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Encyclopedia > Orissa
  ?Orissa
India
Coordinates: 20°09′N 85°30′E / 20.15, 85.5
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 155,707 km² (60,119 sq mi)
Capital Bhubaneswar
Largest city Bhubaneswar
District(s) 30
Population
Density
36,706,920 (11th)
• 236/km² (611/sq mi)
Language(s) Oriya
Governor Rameshwar Thakur
Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik
Established 1949-01-01
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (147)
ISO abbreviation IN-OR
Website: orissa.gov.in

Coordinates: 20°09′N 85°30′E / 20.15, 85.5 Orissa pronunciation  (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links India_Orissa_locator_map. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... — , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) or the temple city of India is a city located on the eastern coast of India. ... — , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) or the temple city of India is a city located on the eastern coast of India. ... The divisions of a district. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Governors of Orissa See Also Orissa Governors of India M.M. Rajendran 15,November 1999 to 17 November 2004 Links Rameshwar Thakur 17 November 2004 till date Categories: | | | | ... Chief Ministers of Orissa See Also Orissa Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Orissa | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Naveen Patnaik is the Chief Minister of Orissa, India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Orissa. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories; the states and territories are themselves further subdivided. ...


The relatively unindented coastline (c.200 mi/320 km long) lacks good ports, except for the deepwater facility at Paradip. The narrow, level coastal strip, including the Mahanadi River delta, is exceedingly fertile. Orissa is home to the Hirakud Dam, one of the longest dams in the world. Rainfall is heavy and regular, and two crops of rice (by far the most important cereal) are grown annually. Port of Paradip is the primary seaport in the Indian state of Orissa. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River about 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. ...


Orissa is a littoral state with a long coastline and a storehouse of mineral wealth. Because of its mineral wealth and strategic location it attracts foreign investment in steel, aluminum, power, refineries, and infrastructure. Orissa is also emerging as a player in the outsourcing IT (Information Technology) and IT services industry. The total planned investment in the state is projected to be 90 billion U.S. dollars. However, there are environmental concerns and land acquisitions for some of these projects have been opposed by the local people. Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) is: the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


The coastal alluvial plain is inhabited by the non-tribal speakers of the Oriya language. The interior, inhabited largely by the indigenous people known as Adivasis is hilly and mountainous. Orissa is subject to intense cyclones; in October 1999, Tropical Cyclone 05B caused severe damage and some 10,000 deaths. Ādivāsīs (आदिवासी), literally original inhabitants, or tribal people comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... Tropical Cyclone 05B struck the Indian state of Orissa on October 29, 1999. ...


Orissa has several popular tourist destinations. Puri, with the Jagannatha's temple near the sea, and Konark, with the Sun Temple, are visited by thousands of tourists from the West every year. Along with the Lingaraja Temple of Bhubaneswar, the Jagannatha Temple and the Sun Temple of Konark are important in the archaeological history of India. Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ... Jagannath(far right) with his brother Balarama(far left) and sister Subadra (center) in Radhadesh, Belgium Jagannath is a Sanskrit term used to describe a deity form of Krishna. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... — , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) or the temple city of India is a city located on the eastern coast of India. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...

Contents

Geography

The capital of Orissa is Bhubaneswar. It is famed for its magnificent temples, numbering around a thousand. The city of Puri is nearby, at a distance of around sixty kilometers on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Puri is a famous holy city and the site of the annual festival of the deity Jagannath and is one of the four Dhams (holy places) of Hinduism. — , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) or the temple city of India is a city located on the eastern coast of India. ... Puri is a city in the Indian state of Orissa. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


The Chota Nagpur plateau occupies the western and northern portions of the state, while fertile alluvial plains occupy the coastal plain and the valleys of the Mahanadi, Brahmani, and Baitarani rivers, which empty into the Bay of Bengal. These alluvial plains are home to intensive rice cultivation. The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... The Brahmani River is a river in eastern India. ... The Baitarani River is a river of eastern India, which originates in the state of Jharkhand, and flows southeast through Orissa state to empty into the Bay of Bengal. ...


