kingdom of Mann. The Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was a Norse kingdom that existed in the British Isles from 1079 till 1266. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... The Kingdom of Mann and the Isles was a Norse kingdom that existed in the British Isles between 1079 and 1266. ...


Sodor (Suðr-eyjar), or the South Isles, was given in contradistinction to Nordr (Norðr-eyjar), or the North Isles, i. e. the Orkneys and Shetlands, and it included the Hebrides, all the smaller Western Isles of Scotland, and Mann. (ð is pronounced th as in father). (Ref. to Manxnotebook) Even today, the Bishop of the Isle of Man is the Bishop of Sodor and Mann Sodor and Man is a diocese of the Church of England. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ...


Scottish rule

James III and Margaret, their betrothal led to Orkney passing from Norway to Scotland
James III and Margaret, their betrothal led to Orkney passing from Norway to Scotland

In 1468, Orkney and Shetland were pledged by Christian I, in his capacity as king of Norway, as security against the payment of the dowry of his daughter Margaret, betrothed to James III of Scotland.[3] The cash dowry was never paid, so the islands were forfeited to the Crown of Scotland. In 1471, James bestowed the castle and lands of Ravenscraig, in Fife, on William, Earl of Orkney, in exchange for all his rights to the Earldom of Orkney, which, by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland, passed on February 20, 1472, was annexed to the Scottish Crown. Image File history File links James_III_and_Margaret_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links James_III_and_Margaret_of_Denmark. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ... Pledge is a verb, meaning to promise solemnly, and a noun, meaning the promise or its maker or its object. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the family of the bride to the family of the groom at the time of their marriage. ... Margaret of Denmark (June 23, 1456 - before July 14, 1486) was the daughter of King Christian I of Denmark (1448-81), Norway (1450-81), and Sweden (1457-64), and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... The list of monarchs of Scotland concerns the Kingdom of Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, 3rd Earl of Orkney(until 1470), Baron of Roslin (1410-1484) was a Scottish nobleman and the builder of Rosslyn Chapel. ... The Orkney Isles, along with the Shetland Isles to their immediate north, lie off the northernmost tip of Caithness Scotland. ... List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament to 1707 is a list of Acts of Parliament of the Parliament of Scotland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ...


Modern Orkney

Orkney was the site of a major Royal Navy base at Scapa Flow, which played a major role in both World War I and II. After the Armistice in 1918, the German High Seas Fleet was transferred in its entirety to Scapa Flow while a decision was to be made on its future; however, the German sailors opened their sea-cocks and scuttled all the ships. Most ships were salvaged, but the remaining wrecks are now a favoured haunt of recreational divers. One month into World War II, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Royal Oak was sunk by a German U-boat in Scapa Flow. As a result barriers were built to close most of the access channels; these had the additional advantage of creating causeways whereby travellers can go from island to island by road instead of being obliged to rely on boats. The causeways were constructed by Italian prisoners of war, who also constructed the ornate Italian Chapel. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... It has been suggested that Gutter Sound be merged into this article or section. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the British Royal Navy, torpedoed in Scapa Flow by the German submarine U-47 on 14 October 1939. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The Churchill Barriers are a series of four causeways in the Orkney Islands, with a total length of 2. ... The Italian Chapel on Lamb Holm in Orkney, Scotland was built by Italian prisoners of war during World War II. The prisoners were stationed on the island between 1942 and 1945 to help in construction of the Churchill Barriers. ...


Islands

The Mainland

Main article: The Mainland, Orkney
Stromness, on the Mainland is the 2nd largest settlement on Orkney
Stromness, on the Mainland is the 2nd largest settlement on Orkney

The Mainland is the largest island of Orkney. Both of Orkney's burghs, Kirkwall and Stromness, are on this island, which is also the heart of Orkney's transportation system, with ferry and air connections to the other islands and to the outside world. The island is more densely populated (75% of Orkney's population) than the other islands and has much fertile farmland. The name Mainland is a corruption of the Old Norse 'Meginland'. The Mainland, Orkney shown within The Orkney Islands The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... Image File history File links StromnessJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links StromnessJM.jpg Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Stromness is the second-largest town in the Orkney Islands and is located on the southwestern edge of the mainland of Orkney. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... Stromness is the second-largest town in the Orkney Islands and is located on the southwestern edge of the mainland of Orkney. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Modern arable agriculture typically uses large fields like this one in Dorset, England. ...


Kirkwall lies on a narrow strip of land between West Mainland (the major portion) and East Mainland. The island is mostly low-lying (especially East Mainland), but with coastal cliffs to the north and west and two sizeable lochs. Mainland contains the remnants of numerous Neolithic, Pictish and Viking constructions. The Neolithic constructions include two major stone circles; Standing Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brodgar; several cairns, most notably Maeshowe; and a stone-built settlement Skara Brae. “Precipice” redirects here. ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Stenness Watch Stone stands next to the modern bridge leading to the Ring of Brodgar. ... The Ring of Brodgar The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar) is a Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland. ... Maeshowe Maeshowe Entrance Maeshowe (or Maes Howe) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney, Scotland. ... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ...


With two exceptions, the other islands in the group are classified as north or south of the Mainland. The exceptions are the remote islets of Sule Skerry and Sule Stack, which lie 60 km west of the archipelago, but officially form part of Orkney. Sule Skerry is an extremely remote skerry in the North Atlantic off the north coast of Scotland. ... Sule Stack or Stack Skerry are extremely remote volcanic stack in the North Atlantic off the north coast of Scotland. ...


The North Isles

The northern group of islands is the most extensive and consists of a large number of moderately sized islands, linked to the Mainland by ferries. Most of the islands described as "holms" are very small. Holm may refer to several villages in Romania: Holm, a village in the town of Podu Iloaiei, Iaşi County Holm, a village in Pânceşti Commune, Neamţ County Holm may also refer to: Holm, a small residential area in the south of the city of Inverness, Scotland Category...


