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Encyclopedia > Orkhon script
Orkhon script
Type Alphabet
Languages Old Turkic
Time period 8th to 13th centuries
Parent systems Proto-Canaanite
 → Phoenician
  → Aramaic
   → Syriac
    → Sogdian (disputed)
     → Orkhon script
Child systems Old Hungarian script
Unicode range Not in Unicode
ISO 15924 Orkh
Orkhon tablet
Orkhon tablet
Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script
Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script
Orkhon script
Orkhon script

The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic language. It was later used by the Uyghur Empire; a Yenisei variant is known from 9th-century Kirghiz inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley of Turkestan and the Old Hungarian script of the 10th century. The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... It became one of the most widely used writing systems, and was spread by traders of Phoenicia across Europe and the Middle East, where it became used for a variety of languages and spawned many subsequent scripts. ... Aramaic was for a long time (between the later Assyrian empire and the Abbasid Caliphate) a lingua franca in the Middle East; its alphabet, though itself derived from the Phoenician alphabet, therefore superseded the Old Hebrew alphabet that had been independently descended from the Phoenician alphabet. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Sogdian alphabet, also called the Old Uyghur alphabet is derived from Syriac, the descendant script of the Aramaic alphabet. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ... Unicode’s Universal Character Set potentially supports over 1 million code points (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 or 17 × 216, hexadecimal 110000) code points. ... ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (310x1300, 13 KB)Taken from Tatar Orkhon wiki File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x611, 78 KB)From the Turkish Prime Ministers Office http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x611, 78 KB)From the Turkish Prime Ministers Office http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (337x800, 53 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) the creator of this image releases it under the GFDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Orkhon script ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (337x800, 53 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) the creator of this image releases it under the GFDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Orkhon script ... Music-Drama Theatre in Kyzyl Kyzyl (Tuvan and Russian: Кызы́л) is a city in Russia, capital of Tyva Republic. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (550 × 700 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Modification of existing image: removed border, changed background to white. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (550 × 700 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Modification of existing image: removed border, changed background to white. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk... A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the Manas epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol Kyrgyz are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Talas River crosses the territory of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ...


The script is named after the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia, where 8th century inscriptions were discovered in an 1889 expedition by Nikolay Yadrintsev. These Orkhon inscriptions were published by Vasily Radlov and deciphered by the Danish philologist Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893. Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vasily Vasilievich Radlov or Wilhelm Radloff (1837-1918) was the German-born Russian founder of Turcology, or the scientific study of the Turkic peoples. ... Vilhelm Ludwig Peter Thomsen (1842-1927) was a Danish linguist. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The script is very similar to that on monuments left by Tu-jue (突厥 pinyin tú jué) in China during the Tang Dynasty.[citation needed] Because of similarities to the angular shapes of the runic alphabet, the letters of the Orkhon script have been referred to as "Turkic runes" or described as "runiform". This similarity is superficial, however, since all alphabetic scripts used for incision in hard surfaces show this tendency (see Old Italic alphabets for other examples). The Göktürks or Kök-Türks are a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li... For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...

Contents

Origins

Mainstream opinion derives the Orkhon script from variants of the Aramaic alphabet, in particular via the Pahlavi and Sogdian alphabets, as suggested by V.Thomsen, or possibly via Karosthi (c.f. Issyk inscription). Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Sogdian alphabet is derived from Syriac, the descendant script of Aramaic alphabet. ... Vilhelm Ludwig Peter Thomsen (1842-1927) was a Danish linguist. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus... The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, was discovered in 1969. ...


Alternative possibilities include derivation from tamgas, suggested by W. Thomsen in 1893, from the Chinese script. Turkish inscriptions dated earlier than the Orkhon inscriptions used about 150 symbols, which may suggest tamgas at first imitating the Chinese script and then gradually refined into an alphabet. A tamgha, or tamga (Modern Turkish: damga) is an abstract seal or device used by Eurasian nomadic peoples and by cultures influenced by them. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


The Danish hypothesis connects the script to the reports of Chinese account[1], from a 2nd century BC Chinese Yan renegade and dignitary named Zhonghan Yue (中行说) who State of Yan (small seal script, 220 BC) Yan (pinyin: yan1, simplified Chinese/traditional Chinese: 燕) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ...