Although Orissa's forest cover has been denuded lately, one of the greatest attractions of Orissa is its still vast expanses of unspoilt natural landscape, that offers a protected yet natural habitat to the state’s incredible wildlife. There are many wildlife sanctuaries in Orissa. The Simlipal National Park Tiger Reserve is a vast expanse of lush green forest with waterfalls, inhabited by tigers, elephants, and other wildlife. The Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary has been protecting estuarine crocodiles since 1975. A national park in the state of Orissa, in India. ... The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are a mangrove wetland in Indias Orissa state. ...


Chilka Lake, a brackish water coastal lake on the Bay of Bengal, south of the mouth of the Mahanadi River, is the largest coastal lake in India. It is protected by the Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary, which harbors over 150 migratory and resident species of birds. Chilka Lake (also Chilika Lake) is a brackish water coastal lake in Indias Orissa state, south of the mouth of the Mahanadi River. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... Chilka Lake (also Chilika Lake) is a brackish water coastal lake in Indias Orissa state, south of the mouth of the Mahanadi River. ...


The highest mountain peak in the state is Deomali (1672 m), it is situated in Koraput district. It is also the tallest peak of the Eastern Ghats. It is part of the Chandragiri-Pottangi mountain system. Location : 18°40'3"N 82°58'59"E (Deomali on Wikimapia).


Culture

The official language of the state, spoken by the majority of the people is Oriya. Oriya belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family, and is closely related to Bengali and Assamese. A few tribal languages belonging to the Dravidian and Munda language families are still spoken by the Adivasis (original inhabitants) of the state. The state has a very opulent cultural heritage, one of the richest in India. The capital city of Bhubaneswar is known for the exquisite temples that dot its landscape. The famous classical dance form, Odissi originated in Orissa. Contemporary Orissa has a proud cultural heritage that arose due to the intermingling of three great religious traditions - Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Orissa is also known as Odisha. The culture of the Adivasis (the original inhabitants of India) is an integral part of modern Orissan heritage. Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73 languages[1] that are mainly spoken in southern India and northeastern Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and overseas in other countries such... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... Ādivāsīs (आदिवासी) or tribal peoples comprise a substantial minority of the population of India. ... — , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) or the temple city of India is a city located on the eastern coast of India. ... Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originated in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis (temple dancers). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ...


Odissi or Orissi music is usually classified as a kind of Hindustani classical music of northern India, although some aspects of Odissi are quite distinct. Odissi has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years, and finds mention in the Natyashastra of Bharatamuni, possibly written circa 200 BC. However, the dance form nearly went extinct during the British period, only to be revived after India's independence by a few proponents, such as Guru Deba Prasad Das, Guru Mayadhar Raut, Guru Pankaj Charan Das, Guru Mahadev Rout, Guru Raghu Dutta, and Guru Kelu Charan Mahapatra. Odissi classical dance is about the divine love of Krishna and his consort Radha, mostly drawn from compositions by the notable Oriya poet Jayadeva, who lived in the twelfth century AD. Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originated in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis (temple dancers). ... Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance which originated in the temples of the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the devdasis. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Odissi (or Orissi) is the traditional style of dance that originated in the state of Orissa in Eastern India, where it was performed by the maharis (temple dancers). ... The Natya Shastra or Nātyaśāstra is the principal work of dramatic theory in the Sanskrit drama of classical India. ... Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian writer whose life has been dated differently from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century Ad. ... Jayadeva is considered one of the greatest Sanskrit poets of all times. ...


Other cultural attractions include the Jagannatha Temple in Puri, known for its annual Rath Yatra or Car Festival, the unique and beautiful applique artwork of Pipili, silver filigree ornamental works from Cuttack, the Patta chitras (silk paintings), famous stone utensils of Nilgiri (Balasore) and various tribal influenced cultures. The Sun temple at Konark is famous for its architectural splendor. Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ... , Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... Nilgiri, which literally means Blue Mountain in various Indo-Aryan languages, can refer to: Nilgiris (mountains), a range of mountains panning across the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India Nilgiri, a mountain located in Balasore District of the state of Orissa in East India Nilgiris (mountains in...