Inhabited islands

  • Auskerry is south of Stronsay and has a population of 5 (2001 census). It has been designated a Special Protection Area due to its importance as a nesting area for Arctic Tern and Storm Petrel.
  • Eday extends to 11 sq miles; it is the 9th largest island. The centre is moorland and the island's main industries have been peat extraction and limestone quarrying. It is connected to the Mainland by ferry (Backaland to Kirkwall) and air.
  • Egilsay lies east of Rousay. It is largely farmland and is known for its corncrakes, although none have been seen for a number of years, and for the only surviving, but roofless, round-towered church in Orkney. It is connected indirectly with the Mainland by ferry via Wyre and Rousay. St Magnus is said to have been executed on Egilsay.
  • Gairsay is inhabited by one family, who issue their own postage stamps (permitted due to the lack of a Royal Mail service).
  • North Ronaldsay lies 4 km north of its nearest neighbour, Sanday. Its climate is changeable and frequently inclement, with the surrounding waters being stormy and treacherous. Of significance are a bird observatory, Britain's tallest land based lighthouse tower and an unusual dry stane dyke along the shoreline built to keep the seaweed eating North Ronaldsay sheep off of the arable land. It is connected to the Mainland by air and ferry.
  • Papa Stronsay lies north east of Stronsay. A fertile island, it was once an important centre for herring curing, but was abandoned in the 1970s. It is has been home to a Transalpine Redemptorist monastery (called Golgotha monastery) since 1999.
  • Papa Westray, also known as Papay, has a population of 70. Of significance are an RSPB nature reserve (terns and skuas), the Knap of Howar (probably the oldest preserved house in northern Europe), a 12th century recently restored church (St Boniface Kirk) and other neolithic and Viking remains. It is connected to Westray and the Mainland by air and ferry.
  • Rousay is the joint 3rd largest (19 sq miles) island about 3 km north of Orkney's Mainland. In the 2001 census, it had a population of 212. Farming, fishing, fish-farming, craft and tourism provide most of the income. There is one circular road round the island, about 14 miles long, and most arable land lies in the few hundred yards between this and the coastline. Seals and otters can be found as can many remains of past occupation.
  • Sanday is the largest of the North Isles, with a population of approximately 500. As with most other Orkney islands, farming, fishing and tourism are the main sources of income. Attractions include the 5,000-year-old Quoyness chambered cairn.
  • Shapinsay is the 8th largest island at 12 sq mile. It is connected to the Mainland by ferry (Balfour to Kirkwall). Shapinsay is known for the Iron Age Broch of Burroughston and the Dishan Tower, sea caves and cliffs, and for birds including pintail, wigeon and shovelers, and Balfour Castle.
  • Stronsay has a population of 343 and is the 7th largest island. Its main village is Whitehall.
  • Westray has a population of 550 and is the 6th largest island. It is connected by ferry and air to Mainland and Papa Westray.
  • Wyre lies south-east of Rousay and has a population of about 18. Cubbie Roo's castle (1150) is possibly the oldest castle in Scotland.

Auskerry (Old Norse: Austrsker) is a small island at the east of the Orkney island group. ... Eday shown within Orkney Islands Eday is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Egilsay shown within Orkney Islands Egilsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying east of Rousay. ... Gairsay shown within Orkney Islands Gairsay is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... North Ronaldsay is the northernmost of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... Papa Stronsay shown within Orkney Islands Papa Stronsay is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying north east of Stronsay. ... Papa Westray shown within Orkney Islands Papa Westray, also known as Papay, is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around sixty people. ... Rousay shown within Orkney Islands Rousay (from Old Norse Hrólfs-øy meaning Rolfs Island) is a small but hilly island about 3 km (2 mi) off the north side of Orkneys Mainland, which has been nicknamed the Egypt of the north due to its tremendous archaeological diversity... Sanday shown within Orkney Islands Sanday is one of the inhabited islands in the Orkney Islands group off the northern coast of Scotland. ... A chambered cairn is a burial monument, usually constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a cairn of stones inside which a sizeable (usually stone) chamber was constructed. ... Shapinsay shown within Orkney Islands Shapinsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Stronsay is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Whitehall is the village on the island of Stronsay, in the Orkney Islands of Scotland. ... Westray shown within Orkney Islands Westray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around 700 people. ... Wyre shown within Orkney Islands Wyre is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying south east of Rousay. ...

Others

Calf of Eday, Damsay, Eynhallow, Faray, Helliar Holm, Holm of Faray, Holm of Huip, Holm of Papa, Holm of Scockness, Kili Holm, Linga Holm, Muckle Green Holm, Rusk Holm, Sweyn Holm Categories: Stub | Orkney Islands ... Damsay is an island in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland. ... Eynhallow is a small island, part of the Orkney Islands Scotland. ... Faray is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying between Eday and Westray. ... Saeva Ness lighthouse on the tip of Helliar Holm Helliar Holm is an uninhabited island off the coast of Shapinsay in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... The Holm of Faray is a small island in the Orkneys, near Faray and Westray, which it lies between. ... The Holm of Huip is a small island in the Orkneys, in Spurness Sound to the north west of Stronsay. ... The Holm of Papa is a very small uninhabited island of the Orkney islands. ... The Holm of Scockness is a small island in the Orkneys, between Rousay and Egilsay. ... Kili Holm is a tidal island in the Orkneys, linked to Egilsay. ... Linga Holm is a tiny uninhabited island (roughly extending to 57ha or 141 acres) situated west of the island of Stronsay. ... Muckle Green Holm is an uninhabited island in the North Isles of the Orkney archipelago in Scotland. ... Rusk Holm is a small island in the Orkneys, near Faray to the west. ... Sweyn Holm is a small island in the Orkneys, next to Gairsay. ...