"taught the Shanyu (rulers of the Xiongnu) to write official letters to the Chinese court on a wooden tablet (牍) 31 cm long, and to use a seal and large-sized folder".

The same sources tell that when the Xiongnu noted down something or transmitted a message, they made cuts on a piece of wood (ko-mu), and they also mention a "Hu script". At Noin-Ula and other Hun burial sites in Mongolia and region north of Lake Baikal, the artifacts displayed over twenty carved characters. Most of these characters are either identical or very similar to the letters of the Turkic Orkhon script.[2] Chanyu(Shanyu is quite an unacceptable corruption) is the title of the ruler of the Huns [Xiongnu in Chinese]. The literal translation is the greatest in Xiongnu language. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Noin-Ula kurgan is located in the northern Mongolia hills north of Ulaanbaatar on the Selenga River near Lake Baikal and dated by the 1st century AD. Noin-Ula kurgan contained a lacquer cup inscribed with the name of its Chinese maker and dated September 5, 13 AD. It was...


Kazakh turkologist A. S. Amanzholov proposes that the script may derive directly from the Phoenician alphabet, or even "ascends to the most ancient common source of alphabetic writing [...] of the 3rd - 2nd millennia BC".[3]. Kazakh may refer to An ethnic group: the Kazakhs The Kazakh language The Culture of Kazakhstan Suhbat. ... Altaj Sarsenovič Amanžolov (Алтай Сарсенович Аманжолов; Altay Sersenulı Amanjolov, born 1934 in Almaty, Kazakh SSR) is a Kazakhi Turkologist. ... It became one of the most widely used writing systems, and was spread by traders of Phoenicia across Europe and the Middle East, where it became used for a variety of languages and spawned many subsequent scripts. ...

Corpus

The inscription corpus consists of two monuments which were erected in the Orkhon Valley between 732 and 735 in honour of the two Kokturk prince Kul Tigin and his brother the emperor Bilge Khan, as well as inscriptions on slabs scattered in the wider area. Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ... Events Abkhazia becomes independent, and will remain such until the 15th century Births Alcuin, missionary and bishop (approximate date) Deaths May 25 - Bede, English Historian and monk Categories: 735 ... The Gokturks or Kokturks (Gök-Turks or Kök-Turks, with the meaning Celestial Turks), known as Tujue (突厥 tu2 jue2) in medieval Chinese sources, established the first known Turkic state around 552 under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (died 552) and his sons, and expanded... Kul Tigin (Kül (Köl, Gül, Göl) Tigin Khan Bengü İnançu Apa Tarkan Taşı) (685 - 731 or 732 AD) was a Turkic leader. ... Bilge Khan (Arslan Bilgä Khağan Bengü Taşı; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most influential emperors of the Gokturk Empire. ...


The Orkhon monuments are the oldest known examples of Turkic writings; they are inscribed on obelisks and have been dated to 720 (for the obelisk relating to Tonyukuk), to 732 (for that relating to Kültigin), and to 735 (for that relating to Bilge Kagan). They are carved in a script used also for inscriptions found in Mongolia, Siberia, and Eastern Turkistan and called by Thomsen "Turkish runes".[4] They relate in epic language the legendary origins of the Turks, the golden age of their history, their subjugation by the Chinese, and their liberation by Bilge.[4] The polished style of the writings suggests considerable earlier development of the Turkish language.[4] The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris For other uses, see Obelisk (disambiguation). ... Events Umayyad caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz succeeded by Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik The Nihonshoki (日本書紀), one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed Births Bertrada, wife of Pippin III (d. ... Tonyukuk (d. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ... Kul Tigin (Kül (Köl, Gül, Göl) Tigin Khan Bengü İnançu Apa Tarkan Taşı) (685 - 731 or 732 AD) was a Turkic leader. ... Events Abkhazia becomes independent, and will remain such until the 15th century Births Alcuin, missionary and bishop (approximate date) Deaths May 25 - Bede, English Historian and monk Categories: 735 ... Bilge Khan (Arslan Bilgä Khağan Bengü Taşı; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most influential emperors of the Gokturk Empire. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Flag of East Turkistan East Turkistan (Sherqiy Türkistan in Uyghur, Doğu Türkistan in Turkish) was the name of two shortlived states in Central Asia; the first one existed from 1932 to 1934, while the second one existed from 1944 to 1949. ...