History

Main article: History of Orissa
See also: Historic sites in Orissa

Orissa has a history spanning a period of over 2000 years. The history of Orissa is in many ways atypical from that of the northern plains and many of the common generalizations that are made about Indian history do not seem to apply to the Oriya region. The word Oriya is an anglicised version of Odia which itself is a modern name for the Odra or Udra tribes that inhabited the central belt of modern Orissa. Orissa has also been the home of the Kalinga and Utkal tribes that played a particularly prominent role in the region's history, and one of the earliest references to the ancient Kalingas appears in the writings of Vedic chroniclers. In the 6th C. BC, Vedic Sutrakara Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as being beyond the Vedic fold, indicating that Brahminical influences had not yet touched the land. Unlike some other parts of India, tribal customs and traditions played a significant role in shaping political structures and cultural practices right up to the 15th C. when Brahminical influences triumphed over competing traditions and caste differentiation began to inhibit social mobility and erode what had survived of the ancient republican tradition. // Orissa has a history spanning a period of over 3000 years. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


In ancient times, it was the proud kingdom of Kalinga. Kalinga was a major seafaring nation that controlled and traded with most of the sea routes in the Bay of Bengal. For several centuries, a substantial part of South Asia & Southeast Asia was under its cultural influence. The temple at Angkor Wat is a fine example of Oriya-influenced Indian architecture. Some parts of Southern and South Eastern Asia such as Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Java, Sumatra, Bali, Vietnam and Thailand were colonized by people from Orissa. In Malaysia, Indians are still referred as Kalings because of this. Many illustrious Sri Lankan kings such as Nisanka Malla and Parakarama Bahu claim Kalinga origin. The king who destroyed the Sinhalese Buddhist control of Northern Sri Lanka and established a Hindu Kingdom in Jaffna was known as Kalinga Magha. One theory holds that the name of the country "Siam" for Thailand is derived from Oriya/Sanskrit Shyamadesha. The Angkor Wat in Cambodia is Orissan, with local variations. Bali in Indonesia still retains its Orissan-influenced Hindu heritage. Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... Aerial view of Angkor Wat The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Bali is an Indonesian island located at , the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jaffna District. ... Aerial view of Angkor Wat The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ...


A major turning point in world history took place in Orissa. The famous Kalinga war that led emperor Ashoka to embrace non-violence and the teachings of Buddha was fought here in 261 BC. Ashoka's military campaign against Kalinga was one of the bloodiest in Mauryan history on account of the fearless and heroic resistance offered by the Kalingas to the mighty armies of the expanding Mauryan empire. Perhaps on account of their unexpected bravery, emperor Ashoka was compelled to issue two edicts specifically calling for a just and benign administration in Kalinga. Later on, Asoka was instrumental in spreading Buddhist philosophy all over Asia. Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Media:Example. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


In the third century BC, Kalinga flourished as a powerful kingdom under the Jaina king, Kharavela. He ruled all the way down south to include parts of the Tamil country. He built the superb monastic caves at Udayagiri and Khandagiri. Subsequently, the kingdom was ruled under various monarchs, such as Samudragupta and Sasanka. It also was a part of Harsha's empire. In 795 AD, the king Yayati united Kalinga, Kosala and Utkala into a single empire. He also built the famous Lingaraj Temple at Bhubaneswar.King Choda Gangadeva build the famous Lord Jagarnnath temple at [Puri]. King Narasimha Dev is reputed to have built the magnificent Sun Temple in Konark. Although now largely in ruins, the temple may have rivaled the Taj Mahal in splendour. Jaina Solo (b. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are an ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Coin of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... — , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) or the temple city of India is a city located on the eastern coast of India. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ...