The South Isles

The southern group of islands surrounds Scapa Flow. Hoy is the highest of the Orkney Isles, while South Ronaldsay, Burray and Lamb Holm are linked to the Mainland by the Churchill Barriers. The Pentland Skerries lie further south, close to the Scottish mainland. It has been suggested that Gutter Sound be merged into this article or section. ... The Churchill Barriers are a series of four causeways in the Orkney Islands, with a total length of 2. ... The Pentland Skerries are a group of four uninhabited islands lying in the Pentland Firth, north east of Duncansby Head and south of South Ronaldsay in Scotland. ...


Inhabited islands

Hoy Lighthouse on Graemsay
Hoy Lighthouse on Graemsay
  • Burray lies to the east of Scapa Flow and is linked by causesway to Glimps Holm and South Ronaldsay. It is home to the Orkney Fossil Museum and has a population of 357 (2001 census).
  • Flotta is known for its large oil terminal and is linked by ferry to Houton across the Scapa Flow on the Mainland, and to Lyness and Longhope on Hoy. During the both World Wars the island was home to a naval base.
  • Graemsay has a population of around 30. Birds include oystercatchers, ringed plovers, redshank and curlew. it is linked by ferry to Stromness on the Mainland and Moaness on Hoy.
  • Hoy with an area of 55 square miles is the second largest island. Significant features are the highest vertical sea-cliffs in the UK, the Old Man of Hoy, the most northerly surviving natural woodland in the British Isles, the most northerly Martello Towers, the highest point in Orkney, the main naval base for Scapa Flow in both World Wars, an unusual rock-cut tomb and an RSPB reserve (skuas and red-throated divers)
  • South Ronaldsay is linked by causeway to Burray. With an area of 19 sq miles it is the joint third largest island. Of significance are Boys' Ploughing Match, the Tomb of the Eagles (neolithic). It is connected by ferry to the Scottish mainland (Burwick to John o' Groats and St. Margaret's Hope to Gills Bay).
  • South Walls has a population of 120 and is sometimes considered to be part of Hoy, to which it is linked by the Ayre. It forms the south side of Longhope harbour.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (575x768, 52 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Orkney Graemsay User:Richard Harvey/Photo Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (575x768, 52 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Orkney Graemsay User:Richard Harvey/Photo Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Hoy High lighthouse Graemsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland with a population of around twenty people. ... Burray shown within Orkney Islands Burray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Flotta shown within Orkney Islands Flotta is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying in Scapa Flow. ... Graemsay shown within Orkney Islands Graemsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland with a population of around thirty people. ... Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... The Old Man of Hoy, seen from the south The Old Man of Hoy is a 137 metre (450 ft) sea stack of red sandstone perched on a plinth of igneous basalt, close to Rackwick Bay on the west coast of the island of Hoy, in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... South Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... South Walls is an inhabited island adjacent to Hoy in Orkney, Scotland. ...

Others

Calf of Flotta, Cava, Copinsay, Corn Holm, Fara, Glims Holm, Hunda, Lamb Holm (home of the Italian Chapel), Rysa Little, Switha, Swona The Calf of Flotta is a small island in the Orkneys, next to Flotta. ... Looking north west from Cava: Graemsay and Mainland are in the background Cava is an uninhabited island in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland. ... Copinsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying off the east coast of the Orkney Mainland. ... Corn Holm is a small tidal island in the Orkneys, near Copinsay to the west. ... Fara is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying between Flotta and Hoy. ... Glims Holm (OS: Glimps Holm) is a small uninhabited islet in Orkney, Scotland. ... Hunda is an uninhabited island in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland. ... Lamb Holm is a small island in Orkney, Scotland. ... The Italian Chapel on Lamb Holm in Orkney, Scotland was built by Italian prisoners of war during World War II. The prisoners were stationed on the island between 1942 and 1945 to help in construction of the Churchill Barriers. ... Rysa Little is an uninhabited island in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland. ... Switha is a small island in Orkney, Scotland south of Flotta, used for grazing sheep. ... Swona, viewed from South Ronaldsay. ...


Politics

Orkney is represented in the House of Commons as part of the Orkney and Shetland constituency, which elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election. The current MP is Alistair Carmichael of the Liberal Democrats. Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Orkney and Shetland is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Alistair Morrison Carmichael (born July 15, 1965) is a Liberal Democrat politician, and Member of Parliament for the Scottish seat of Orkney and Shetland. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ...


In the Scottish Parliament the Orkney constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system. The current MSP is Liam McArthur of the Liberal Democrats. Before McArthur the MSP was Jim Wallace, who was previously Deputy First Minister. Orkney is within the Highlands and Islands electoral region. For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Orkney is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament which was created in 1999, at the same time as the parliament. ... Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament. ... Liam McArthur is a Scottish Liberal Democrat politician and Member of the Scottish Parliament for Orkney. ... The Right Honourable Jim Wallace QC (born August 25, 1954 in Annan, Dumfries and Galloway) is a Scottish politician, first leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, first Deputy First Minister of the Scottish Executive, and and Member of the Scottish Parliament for Orkney. ... The Deputy First Minister of Scotland is, as the name suggests, the Deputy to the First Minister of Scotland. ... The Highlands and Islands is one of the eight electoral areas for the Scottish Parliament through which 7 of the 56 Additional Members System MSPs are elected. ... The Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) has 73 constituencies, each electing one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and eight additional member regions, each electing seven additional member MSPs. ...


Orkney Islands Council consists of 21 members, all of whom are independent, that is they are not members of a political party.


A political party, the Orkney Movement, exists which supports devolution for Orkney from the rest of Scotland. The Orkney and Shetland Movement (a coalition of the Orkney movement and its equivalent for Shetland) stood for election in the 1987 UK general election, coming in 4th place. The Orkney and Shetland Movement was an electoral coalition formed for the 1987 UK general election. ... (Redirected from 1987 UK general election) The general election of June 11, 1987 was the third victory in a row for Margaret Thatcher and the Conservatives. ...