Variants

Variants of the script were found from Mongolia and Eastern Turkestan in the east to Balkans in the west. The preserved inscriptions were dated to between 7th and 13th centuries AD.


These alphabets are divided into four groups by Kyzlasov (1994)[5]

The Asiatic group is further divided into three related alphabets: For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... The Ural-Altaic language family is a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since been largely rejected. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

  • Orkhon alphabet, Göktürk, 8-10th centuries AD
  • Yenisei alphabet,
    • Talas alphabet, a derivative of the Yenisei alphabet, Kangly or Karluks 8-10th centuries AD. Talas inscriptions include Terek-Say rock inscriptions found in the 1897, Koysary text, Bakaiyr gorge inscriptions, Kalbak-Tash 6 and 12 inscriptions, Talas alphabet has 29 identified letters. [6]

The Eurasiatic group is further divided into five related alphabets: The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ...

  • Achiktash, Sogdiana 7-10th centuries AD
  • Isfar, Sogd unidentified ethnicity 7-10th centuries AD
  • South-Yenisei, Göktürk 8-10th centuries AD
  • Don alphabet, Alans and Khazar Khaganate, 8-10th centuries AD and Kuban alphabet, Bulghars, 8th-13th centuries AD, closely related, inscriptions in both alphabets found in the Pontic steppe and on the banks of the Kama river
  • Tisza, Badjanaks 8-10th centuries AD

A number of alphabets are not completed, due to the limitations of the extant inscriptions. Great help in the studies of the Türkic scripts was received from Türkic-Chinese bi-lingual inscriptions, contemporaneous Türkic inscriptions in Greek alphabet, literal translation into Slavic language, and paper fragments with Türkic cursive writing on Türkic religion, Manichaeism, Buddhist and legal subjects of the 8-10th centuries AD found in Eastern Turkestan[7]. Lenin Peak, known as Mount Kaufmann until 1928, is the highest mountain in the Trans-Alay Range of central Asia and the second highest peak in the Pamir Mountains, exceeded only by Ismail Samani Peak (7,495m). ... Sogdiana, ca. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The term Don may refer to Donald, a Western name Don (honorific), a Spanish, Portuguese and Italian title, given as a mark of respect A crime boss Don, Nord, a commune of the Nord département in northern France Don (TN), a comune in the province of Trento, in northern... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) a people of Central Asia, probably originally Pamirian, whose branches became Slavicized and perhaps Turkic over time. ... The Pontic steppe refers to the steppelands to the north of the Black Sea and on its eastern side as far as the Caspian Sea. ... Kama may refer to several things Kama, a Hindu god, the God of Love, son of Lakshmi. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ...


During the last two centuries the number of specialists knowledgeable in the Türkic scripts never exceeded low single digits. The last quarter of the 20th century brought about most of the paleographical and textual discoveries.


Table of characters

Old-Turkic Alphabet (Classic age)
Using Symbols Transliteration and transcription
vowels A /a/, /e/
I /ɯ/, /i/, /j/
O /u/, /o/, /w/
U /ø/, /y/, /w/
consonants harmonized with:
(¹) — back,
(²) — front
vowels
/b/ /b/
/d/ /d/
/g/ /g/
/l/ /l/
/n/ /n/
/r/ /r/
/s/ /s/
/t/ /t/
/ʤ/ /ʤ/
only (¹) — Q
only (²) — K
Q /q/ K /k/
with all
vowels
/ʧ/
-M /m/
-P /p/
/ʃ/
-Z /z/
-NG /ŋ/
clusters + vowel IÇ, ÇI, Ç /iʧ/, /ʧi/, /ʧ/
IQ, QI, Q /ɯq/, /qɯ/, /q/
OQ, UQ,
QO, QU, Q
/oq/, /uq/,
/qo/, /qu/, /q/
ÖK, ÜK,
KÖ, KÜ, K
/øk/, /yk/,
/kø/, /ky/, /k/
+ consonant -NÇ /nʧ/
-NY /nʤ/
-LT /lt/, /ld/
-NT /nt/, /nd/
word-divide symbol none
(-) — word endings only

A reading example: — inscription (RTL) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