The Moguls conquered Bengal and Orissa in 1576; however, Orissa was subsequently ceded to the Marathas in 1751. Mogul may mean: a bump in the snow in alpine skiing, a Mongolian the Mughal empire, or any member of its ruling dynasty by extension, any ruler or powerful person, such as a industrial mogul or media mogul a railroad steam locomotive type called the Mogul the largest size light... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ...


In 1803, the British under the British East India Company occupied Orissa after the Second Anglo-Maratha War. In 1823, Orissa was divided into the three districts of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri, and a number of native tributary states. Orissa was administered as part of the Bengal Presidency. Following famine and floods in 1866, large scale irrigation projects were undertaken in the last half of the 19th century. The coastal section was separated from Bengal and made into the Province of Bihar and Orissa in 1912, in response to local agitation for a separate state for Oriya-speaking peoples. In 1936, Bihar and Orissa were split into separate provinces. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 - 1805) was a second conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India. ... , Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... , Balasore (also known as Baleswar or Baleshwar) is a city in Orissa state of eastern India. ... Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in the eastern part of the country. ...


Following Indian independence, the area of Orissa was almost doubled and the population was increased by a third by the addition of 30 former princely states. In 1950, Orissa became a constituent state in the Union of India. A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ... ...


Economy

Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Orissa at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 37,080
1985 68,230
1990 109,040
1995 271,180
2000 387,280

Orissa's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $18 billion in current prices.


Following India's independence, Orissa has not been a focus of investment by the central government, causing its infrastructure and educational standards to lag behind the rest of the nation. For instance, only about 20% of the road network is paved. In rural areas over 65% of the population have no access to safe drinking water. This has led to widespread belief among the local population that Orissa is a neglected state.


Industrial growth

Orissa has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. It contains a fifth of India's coal, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of the chromite. Rourkela Steel Plant[1] was the first integrated steel plant in the Public Sector in India. It receives unprecedented investments in steel, aluminium, power, refineries and ports. India's topmost IT consulting firms, including Satyam Computer Services, TCS (Tata Consultancy Services), MindTree Consulting, Hexaware Technologies, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Infosys have large branches in Orissa. IBM, Syntel, Bosch and Wipro are setting up development centers in Orissa. So far, two of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Orissa viz. National Aluminium (2005 gross income Rs.51,162 million) and Tata Sponge Iron (2005 gross income Rs.2,044 million). Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... Satyam Computer Services Limited is a consulting and information technology (IT) services company based in India. ... Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS Limited) is one of the world’s largest providers of information technology, consulting, services and business-process outsourcing which commenced operations in 1968. ... Category: ... A PwC office building (Southwark Towers) in London, England. ... Infosys Technologies Ltd (BSE: 500209, NASDAQ: INFY) is an information technology (IT) services company founded in Pune, India in 1981 by N. R. Narayana Murthy and six of his colleagues. ... International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... Syntel, Inc. ... Bosch is the colloquial short name for the German company Robert Bosch GmbH, as well as the last name of: Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516) - Dutch painter Robert Bosch (1861-1942) - German industrialist Carl Bosch (1874-1940) - German chemist and engineer Juan Bosch (1909-2001) - Dominican politician and writer Orlando Bosch... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Wipro Technologies. ...


Orissa is notable as one of the first Indian states to have tackled its structural problems during the post 1994 Indian economic reforms. Orissa was the first state in India to begin to privatise its electricity transmission and distribution businesses. Over the period between 1994 and 2000 Orissa's former state electricity board (SEB) was restructured to form Gridco. This corporation was then divided into Transco and a collection of distribution companies. Attempts were then made to sell the distribution companies to the private sector. Like many other states, in 1996 Orissa was losing over 50% of the electricity it was delivered. The scale and importance of these reforms is notable and an important milestone in India's dramatic economic development.

Performance of Indian states in providing basic social services like education, healthcare, etc., in 2001. Darker states have done better.
Performance of Indian states in providing basic social services like education, healthcare, etc., in 2001. Darker states have done better.