Geography

Orkney Aerial photomap
Orkney Aerial photomap

The Pentland Firth is a seaway which separates Orkney from the mainland of Scotland. The firth is 11 km wide between Brough Ness on the island of South Ronaldsay and Duncansby Head in Caithness. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (859x996, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Orkney ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (859x996, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Orkney ... The Pentland Firth, which is actually more of a strait than a firth, separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness, which is in the far north of the Highland area of Scotland. ... South Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Duncansby Head ( , grid reference ND405733) is one of the most northerly parts of the Scottish mainland, and is near John O Groats, Caithness, Highland. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ...


Orkney lies between 58° 41' and 59° 24' North, and 2° 22' and 3° 26' West, measuring 80 km from northeast to southwest and 47 km from east to west, and covers 973 km². Except for some sharply rising sandstone hills and rugged cliffs on the west of the larger ones, the islands are mainly lowlying.


The hilliest island is Hoy; the highest point in Orkney, Ward Hill, is to be found there. The only other islands containing heights of any importance are the Mainland, with (another) Ward Hill (268 m) and Wideford Hill; and Rousay. Nearly all of the islands possess lochs (lakes): The Loch of Harray and The Loch of Stenness on the Mainland attain noteworthy proportions. The rivers are merely streams draining the high land. Excepting on the west fronts of the Mainland, Hoy and Rousay, the coastline of the islands is deeply indented, and the islands themselves are divided from each other by straits generally called "sounds" or "firths". However, off the northeast of Hoy the designation "Bring Deeps" is used. South of the Mainland is Scapa Flow and to the southwest of Eday is found the Fall of Warness. Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... Ward Hill, on the island of Hoy, is the highest hill in the Orkney Islands. ... It has been suggested that Gutter Sound be merged into this article or section. ...


The names of the islands indicate their nature: the terminal "a" or "ay" represents the Norse ey, meaning "island". The islets are usually styled "holms" and the isolated rocks "skerries".


The tidal currents, or races, or "roosts" (as some of them are called locally, from the Icelandic) off many of the isles run with high velocity, and whirlpools are of frequent occurrence, occasionally strong enough to prove a source of danger to small craft.


The islands are notable for the absence of trees, which is partly accounted for by the amount of wind (although the climate in general is temperate). The formation of peat is evidence that this was not always the case, and deliberate deforestation is believed to have taken place at some stage prior to the Neolithic, the use of stone in settlements such as Skara Brae being evidence of the lack of availability of timber for building. Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ...


Most of the land is taken up by farms, and agriculture is by far the most important sector of the economy, with fishing also being a major occupation. Orkney exports beef, cheese, whisky, beer, fish and seafood. For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ...


Geology

The Old Man of Hoy
The Old Man of Hoy

The superficial rock is almost entirely Old Red Sandstone. As in the neighbouring mainland county of Caithness, these rocks rest upon the metamorphic rocks of the eastern schists, as may be seen on Mainland, where a narrow strip is exposed between Stromness and Inganess, and again in the small island of Graemsay; they are represented by grey gneiss and granite. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 62 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 62 KB) Summary Taken and donated by John Mullen www. ... Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... The Old Red Sandstone is a rock formation of considerable importance to early paleontology. ... Caithness (Gallaibh in Gaelic)[1] is a committee area of Highland Council, Scotland; a lieutenancy area; and a registration county, Caithness was formerly a district within the Highland region from 1975 to 1996 and a local government county with its own county council from 1890 to 1975. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks, which most commonly forms on ancient seabeds. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ...


The upper division of the Old Red Sandstone is found only on Hoy, where it forms the Old Man of Hoy and neighbouring cliffs on the northwest coast. The Old Man of Hoy presents a characteristic section, for it exhibits a thick pile of massive, current-bedded red sandstones resting upon a thin bed of amygdaloidal porphyrite near the foot of the pinnacle. This, in its turn, lies unconformably upon steeply inclined flagstones. This bed of volcanic rock may be followed northward in the cliffs, and it may be noticed that it thickens considerably in that direction. The Old Man of Hoy, seen from the south The Old Man of Hoy is a 137 metre (450 ft) sea stack of red sandstone perched on a plinth of igneous basalt, close to Rackwick Bay on the west coast of the island of Hoy, in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ...


The Lower Old Red Sandstone is represented by well-bedded flagstones over most of the islands; in the south of the Mainland these are faulted against an overlying series of massive red sandstones, but a gradual passage from the flagstones to the sandstones may be followed from Westray southeastwards into Eday. A strong synclinal fold traverses Eday and Shapinsay, the axis being North and South. Near Haco's Ness in Shapinsay there is a small exposure of amygdaloidal diabase, which is older than that on Hoy. Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dolerite. ...


Many indications of ice action are found on these islands; striated surfaces are to be seen on the cliffs in Eday and Westray, in Kirkwall Bay and on Stennie Hill in Eday; boulder clay, with marine shells, and with many boulders of rocks foreign to the islands (chalk, oolitic limestone, flint, etc), which must have been brought up from the region of Moray Firth, rests upon the old strata in many places. Local moraines are found in some of the valleys in Mainland and Hoy. For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... This article is about geological phenomena. ...


Subdivisions

Orkney is subdivided into 21 parishes or wards that have no more administrative significance but are used for statistical purposes [3]: This is a list of the 871 civil parishes in Scotland. ... A ward in the United Kingdom is an electoral district represented by one or more councillors. ...

  1. Pickaquoy
  2. Berstane and Work
  3. Warrenfield
  4. Lynnfield
  5. Brandyquoy
  6. Papdale
  7. Scapa and Kirkwall South West
  8. Shapinsay and Kirkwall Harbour
  9. Stromness North
  10. Stromness South, Graemsay and North Hoy
  11. Orphir, Walls and Flotta
  12. Firth and Sunnybrae
  13. Harray and Stenness
  14. Evie, Rendall, Rousay, Egilsay and Wyre
  15. Birsay and Dounby
  16. Sandwick and Stromness Landward
  17. St Andrew's Deerness and Wideford
  18. Holm and Burray
  19. South Ronaldsay
  20. Sanday, North Ronaldsay and Stronsay
  21. Papa Westray, Westray and Eday

Climate

The climate is remarkably temperate and steady for such a northerly latitude. The average temperature for the year is 8 °C (46 °F), for winter 4 °C (39 °F) and for summer 12 °C (54 °F).


