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Encyclopedia > Orkhon Valley
Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Flag of Mongolia Mongolia
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 1081
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2004  (28th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orkhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. It was inscribed by UNESCO in the World Heritage List as representing evolution of nomadic pastoral traditions spanning more than two millennia. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Orhon aymag (Орхон аймаг) is one of the 21 aymags (provinces) of Mongolia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 602 KB) Source: He-ba-mue Description: Fluss Orchon in der Mongolei File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Orhon River Metadata This file contains additional information... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... see Orhon River ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [UlaÉ£an BaÉ£atar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


Importance

For many centuries, the Orkhon Valley was viewed as the seat of the imperial power of the steppes. The first evidence comes from a stone stele with runic inscriptions, which was erected in the valley by Bilge Khan, an 8th-century ruler of the Göktürk Empire. Some 25 miles to the north of the stele, in the shadow of the sacred forest-mountain Ötüken, was his Ördü, or nomadic capital. During the Qidan domination of the valley, the stele was reinscribed in three languages, so as to record the deeds of a Qidan potentate. Orhon (or Orkhon) inscriptions are the oldest known Turkic writings, which were erected near the Orhon River between 732 and 735 in honour of two Kokturk princes named Kul and Bilge. ... Bilge Khan 毗伽可汗(Arslan Bilgä KhaÄŸan; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Göktürk Empire. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Ötüken (also spelled Etugen, Itügen or Odigan) is a sacred mountain of the ancient Turks. ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907...


Mountains were considered sacred in Tengriism as an axis mundi, but Ötüken was especially sacred because the ancestor spirits of the khagans and beys resided here. Moreover, a force called qut was believed to emanate from this mountain, granting the khagan the divine right to rule the Turkic tribes.[1] Whoever controlled this valley was considered heavenly appointed leader of the Turks and could rally the tribes. Thus control of the Orkhon Valley was of the utmost strategic importance for every Turkic state. Historically every Turkic capital (Ördü) was located here for this exact reason. It has been suggested that Tengri be merged into this article or section. ... Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often...


Sites

The main monuments of the Orkhon Valley are as follows:

  1. Early 8th-century Turkic memorials to Bilge Khan and Kul Tigin with their Orkhon inscriptions are admittedly the most impressive monuments from the nomadic Göktürk Empire. They were excavated and deciphered by Russian archaeologists in 1889-93.
  2. Ruins of Khar Balgas, an 8th-century capital of the Uyghur Empire, which cover 50 square km and contain evidence of the palace, shops, temples, monasteries, etc.
  3. Ruins of Genghis Khan's capital Karakorum which could have included the famed Xanadu palace.
  4. Erdene Zuu monastery is the first Buddhist monastery established in Mongolia. It was partly destroyed by Communist authorities in 1937-40.
  5. Tuvkhun Hermitage is another spectacular monastery, overlooking a hill at 2,600 m. above sea-level. Likewise, it was almost totally destroyed by the Communists.
  6. Remains of the 13th and 14th century Mongol palace at Doit Hill, thought to be Ögedei Khan's residence.

Bilge Khan 毗伽可汗(Arslan Bilgä KhaÄŸan; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Göktürk Empire. ... Kul Tigin (Kül (Köl, Gül, Göl) Tigin Khan Bengü İnançu Apa Tarkan Taşı) (685 - 731 or 732 AD) was a Turkic leader. ... Orhon (or Orkhon) inscriptions are the oldest known Turkic writings, which were erected near the Orhon River between 732 and 735 in honour of two Kokturk princes named Kul and Bilge. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... This article is about the person. ... The Karakorum palace (also Ka-la-kun-lun, Khara-khorin, Kharakhorum, Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian) was an ancient capital of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, although for only about 30 years. ... This article is about the summer capital of Kublai Khans empire. ... Erdene Zuu monastery The Erdene Zuu monastery (Mongolian: Эрдэнэ Зуу) is a Buddhist monastery located in Mongolia, and is one of Mongolias most ancient monasteries. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ...

References

  1. ^ Franke, Herbert. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0521214475. Page 347.
Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Orkhon script - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (298 words)
The Orkhon Valley inscriptions were discovered by Nikolay Yadrintsev's expedition in 1889, published by Vasily Radlov and deciphered by the Danish philologist Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893.
The inscription corpus consists of two monuments which were erected in the Orkhon Valley between 732 and 735 in honour of the two Kokturk princes Kul Tigin and Bilge Khan, as well as inscriptions on slabs scattered in the wider area.
The Orkhon monuments are the oldest known examples of Turkish writings; they are inscribed on obelisks and have been dated to 720 (for the obelisk relating to Tonyukuk), to 732 (for that relating to Kültigin), and to 735 (for that relating to Bilge Kagan).
Orkhon Valley - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (225 words)
Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar.
Early 8th-century Turkish memorials to Bilge Khan and Kul Tigin with their Orkhon inscriptions are admittedly the most impressive monuments from the nomadic Turkish Empire.
The Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape was inscribed by UNESCO in the World Heritage List as representing evolution of nomadic pastoral traditions spanning more than two millennia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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