T²NGR²I — transliteration
/teŋri/ — transcription
teñri — record with modern Turkic alphabet
the skygod or the eternal blue sky indicating the highest god — ancient meaning
God — modern meaning

Notes

  1. ^ Shiji, vol. 110.
  2. ^ N. Ishjatms, "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", in the "History of civilizations of Central Asia", Volume 2, Fig 6, p. 166, UNESCO Publishing, 1996, p.165
  3. ^ Amanjolov A.S., "History of the Ancient Türkic Script", Almaty, "Mektep", 2003, p. 286, p. 308
  4. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. ^ Kyzlasov I.L.; “Writings Of Eurasian Steppes”, Eastern Literature", Moscow, 1994, 327 pp. 321-323
  6. ^ Kyzlasov I.L.; “Writings Of Eurasian Steppes”, Eastern Literature", Moscow, 1994, pp. 98-100
  7. ^ Amanjolov A.S., "History of тhe Ancient Türkic Script", Almaty, "Mektep", 2003 ISBN 9965-16-204-2, p. 6-12

The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ...

References

  • David Diringer, The Alphabet: a Key to the History of Mankind, New York: Philosophical Library, 1948, pp. 313–315
  • James G. Février, Histoire de l’écriture, Paris: Payot, 1948, pp. 311–317
  • N. Ishjatms, "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", in the "History of civilizations of Central Asia", Volume 2, UNESCO Publishing, 1996, ISBN 92-3-102846-4
  • Jensen, Hans (1970). Sign Symbol and Script. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. ISBN 0-04-400021-9. . Transl. of Jensen, Hans (1958). Die Schrift in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. , as revised by the author
  • György Kara, Aramaic Scripts for Altaic Languages. In Daniels and *Bright, eds., The World's Writing Systems, 1996.
  • Kyzlasov I.L., "Runic Scripts of Eurasian Steppes", Moscow, Eastern Literature, 1994, ISBN 5-02-017741-5
  • A. Mukhamadiev, "Turanian Writing", in "Problems Of Lingo-Ethno-History Of The Tatar People", Kazan, 1995, ISBN 5-201-08300 (Азгар Мухамадиев, "Туранская Письменность", "Проблемы лингвоэтноистории татарского народа", Казань, 1995. с.38, ISBN 5-201-08300, In Russian)
  • Talat Tekin, A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic. Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, vol. 69 (Bloomington/The Hague: Mouton, 1968)
  • Vilhelm Thomsen, Inscriptions de l’Orkhon déchiffrées, Suomalais-ugrilainen seura, Helsinki Toimituksia, no. 5 Helsingfors: La société de literature Finnoise
  • D. D. Vasil'iev, Korpus tiurkskikh runicheskikh pamyatnikov Bassina Eniseya [Corpus of the Turkic Runic Monuments of the Yenisei Basin], Leningrad: USSR Academy of Science, 1983

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Old Turkic script

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Hungarian Runes (Hungarian: , ( ) or simply ) is a type of runic writing system used by the Magyars (mainly by Székely Magyars) prior to AD 1000. ...

External links

  • Orkhon Alphabet page from Omniglot
  • glyph table (kyrgyz.ru)
  • list of inscriptions (tonyukuk.net)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Orkhon script - Definition, explanation (253 words)
The oldest examples of this alphabet are stone inscriptions such as the Orkhon inscriptions from the Orhon River valley in the Orhon province of Mongolia.
The Orkhon script goes by several names: the Kokturk, Kok Turki, Gokturk, Gök-Turk, and Kök-Turk Alphabet, and, because of its superficial "runiform appearance, it is sometimes called Orkhon runes or Turkic runes.
The Orkhon script may have evolved from a non-cursive form of the Sogdian alphabet.
Orkhon script - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (424 words)
The script was discovered in an 1889 expedition to the Orkhon Valley monuments in Mongolia, which date from the early 8th century.
The Orkhon script is sometimes described as runiform because its external similarity to the runic alphabet.
The Orkhon monuments are the oldest known examples of Turkish writings; they are inscribed on obelisks and have been dated to 720 (for the obelisk relating to Tonyukuk), to 732 (for that relating to Kültigin), and to 735 (for that relating to Bilge Kagan).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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