The average annual rainfall varies from 850 mm (33 in.) to 940 mm (37 in.). Fogs occur during summer and early autumn, and furious gales may be expected four or five times in the year.


To tourists, one of the fascinations of the islands is their nightless summers. On the longest day, the sun rises at 03:00 and sets at 21:25 (both GMT)— and darkness is unknown. It is possible to read at midnight and very few stars can be seen in the night sky. Winter, however, is long. On the shortest day the sun rises at 09:10 and sets at 15:17.


The soil generally is a sandy loam or a strong but friable clay, and very fertile. Large quantities of seaweed as well as lime and marl are available for manure. Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ...


Economy

The woollen trade once promised to reach considerable dimensions, but towards the end of the 18th century was superseded by the linen (for which flax came to be largely grown); and when this in turn collapsed before the products of the mills of Dundee, Dunfermline and Glasgow, straw-plaiting was taken up, though only to be killed in due time by the competition of the south. The kelp industry was formerly of at least minor importance. For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... STRAW and STRAW MANUFACTURES. Straw (from strew, as being used for strewing), is the general term applied to the stalky residue of grain-plants (especially wheat, rye, oats, barley). ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


For several centuries the Dutch practically monopolised the herring fishery, but when their supremacy was destroyed by the salt duty, the Orcadians failed to seize the opportunity thus presented, and George Barry (died 1805) recorded that in his day the fisheries were almost totally neglected. The industry, however, revived, concentrating on herring, cod and ling, but also catching lobsters and crabs. Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... Ling may refer to: Several species of fish: Burbot, Lota lota. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ...


In the 17th century, Orcadians formed the overwhelming majority of employees of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada. The harsh climate of the Orkneys and the Orcadian reputation for sobriety made them ideal candidates for the rigours of the Canadian north. Today, many of the Métis people of western Canada trace their history to the Orkneys. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ...


In recent years, the Orkney economy has seen growth in areas other than the traditional agriculture, livestock farming, and fishing. These include tourism; food and beverage manufacture; jewellery, knitwear, and other crafts production; construction; and oil transportation through the Flotta oil terminal. Public services also play a significant role. Flotta shown within Orkney Islands Flotta is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying in Scapa Flow. ...


Orkney has signficant wind, and marine energy resources and renewable energy has recently come into prominence. The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) is a new Scottish Executive-backed research facility that has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[4] At the official opening of the Eday project the site was described as "the first of its kind in the world set up to provide developers of wave and tidal energy devices with a purpose-built performance testing facility.".[5] Funding for the UK's first wave farm was announced by the Scottish Executive in 2007. It will be the world's largest, with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines at a cost of over £4 million.[6] During 2007 Scottish and Southern Energy plc in conjunction with the University of Strathclyde began the implementation of a 'Regional Power Zone' in the Orkney archipelago. This ground-breaking scheme (that may be the first of it's kind in the world) involves 'active network management' that will make better use of the existing infrastructure and allow a further 15MW of new 'non-firm generation' output from renewables onto the network.[7][8] Wind, wave and tide make up more than 80% of Scotlands renewable energy potential. ... The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) is a new Scottish Government-backed research facility based in Stromness, Orkney that has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday. ... Eday shown within Orkney Islands Eday is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Pelamis machine pointing into the waves: it attenuates the waves, gathering more energy than its narrow profile suggests. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is an emerging technology that will use the motion of ocean waves to create electricity. ... The University of Strathclyde (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a university in Glasgow, Scotland. ...


Transport

Air

The main airport in Orkney is Kirkwall Airport, operated by Highland and Islands Airports. Loganair, a franchise of British Airways provides services to the Scottish Mainland (Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, and Wick), as well as to Sumburgh Airport in Shetland. Kirkwall Airport (IATA: KOI, ICAO: EGPA) is the main airport serving the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Corporate Logo Highlands and Islands Airports Limited (HIAL) is the company that owns and operates 10 airports in the Scottish Highlands, the Northern Isles and the Western Isles. ... Loganair is an airline based at Glasgow International Airport (GLA) in Scotland. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... For the airport in Aberdeen, South Dakota, see Aberdeen Regional Airport. ... Edinburgh Airport (IATA: EDI, ICAO: EGPH) is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and, in 2007, was the second busiest airport in Scotland and the ninth-busiest airport in the UK by passengers and the fifth busiest in the UK by aircraft movments. ... Glasgow International Airport (Scottish Gaelic: ) (IATA: GLA, ICAO: EGPF) (formerly Glasgow Abbotsinch Airport) is located 8 miles (13 km) west of Glasgow city centre, near the towns of Paisley and Renfrew in Renfrewshire, Scotland. ... Inverness Airport (IATA: INV, ICAO: EGPE) is situated at Dalcross, 9 miles (15 km) east of the city of Inverness in the Scottish Highlands. ... Wick Airport (IATA: WIC, ICAO: EGPC) is located near the town of Wick in Caithness at the northern extremity of the mainland of Scotland. ... Sumburgh Airport is the main airport serving Shetland in Scotland. ...


Within Orkney, the council operates airfields on most of the larger islands including Stronsay, Eday, North Ronaldsay, Westray, Papa Westray, and Sanday. The shortest scheduled air service in the world, between the islands of Westray and Papa Westray, is scheduled at two minutes duration but can take less than one minute if the wind is in the right direction. SOY can also refer to the soybean. ... Eday Airport (IATA: N/A, ICAO: EGED) is located on Eday, Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... North Ronaldsay Airport (IATA: NRL, ICAO: EGEN) is located 28 nautical miles (51. ... Westray Airport (WRY) is an airport located in Aikerness, Orkney Islands. ... Papa Westray Airport (IATA: PPW, ICAO: EGEP) is located 22 nautical miles (40. ... Sanday Airport (IATA: NDY, ICAO: EGES) is located 20 nautical miles (37. ...