Recently the number of companies who have signed Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) to set up steel plants in the state has gone up to 50, including Posco of South Korea which has agreed to construct a mammoth $12 billion steel plant near Paradip port. It would be the largest single investment in India's history. Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in Orissa too. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment in aluminum, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information technology as well. In power generation, Reliance Industries (Anil Ambani Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an investment of US $13 billion at Hirma in Jharsuguda district. Vedanta Resources’ 1.4 million tonne alumina project in Kalahandi district is the largest investment in aluminium. Vedanta has also announced a $ 3.2 billion dollar huge private University project on the lines of the Ivy League Universities, which is unprecedented in the history of education in India. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x704, 122 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Economy of India ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x704, 122 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Economy of India ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Kalahandi is a district of Orissa, India. ...


The Central Government has agreed to accord SEZ (Special Economic Zone) status to eight sites in Orissa among which are Infocity at Bhubaneswar and Paradip.


Infrastructure development

Although Paradip is Orissa's only large port, the coastal towns of Dhamra and Gopalpur are being developed into major ports as well. The government of India has selected the coastal region of Orissa, stretching from Paradip in the north to Gopalpur in the south to be developed as one of the five or six Special Economic Regions (SERs) of the country. The government of India and the state government of Orissa would work together to erect world class infrastructure in this region along the lines of the Rotterdam, Houston, and Pudong regions. This would stimulate further private investment in petrochemicals, steel, and manufacturing. A recent Morgan Stanley report forecasts that Orissa would be flooded with massive investments for manufacturing related activities in the same manner that Bangalore had attracted software investment in the 1990s. The scale of the investments in Orissa would, however be much higher. As of July 2006, the total planned investment in the state is a whopping $90 billion. This includes some investment in research, education, hospitals, roads, ports, airports, and hotels. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects. Port of Paradip is the primary seaport in the Indian state of Orissa. ... Port of Paradip is the primary seaport in the Indian state of Orissa. ... Gopalpur is a census town in Nadia district in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... Houston redirects here. ... Pudong seen from the Bund Pudong (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), officially known as Pudong New Area (浦東新區, pinyin: PÇ”dōng XÄ«n QÅ«), is a district of Shanghai, China. ... Dowleswaram Barrage Jalaput Balimela Reservoir Nizam Sagar Sriram Sagar ...


Hotels & tourism

The state is rich in flora and fauna and historical sites dating back to the Stone Age. Sites like Bhitarkanika, Chilika, Nandankanan, Gopalpur and Simlipal are areas of great biological diversity. Passes and permits must be procured from the concerned authorities before entering these areas. It is also advisable to recruit a trained guide since these areas are peopled by tribals whose dialects vary widely and are very sensitive to foreign intrusion. Stone Age fishing hook. ...


Historical sites such as Khandagiri, Lingaraj Temple, Cave sites in Boudh, Malkangiri and elsewhere have been developed. Many Five Star hotels have come up in Bhubaneswar and Government rest houses, circuit houses and Dak Bungalows dot the interior of the state.

Demographics

Orissa has a population of 32 million. About 87% of the population live in the villages and one third of the rural population does not own any land other than homesteads. 25% of Orissa's Population is Tribal. A village is a human settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... Tribal refers to a culture or society based on tribes or clans. ...


Religion

Orissa is an hindu majority state with hindus forming 94.35% of the population (2001 Indian Census, [1]). This places Orissa as the 3rd most Hindu majority state (in terms of percentage) in India. Christian, Muslim and Sikh minorities have their presence all across the state. A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


