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Encyclopedia > Origins of the Sri Lankan civil war

Sri Lankan Conflict Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

Background
Sri Lanka • History of Sri Lanka
Origins of the Civil War
Origins of the Civil War
Black JulyRiots and pogroms
Human rightsAllegations of state terror
Tamil militant groups
LTTE
LTTE • Attacks • Expulsion of Muslims from Jaffna
Current major figures
Mahinda Rajapaksa
Velupillai Prabhakaran
Karuna Amman
Gotabaya Rajapaksa
Sarath Fonseka
Indian Involvement
Operation Poomalai
Indo-Sri Lanka Accord
Indian Peace Keeping Force
Rajiv GandhiRAW
See also
Military of Sri Lanka
TMVPEPDP
Notable assassinationsChild soldiers
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The origins of the Sri Lankan civil war lie in sharp disagreements over language, access to universities, and riots between Sri Lanka's majority Sinhalese, mostly Buddhist, and minority Tamil, mostly Hindu and Christian, community. These gradually but continuously escalated from the 1920s until the outbreak of civil war in 1983. The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Following is a List of riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka. ... The situation of human rights in Sri Lanka is generally considered to be very poor[1]. Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the states of human rights in Sri Lanka. ... Burnt shell of the post event library Several groups have alleged that there have been instances of state terrorism in Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ... This article is about Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Percy Mahendra Mahinda Rajapaksa () (born November 18, 1945) is the current President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ... Karuna Amman was the second highest commanding officer of the LTTE who broke away due to Tigers attacks on civilians in Batticaloa, corruption within LTTE and the recruitment of child soldiers. ... Gotabhaya Rajapaksa Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) Gotabhaya Rajapaksa RWP, RSP, GR is the current Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Defence of the Government of Sri Lanka. ... Category: ... Operation Poomalai or Eagle Mission 4 was the codename assigned to a mercy mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to airdrop humanitarian relief supplies over the town of Jaffna and Jaffna Peninsula on 4 June 1987. ... The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on July 29, 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President J.R. Jayewardene. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi राजीव गाधीं (IPA: ), born in Mumbai, (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 7th Prime Minister of India (and the 2nd from the Gandhi family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ... The Military of Sri Lanka consists of Three Branches which are the Army, Navy, Air Force which comes under the Ministry of Defence. ... Tamileela Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (Tamil: தமிழீழ மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், English: Tamileela Peoples Liberation Tigers) is a political party and paramilitary group formed in 2004 by break-away LTTE Military Head of Batticaloa district V. Muralitharan (Colonel Karuna). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Since the onset of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 1983, militant and paramilitary groups have assassinated many public figures on suspicion of being sympahtizers or informants, in retaliation for killings and attacks, to eliminate competition from rival groups, or to stifle dissent. ... Military use of children in Sri Lanka has been an internationally recognized problem since the inception of the Sri Lankan civil war in 1983. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ... Language(s) Sinhala Religion(s) Theravada Buddhism, Christianity, small groups of atheists, agnostics, Muslims, others Related ethnic groups Indo-Aryans, Dravidians, Veddahs, Bengalis The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Pre-colonial period

The Mahavamsa reports that the south-Indian Tamil king Ellalan, or Ellare, invaded Sri Lanka leading to an epochal conflict between Tamils and Sinhalese which resulted in a brief period of South Indian rule in the north. However Ellalan was defeated in battle by the Sinhala king Dutugamanu. Later, the Pallava, Chola, Pandya and Kalinga kingdoms from India invaded and dominated the country from time to time along with periods of intense commercial and cultural interactions. These invasions have been interpreted by later historians as an age-old enmity between two ethnic groups. The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ... Ellaalan( c. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Gamini Abhaya or Dutte GaminiKing Dutugamunu(c. ... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ...


Colonial period

Tamils received preferential treatment under British rule (1796-1948). By the time of independence, there were more missionary-built, English-language schools in the principal Tamil-dominated city, Jaffna, than in the rest of the island. This meant that there was a disproportionate number of Sri Lankan Tamils in the civil service, medicine and law in post-independence Sri Lanka. Many historians agree that the roots of the conflict stem from a "divide and rule" policy adopted by the British Raj during their occupation of Sri Lanka.[citation needed] Jaffna District. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also, Ceylonese or Ilankai Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Independence and the new constitution

There was initially little tension amongst Sri Lanka's two largest ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils, when Ponnambalam Arunachalam, a Tamil, was appointed representative of the Sinhalese as well the Tamils in the national legislative council. However, the British Governor William Manning actively encouraged the concept of "communal representation" and created the Colombo seat which was dangled between the Tamils and the Sinhalese.[1] Subsequently, the Donoughmore Commission strongly rejected communal representation, and brought in universal franchise. The decision was strongly opposed by the Tamils, who suddenly realized that they would be reduced to a minority in parliament, according to the proportion of the population they make up. Further, the turbaned upper-caste Tamil leadership which had ruled Jaffna and the East as absentee landlords living in Colombo, realized that they would lose their control of those regions, if simple demographics were to come in. Thus the British historian Jane Russell pins down the rise of activist racist politics to the 1930s, when such politics had already become fashionable in Europe with the rise of Hitler, Mussolini and Franco.[2] In 1935, G. G. Ponnambalam rejected the "Ceylonese" concept of the earlier leaders, and claimed that he was a proud "Dravidian"[3], and followed it with an onslaught on the Mahavamsa in public speeches. His inflammatory speech in Navalapitiya lead to the first Sinhala-Tamil riots,[4] as well as big political dividends to Ponnambalam in the Jaffna electorate. Sir Ponnambalam Arunachchalam CCS (September 14, 1853- January 9, 1924) was a tamil political leader of Ceylon. ... William Manning (1763 - 1835) was a British merchant, politician, and Governor of the Bank of England between 1812 and 1814. ... Ganapathipillai Gangaser Ponnambalam (8 November 1902 – 9 December 1977), known as G.G. Ponnambalam, was a Tamil politician in Ceylon, and then after independence, in Sri Lanka. ... Dravidian may refer to: Dravidian languages, including the Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada languages spoken especially in southern India and Sri Lanka. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...