Ferry

Ferries serve both to link Orkney to the rest of Scotland, and also to link together the various islands of the Orkney archipelago. Ferry services operate between Orkney and the Scottish Mainland and Shetland on the following routes:

Inter-island ferry services connect all the inhabited islands to Orkney Mainland, and are operated by Orkney Ferries, a company owned by Orkney Islands Council. Lerwick is the only town and main port of the Shetland Islands, found more than 100 miles off the north coast of Scotland. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... Northlink Ferries operates daily ferries from Aberdeen and Scrabster on the Scottish mainland, to the northern island groups of Orkney and Shetland. ... This article is about the Scottish city. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... Thurso is a small town in Caithness on the north coast of Scotland. ... Stromness is the second-largest town in the Orkney Islands and is located on the southwestern edge of the mainland of Orkney. ... The Pentland Firth, which is actually more of a strait than a firth, separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness, which is in the far north of the Highland area of Scotland. ... , St Margarets Hope, known locally as The Hope, is a village in the Orkney Islands, situated off the north-east coast of Scotland. ... Pentland Ferries operate a daily ferry service between Gills Bay in Caithness, Scotland about 3mls West of John o Groats, and St Margarets Hope on South Ronaldsay in Orkney. ... John o Groats (Taigh Iain Ghròt in Scottish Gaelic) (grid reference ND380734) is a village in the traditional county of Caithness, in the Highland council area of Scotland, and is usually regarded as the most northerly settlement on the mainland of Great Britain. ... , Burwick is a village in Shetland, Scotland. ... South Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Orkney Ferries operates the inter-island ferry services that link together the various islands of the Orkney Islands, to the north of the Scottish mainland in the United Kingdom. ...


Road

There are ideas being discussed to build an undersea tunnel between Orkney and the Scottish Mainland, at a length of about 9-10 miles (15-16 km) or (more likely) one connecting Orkney Mainland to Shapinsay.[9][10]


Media

The commercial stations, MFR Moray Firth Radio and Northsound 2 can also be heard on parts of the islands, with poor reception. The Orcadian is the oldest Orkney newspaper, first published in 1854. ... BBC Radio Orkney is a radio station based in Kirkwall, Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... BBC Radio Scotland is BBC Scotlands national radio network, broadcasting since 1976 on 92-95 FM and 810 medium wave. ... Moray Firth Radio (MFR) is a local commercial radio station based in Inverness in Scotland and broadcasting to the communities in the surrounding region. ... Northsound 2 is a commercial local radio station serving Aberdeen and the north east of Scotland. ...


Ofcom granted a community radio licence to The Superstation Orkney in September 2005.[11]The station will start broadcasting in December 2007. Ofcom is a regulator for communication industries in the United Kingdom. ...


Heritage

Located in West Mainland is the 'Heart of Neolithic Orkney', a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. This comprises a group of Neolithic monuments which consist of a large chambered tomb (Maes Howe), two ceremonial stone circles (the Standing Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brodgar) and a settlement (Skara Brae), together with a number of unexcavated burial, ceremonial and settlement sites. The group constitutes a major prehistoric cultural landscape which gives a graphic depiction of life in this remote archipelago in the far north of Scotland some 5,000 years ago. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Maes Howe is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney (off northern Scotland). ... The Stenness Watch Stone stands next to the modern bridge leading to the Ring of Brodgar. ... The Ring of Brodgar The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar) is a Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland. ... For the music group, see Skara Brae (music). ...


Viking settlers comprehensively occupied Orkney, and the islands became a possession of Norway until being given to Scotland during the 15th century as part of a dowry settlement. Evidence of the Viking presence is widespread, and includes the settlement at the Brough of Birsay, the vast majority of place names, and runic inscriptions at Maeshowe and other ancient sites. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Brough of Birsay is a small (210,000 m²) tidal island off the north west coast of The Mainland of Orkney, in the parish of Birsay. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Language

At the beginning of recorded history the islands were inhabited by the Picts, whose language is unknown. Opinions on the nature of Pictish vary from its having been a Celtic language, to its not having been Indo-European at all. Katherine Forsyth claims that the Ogham script on the Buckquoy spindle-whorl is evidence for the pre-Norse existence of Old Irish in Orkney.[12] A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... The Pictish language is the extinct language of the Picts, in what is now Scotland. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Buckquoy spindle-whorl. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ...


After the Norse occupation the toponymy of Orkney became almost wholly West Norse.[13] The Norse language evolved into the local Norn, which lingered until the end of the 18th century, when it finally died out. Norn was replaced by the Orcadian dialect of Insular Scots. This dialect is at a low ebb due to the constant influences of television, education and the large number of incomers. However attempts are being made to revitalise its use by some writers and radio presenters.[4] Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... West Norse refers to Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic in opposition to East Norse, i. ... Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ...


However, the distinctive sing-song accent and many dialect words of Norse origin continue to be used. The Orcadian dialect lingers in the remoter parts of the archipelago. Studies made by Gregor Lamb and others demonstrate the Norse influence on the grammar of Orcadian. The Orcadian word most frequently encountered by visitors is "peedie" (peerie in Shetland), meaning small, which may be derived from the French "petit" [14]. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Orcadian dialect is a dialect of Insular Scots belonging to Scots language. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For other uses, see Shetland (disambiguation). ...


Orcadians

An Orcadian is a native of Orkney, a term that reflects a strongly held identity with a tradition of understatement.[15]


Although the annexation of the earldom by Scotland in 1472 took place over five centuries ago, most Orcadians regard themselves as Orcadians first and Scots second.[16] (Readers of Scott's The Pirate will remember the frank contempt which Magnus Troil expressed for the Scots). February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Disambiguation: The Pirate is also the title of novels by Harold Robbins and Frederick Marryat The Pirate is an 1822 novel by Walter Scott. ...