The religion of ancient Kalinga was Jainism. Rishabhnath and Parshvanath the first among the Jaina tirthankars preached and were revered in this land. Kalinga is also well mentioned and its history documented in Jain texts. Kalinga's Jain traditions were a major cause for inciting the attacks first by Mahapadma Nanda and later by Ashoka who were egged on by Brahministic courtiers and advisers. The Khandagiri and Udaygiri caves are among the only stone monuments dedicated to the Jain religion which still survive. They were constructed by Emperor Kharavela and his courtiers. Nanda attacked Kalinga and looted several parts of the state. He also took away the idol of Lord Rishabhdev to Magadha. But when Kharvela came in power he convulsed Nanda and brought back the idol of Lord Rishabdev, the symbol of pride for Kalinga. Jain texts have praised him as "Mahamegh Vahana Jain Raja Paramarhat Kharvela". These inscriptions are there in the jain caves of Udai Giri & Khanda Giri. Rishabhdev (Lord Rishabh)—also known as Bhagwan Adinath—was the first of the Jain Tirthankars , the founder of Jainism in the present half cycle of time, in this part of the universe. ... Hathigumpha on Udayagiri Hills, Bhubaneswar Hathigumpha inscription of King Khāravela at Udayagiri Hills Khandagiri caves Kharavela (IAST: Khāravela, Devanagari: खारवेल) (?209 - after 170 BCE), was the king of Kalinga, in Orissa state of India. ... Rishabha Deva or Aadinatha was bourn more than 5000 years ago estimated near about 3000 B.C.E. He is considered the first Tirthankar of Jainism and referred to with the honorific prefix Lord. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Hathigumpha on Udayagiri Hills, Bhubaneswar Hathigumpha inscription of King Khāravela at Udayagiri Hills Khandagiri caves Kharavela (IAST: Khāravela, Devanagari: खारवेल) (?209 - after 170 BCE), was the king of Kalinga, in Orissa state of India. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


Perhaps the most well-known temple in Orissa is the Konark Temple. This is also known as the Sun Temple and is famous for its exquisite Orissan style of architecture. The Konark temple was built in the 13th century A.D. It includes in its decoration many vignettes of military life. The thousands of elephants marching around the base of the temple demonstrate pride in the superb war elephants for which Orissa was famous. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...

Stone work at Konark
Stone work at Konark

Another well known temple in Orissa is the Jagannath Temple, which was built in the 12th Century A.D. It is located in Puri and is associated with the Ratha Jatra (Chariot Festival) celebrated all over northern India. Every year millions of devotees come to Puri during the Ratha Jatra. It is a festival during which the three deities, Jagannatha, Balabhadra and Subhadra are brought out of the Jagannath temple in chariots to tour the streets, providing a glimpse to the thousands of devotees who throng the street. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 432 KB)Stone Work at Konark, taken by Jyotirmaya. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 432 KB)Stone Work at Konark, taken by Jyotirmaya. ...


The capital city of Bhubaneswar has some magnificent temples, including the Lingaraja temple, and the Mukteswar temple. Not surprisingly, it is called the Temple City of India.


Politics

The state is governed by a chief minister and cabinet responsible to an elected unicameral legislature and by a governor appointed by the president of India.

Legislative Assembly Election Results of Orissa 1951 1957 1961 1967 1971 1974 1977 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2004 Categories: Elections in India | Orissa ...

Education

The ruins of a major ancient university and center of Buddhist learning, Ratnagiri, were recently discovered in Orissa. Scholars from far away lands, such as Greece, Persia and China used to study philosophy, astronomy, mathematics and science at this famed University. Taxila, Nalanda and Ratnagiri are amongst the oldest universities in the world. The ruins of Ratnagiri University have not been fully excavated yet.


Entry to various institutes of higher education is through a centralised Joint Entrance Examination, conducted by the Biju Patnaik University and more recently through the Common Entrance Test (CET) conducted by Orissa Private Engineering College Association (OPECA) & Orissa Private Medical College Association (OPMCA), where seats are provided according to order of merit. The Joint Entrance Examination or JEE is a college entrance examination in India. ...


One of the two Indian Institute of Mass Communication [IIMC] situated in in [(Dhenkanal)]. This is a premier institute for mass communication & journalism.


The Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB) is a premier business school of national and international significance located in the state capital. The National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar (NISER) is another premier educational cum research institution that is being set up. It will be built along the lines of the reputed IISc, Bangalore. The idea of building a national level medical school and hospital, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), as well as an Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) in the state capital, Bhubaneswar have also been mooted. Meanwhile Vedanta University Project, a not-for-profit initiative by the Anil Agarwal Foundation, is an epoch-making dream to have a world class centre for lerning and research on the picturesque Puri-Konark marine drive in Orissa. It will have about 1,00,000 students with an international mix of students pursuing around 95 diverse streams of learning in a sprawling campus of around 56 million sq.ft built up area supported by state of the art, IT & Communications systems. Even more recently, Reliance industries has expressed its intention of establishing a new Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT), as well as a health city for medical education and research in Bhubaneswar. The Indian Ministry of Human Resources Development had also announced its intention of creating two IITs in Orissa, one of which possibly was planned to have been accomplished by upgrading the prestigious University College of Engineering, Burla, under the 11th five year plan. Unfortunately, the ministry shifted the IIT to Andhra Pradesh. As of now, Orissa receives the lowest per capita investment of all 28 states from the central government towards human resource development. This has led to widespread protest throughout Orissa. Xavier Institute of Management Bhubaneswar (XIM Bhubaneswar, also known as XIMB), is a business school in India, located in the eastern state of Orissa. ... The Prime Minister of India laid the foundation stone of the National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) on August 28, 2006, in Bhubaneswar, Orissa. ... The Prime Minister of India laid the foundation stone of the National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) on August 28, 2006, in Bhubaneswar, Orissa. ... The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is one of the premier post-graduate institutions of research and higher learning located in Bangalore, India. ... All India Institute of Medical Studies (AIIMS) (created 1956) is a premier medical college located at New Delhi in India. ... IIIT is the generic name for several Institutes of Information Technology in India, each a mini university in itself. ... Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology is an educational institution situated in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. ...


See Also List of Colleges and Universities in Orissa, India This is a list of educational institutions offering graduate and post-graduate courses of study in the state of Orissa, India. ...


See Also List of Institutes of national importance in Orissa See Also List of Colleges and Universities in Orissa, India Historically, Orissa has been at the forefront of education and research. ...


See Also Orissa IIT Controversy // The Ministry of Human Resources and Development (HRD) of the Government of India has set up several premier technical institutes, across the country that produce Indias world class talent pool in science, engineering, and management, and contribute strongly to the economic development of the state where they are located...


Visit EduOrissa Dot Com for Update Educational News of Orissa First 24X7 eportal about Orissa education(www.eduorissa.com)


Transportation

Orissa is connected to India and to the world through roads, railways, airports, and seaports.


Airports

Operational

Defence Also known as Bhubaneswar Airport, Biju Patnaik Airport is situated in the city of Bhubaneswar. ...

  • Charibatia Airbase

Non-operational

  • Jharsuguda Airport
  • Jayapur Airport
  • Utkela Airport
  • Berhampur Airport

Seaports

  • Port of Paradip
  • Port of Dhamara (Work has been started.)
  • Port of Gopalpur (Commenced Operation From January 2007 As Seasonal Port)

Port of Paradip is the primary seaport in the Indian state of Orissa. ...