When an Orcadian speaks of "Scotland", they are talking about the land to the immediate south of the Pentland Firth. When an Orcadian speaks of "the mainland", they mean Mainland, Orkney.[17] They are emphatic that tartan, clans, bagpipes and the like are traditions from the Scottish Highlands and are not a part of the islands' indigenous culture [18]. However, at least two tartans with Orkney connexions have been registered [19] [20], and there are pipe bands in Orkney [21] [22]. The Pentland Firth, which is actually more of a strait than a firth, separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness, which is in the far north of the Highland area of Scotland. ... The Mainland, Orkney shown within The Orkney Islands The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... For the artificial athletic track surface, see tartan track. ... See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...


Native Orcadians refer to the non-native residents of the islands as "Ferry Loupers", a term that has been in use for nearly two centuries at least.[23] This designation is celebrated in the Orkney Trout Fishing Association's "Ferryloupers Trophy", demonstrating that it was originally a non-derogatory appellation although it can be used in a derogatory manner.


Well-known Orcadians

In family name alphabetical order:

William Balfour Baikie (August 21, 1824—November 30, 1864) was a Scottish explorer, naturalist and philologist, eldest son of Captain John Baikie, R.N,, was born at Kirkwall, Orkney. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... George Mackay Brown was born on the 17th October 1921 and died on the 13th April 1996. ... Mary Brunton (1778 - 1818), novelist, daughter of Col. ... Scottish artist born in the Orkney Islands in 1887. ... William Towrie Cutt (January 26, 1898 Sanday, Orkney – 1981) was a Scottish author. ... Walter Traill Dennison (1826 - 1894) was a Scottish farmer and folklorist. ... Folkloristics is the formal academic study of folklore and mythology. ... Statue of St. ... Matthew Forster Heddle (April 28, 1828 - November 19, 1897), Scottish mineralogist, was born at Hoy in Orkney. ... Malcolm Laing (1762 - 1818), was a country gentleman in Orkney. ... Samuel Laing (1780 – 1868) was a Scottish travel writer. ... Caricature of Laing by Spy Samuel Laing, (1812 – 1897), was a British railway administrator, politician, and influential writer on science and religion during the Victorian era. ... Magnus Linklater is a Scottish journalist and former newspaper editor. ... John D. Mackay (1909, Maeback, Papa Westray, Orkney) a Scottish man of letters, taught at Stronsay and North Ronaldsay and was headmaster of Sanday School from 1946 to 1970. ... Murdoch McKenzie (died 1797) was a hydrographer and cartographer. ... Edwin Muir (15 May 1887 - 3 January 1959) was an Orcadian [1] poet, novelist and translator born on a farm in Deerness on the Orkney Islands. ... John Rae John Rae (September 30, 1813 – July 22, 1893) was a Scottish explorer of the Arctic . ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Ragnvald Kale Kollson was a Norwegian saint. ... Julyan Sinclair is a Orcadian television presenter. ... Dr. Thomas Stewart Traill (October 29, 1781- July 30, 1862) was a Scottish professor of medical jurisprudence at the University of Edinburgh. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Cameron Stout in 2003 Cameron Stout (born 8 March 1971 in Stromness, Orkney) was the winner of Big Brother 4 UK in 2003. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Big Brother 4 nominations table. ... Julyan Sinclair is a Orcadian television presenter. ... William Walls, Bailie caricature, 1874. ... Jennifer and Hazel Wrigley are an international folk music duo playing fiddle (Jennifer) and guitar/piano (Hazel). ...

People associated with Orkney

Matthew Armour (April 12, 1820 – March 23, 1903), Rev. ... Sanday shown within Orkney Islands Sanday is one of the inhabited islands in the Orkney Islands group off the northern coast of Scotland. ... The Free Church of Scotland (1843-1900) was a Scottish denomination formed by the withdrawal of a large section of the established Church of Scotland in a schism known as the Disruption of 1843. ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b. ... Master of the Queens Music (or Master of the Kings Music) is a prestigious post in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. ... The Deputy Lieutenant is the deputy to the Lord Lieutenant of a county. ... Andrew Greig (born 23 September 1951 in Bannockburn, Scotland) is a Scottish writer. ... Joseph Jo Grimond, Baron Grimond (July 29, 1913 - October 24, 1993) was a British politician, leader of the Liberal Party from 1956 to 1967 and again briefly in 1976. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Orkney and Shetland is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... David Harvey (born February 7, 1948 in Leeds, England) was for many years the reserve goalkeeper for Leeds United during their glory era of the 1960s and 1970s and yet is more fondly remembered than the man who blocked his path for so long. ... Eric Robert Russell Linklater (1899-1974) was a Scottish writer, known for more than 20 novels, also short stories, travel writing and autobiography, and military history. ... William Sichel (b. ... Luke Sutherland (born 1971, London) is an English-born Scottish[1][2] novelist and musician. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Graeme Davis, The Early English Settlement of Orkney and Shetland, John Donald Publishers Ltd, ISBN 085976687X
  3. ^ Acquisition of Orkney and Shetland 1468-9
  4. ^ European Marine Energy Centre. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  5. ^ Highlands and Islands Enterprise (2007-09-28). First Minister Opens New Tidal Energy Facility at EMEC. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. “The centre offers developers the opportunity to test prototype devices in unrivalled wave and tidal conditions. Wave and tidal energy converters are connected to the National Grid via seabed cables running from open-water test berths. Testing takes place in a wide range of sea and weather conditions, with comprehensive round-the-clock monitoring.”
  6. ^ "Orkney to get 'biggest' wave farm" BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
  7. ^ Registered Power Zone Annual Report for period 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 (pdf) Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution and Southern Electric Power Distribution. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
  8. ^ FACILITATE GENERATION CONNECTIONS ON ORKNEY BY AUTOMATIC DISTRIBUTION NETWORK MANAGEMENT DTI. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
  9. ^ David Lister. "Islanders see a brighter future with tunnel vision", The Times, September 5, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-07-12. 
  10. ^ John Ross. "£100m tunnel to Orkney 'feasible'", The Scotsman, 10 March 2005. Retrieved on 2007-07-13. 
  11. ^ Ofcom awards ten community radio licences
  12. ^ Forsyth, Katherine (1995). "The ogham-inscribed spindle-whorl from Buckquoy: evidence for the Irish language in pre-Viking Orkney?". The Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 125: 677-96. ARCHway. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. 
  13. ^ Gregor Lamb, Testimony of the Orkneyingar: Place Names of Orkney, 1995, Byrgisey, ISBN 0-9513443-4-X
  14. ^ Dr.Stephen Clackson, The Orcadian, 25 November 2004
  15. ^ Orkneyjar - The people of Orkney
  16. ^ The Heart of Neolithic Orkney in its Contemporary Contexts: A case study in heritage management and community values. Historic Scotland Research Paper
  17. ^ Orkneyjar - Where is Orkney?
  18. ^ Orkneyjar FAQ
  19. ^ Orkney tartan
  20. ^ Clackson tartan
  21. ^ Kirkwall City Pipe Band
  22. ^ Stromness RBL Pipe Band
  23. ^ See: David Vedder, Orcadian Sketches, Edinburgh, William Tait, 1832