Districts

Angul is a district of Orissa state in India. ... Balangir District, also called Bolangir District, is a district in the western part of Orissa, India. ... Balasore is a district of Orissa, India. ... Bargarh District, also Baragarh District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. ... Boudh District, also called Bauda District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. ... Bhadrak is a coastal district in Orissa state of eastern India. ... Cuttack is a district in the Indian state of Orissa. ... Debagarh District, also known as Deogarh District, is a district of Orissa state, India; and is located in the northern part of the state. ... Dhenkanal District is an administrative division of Orissa, India. ... Gajapati is a district of Orissa, India. ... Ganjam is a district in the Indian state of Orissa located on the border of Andhra Pradesh. ... Jagatsinghpur District is an administrative district of Orissa, India. ... Jajpur is a district of Orissa, India. ... Jharsuguda is a district in Orissa, India. ... Kalahandi is a district of Orissa, India. ... Kendrapara District is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. ... Kendujhar District, also known as Keonjhar District or Kendujhargarh District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. ... Khordha is an administrative division of the state of Orissa, India. ... Koraput is a tribal dominated district of Orissa, India, and known for rich and diverse types of mineral deposits. ... Malkangiri is a district of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Mayurbhanj District is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. ... Nabarangpur District, also known as Nabarangapur District, is a district of Orissa, India. ... Nayagarh is a district of Orissa, India created in 1995 when Puri District was split into three distinct districts. ... Nuapada is a district of Orissa, India. ... Kandhamal is a district of Orissa state, India. ... Puri is a district of Orissa, India. ... Rayagada is a mineral-rich district in the southern part of the state of Orissa, in India. ... Sambalpur District is the westernmost district in the state of Orissa, India. ... Sonepur District, also called Sonapur District or Subarnapur District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. ... Sundergarh District, also known as Sundargarh District, is a district in northwestern Orissa state in eastern India. ...

Towns and Cities

Angul is a district of Orissa, India. ... Aska can refer to: Aska Hundred, or Aska härad, was a administrative division of Ostrogothia in Sweden. ... , Balasore (also known as Baleswar or Baleshwar) is a city in Orissa state of eastern India. ... Bargarh, also Baragarh, is a city in western Orissa state, in eastern India. ... Baripada is a city and a municipality in Mayurbhanj district in the state of Orissa, India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bhadrak is a coastal district in India. ... Bhawanipatna is a city in Orissa state of eastern India. ... Bhuban is a town and a notified area committee in Dhenkanal district in the state of Orissa, India. ... — , Bhubaneswar   (Oriya: ଭୁବନେଶ୍ବର, Hindi: भुवनेश्वर, in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA, The Lord of the Universe) or the temple city of India is a city located on the eastern coast of India. ... Balangir, also known as Bolangir, is a town in western Orissa state of India. ... Burla is a small city in Orissa, India. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... , Cuttack   (derived from the Sanskrit word Kataka, which signifies a military camp or a fort or a Government seat protected by an army) is one of the oldest cities in India and the Business Capital of Orissa. ... Dhenkanal is a district of Orissa, India. ... For the city in Rajasthan, see Jaipur. ... Jagatsinghpur is a district of Orissa, India. ... Jharsuguda is a district in Orissa, India. ... JATNI is a small city in Orissa, it is very colse to the Bhubaneswar , the capital city of orissa. ... Khurda District :: Introduction Khurda occupies a distinct place in the historical map of Orissa. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Port of Paradip is the primary seaport in the Indian state of Orissa. ... Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ... , Rourkela   is located in the northwestern tip of the Indian state of Orissa at the heart of a rich mineral belt. ... Sambalpur is a city in the western portion of Indias Orissa state. ... Talcher is a city and a municipality in Anugul district in the Indian state of Orissa. ... Rajgangpur is an industrial city and a municipality in Sundargarh district in the northwestern state of Orissa in eastern India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sundargarh_District. ... Koraput is a city in Koraput District, Orissa, India. ...

References

  1. ^ Rourkela Steel Plant

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tourism of India - States of India - Orissa (471 words)
Orissa, on the eastern coast of India, was once a settlement of non-Aryan and Aryan settlers, called Kalinga.
Orissa is probably the only state where one can study temple architecture in all its successive stages of development.
Orissa is predominantly rural, with fertile green coastal plains rising to the hills of the Eastern Ghats.
Orissa: Information from Answers.com (7482 words)
In 1948 and 1949 the area of Orissa was almost doubled and the population was increased by a third with the addition of 24 former princely states.
Orissa is bounded on the north by Jharkhand, on the north-east by West Bengal, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Andhra Pradesh and on the west by Chhattisgarh.
The Moguls conquered Bengal and Orissa in 1576; however, Orissa was subsequently ceded to the Marathas in 1751.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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