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Orcadian is the oldest Orkney newspaper, first published in 1854. ... Historic Scotland is the Scottish agency looking after historic monuments. ...

See also

This is a list of towns and villages and smaller settlements on the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... This is a list of Orkney islands in Scotland. ... The Romanesque interior of St. ... Earl of Orkney - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is an unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands from their capture by the Norwegian king in the 9th century onwards until about 1200 AD. The saga was written around 1200 AD by an unknown... A trow or trowe is a mythical creature of the Orkney and Shetland islands, which may have been based on the Scandinavian troll. ... Udal law is a near-defunct Norse derived legal system, which was formerly found in the Shetland islands and Orkney. ... The Churchill Barriers are a series of four causeways in the Orkney Islands, with a total length of 2. ... The Italian Chapel on Lamb Holm in Orkney, Scotland was built by Italian prisoners of war during World War II. The prisoners were stationed on the island between 1942 and 1945 to help in construction of the Churchill Barriers. ... The Orkney vole is a distinct sub-species of the common vole (Microtus arvalis) which is found only in the Orkney Islands, United Kingdom. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • The Super StationOrkney's Local Radio Station - Launching September 2007
  • Vision of Britain - Groome Gazetteer entry for Orkney
  • biographical site.
Orkney Islands
Inhabited Islands
Mainland | Auskerry | Burray | Eday | Egilsay | Flotta | Gairsay | Graemsay | Hoy | North Ronaldsay | Papa Stronsay | Papa Westray | Rousay | Sanday | Shapinsay | South Ronaldsay | South Walls | Stronsay | Westray | Wyre
Other Islands
Eynhallow | Helliar Holm | Lamb Holm | Switha | Swona | North West islands | North East islands | South West islands | South East islands
List of Orkney islands
Towns and Villages
Kirkwall | Balfour | Houton | Longhope | Lyness | Stromness | Whitehall

Coordinates: 59°00′N, 3°00′W The Mainland, Orkney shown within The Orkney Islands The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland. ... Auskerry (Old Norse: Austrsker) is a small island at the east of the Orkney island group. ... Burray shown within Orkney Islands Burray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... Eday shown within Orkney Islands Eday is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Egilsay shown within Orkney Islands Egilsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying east of Rousay. ... Flotta shown within Orkney Islands Flotta is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying in Scapa Flow. ... Gairsay shown within Orkney Islands Gairsay is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Graemsay shown within Orkney Islands Graemsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland with a population of around thirty people. ... Hoy shown within Orkney Islands Hoy (from Old Norse há-øy meaning high island) is one of the Orkney Islands. ... North Ronaldsay is the northernmost of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... Papa Stronsay shown within Orkney Islands Papa Stronsay is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying north east of Stronsay. ... Papa Westray shown within Orkney Islands Papa Westray, also known as Papay, is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around sixty people. ... Rousay shown within Orkney Islands Rousay (from Old Norse Hrólfs-øy meaning Rolfs Island) is a small but hilly island about 3 km (2 mi) off the north side of Orkneys Mainland, which has been nicknamed the Egypt of the north due to its tremendous archaeological diversity... Sanday shown within Orkney Islands Sanday is one of the inhabited islands in the Orkney Islands group off the northern coast of Scotland. ... Shapinsay shown within Orkney Islands Shapinsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... South Ronaldsay shown within Orkney Islands South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland. ... South Walls is an inhabited island adjacent to Hoy in Orkney, Scotland. ... Stronsay is an island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Westray shown within Orkney Islands Westray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a population of around 700 people. ... Wyre shown within Orkney Islands Wyre is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying south east of Rousay. ... Eynhallow is a small island, part of the Orkney Islands Scotland. ... Saeva Ness lighthouse on the tip of Helliar Holm Helliar Holm is an uninhabited island off the coast of Shapinsay in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. ... Lamb Holm is a small island in Orkney, Scotland. ... Switha is a small island in Orkney, Scotland south of Flotta, used for grazing sheep. ... Swona, viewed from South Ronaldsay. ... This is a list of Orkney islands in Scotland. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... The main street of the village. ... Houton is a settlement 5 miles southeast of Stromness on the island of Mainland, Orkney. ... Longhope is a coastal settlement on the island of Hoy which is one of the Orkney islands off the northern coast of Scotland. ... Lyness is a village on the east coast of the island of Hoy, Orkney. ... Stromness is the second-largest town in the Orkney Islands and is located on the southwestern edge of the mainland of Orkney. ... Whitehall is the village on the island of Stronsay, in the Orkney Islands of Scotland. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Orkneys (1138 words)
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So distinctive is this use of 'The Orkneys and Shetland', that I am inclined to think that it was the appearance of the saga translations which lent intellectual respectability to it, and its appearance in erudite works.
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