Ponnambalam, an ultra-right wing Catholic lawyer of great brilliance was an abrasive personality who felt that the vote should be given only to a certain class (or caste) of people, be they Tamil or Sinhala. Ponnambalam, by then the leader of the Tamil community, proposed to the Soulbury Commission that roughly equal numbers of seats be assigned to Tamils and Sinhalese in the proposed independent Ceylon - a proposal which amazed the commissioners who had long accepted universal franchise with one vote per citizen of the country. The commission also rejected Ponnambalam's claim that the British had colonized "traditional Tamil areas" with Sinhala settlers, and pointed out the extensive migration of many Tamils to the south. The Second World War served as an interregnum where the adroit politics of D. S. Senanayake successfully balanced the extremist tendencies of the Sinhala as well as Tamil activists. However, when G. G. Ponnambalam and his Tamil congress joined D. S. Senanayake's moderate, western-oriented United National Party following independence in 1948, S. J. V. Chelvanayakam and his associates moved in to occupy the extreme Tamil political fringe, with the formation of the Tamil Arasu Kachchi (Tamil Sovereign Party), known in English as the Federal Party. Soulbury is a village in Buckinghamshire, England. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... There are two people with the name D. S. Senanayake. ... Samuel James Veluppillai Chelvanayakam (March 31, 1898-April 27, 1977) was a Sri Lankan politician and leader of the Tamil community. ... The Federal Party was a political party in Sri Lanka active from the mid-1950s until the 1970s. ...


Denial of citizenship to estate Tamils

There is a sizable population of Tamils in the Central Province, plantation laborers brought down from India by the British colonial authorities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These Indian Tamils (or Estate Tamils), as they are called, still work mainly in Sri Lanka’s tea plantations. They have been locked in poverty for generations and continue to experience poor living conditions.[5] Although they speak the same language, they are usually considered a separate community from the Sri Lankan Tamils of the North and East. For other usage of this term see the disambiguation page Sri Lanka Tamils The Sri Lanka Tamils of Indian origin or Hill Country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian Tamils are descended from indentured workers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...


The government of D.S. Senanayake passed legislation stripping the estate Tamils of their citizenship in 1949, leaving them stateless. There are two people with the name D. S. Senanayake. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term stateless can mean more than one thing: In law, a stateless person is a person without a state, in other words someone who is not a citizen or subject of any state. ...


The effect was to tilt the island's political balance away from the Tamils. In 1948, at independence, the Tamils had 33% of the voting power in Parliament.[citation needed]. Upon the disenfranchisement of the estate Tamils, however, this proportion dropped to 20%. The Sinhalese could and did obtain more than a 2/3 majority in Parliament, making it impossible for Tamils to exercise an effective opposition to Sinhalese policies affecting them. The main reason for the imbalance was that several multi member constituencies elected a Tamil member of Parliament in a majority Sinhala electorate. The idea in having multi member constituencies was to prevent domination of minorities by a future nationalist government.


Not content with stripping their citizenship, successive governments tried to remove the estate Tamils from the country entirely. In 1962, Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike signed an agreement with Indian Prime Minister L.B. Shastri. A second agreement was signed three years later with Indira Gandhi. These provided that 600,000 of the estate Tamils would be expelled and sent to India over a 15-year period, and 375,000 would be restored their Sri Lankan citizenship. Not all of the former group actually returned to India, and remained in Sri Lanka without the ability to vote, travel abroad, or participate fully in Sri Lankan life. It was not until 2003 that full citizenship rights were restored to the remaining Tamils in the hill country. Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (April 17, 1916 - October 10, 2000) was a politician from Sri Lanka. ... Lal Bahadur Shastri (Hindi लालबहादुर शास्त्री) (October 2, 1904 - January 11, 1966) was the third Prime Minister of independent India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in...


Official Language Policy

Main article: Sinhala Only Act

The detailed reports of the Kandyan Peasantry commission (1947), the Buddhist commission (1956), as well as statistics of preponderant admissions of Tamil speaking students to the university provided a basis for these Sinhala activists who ensured S.W.R.D Bandaranaike won a landslide victory in 1956, campaigning on a strong Sinhala nationalist platform. The Sinhala Only Act was a law passed in the Sri Lankan parliament in 1956. ...


Ethnic conflict was exacerbated by the Sinhala Only Act of 1956. General consensus existed that English should be replaced as the country's official language. In the Act, the Sri Lankan government replaced English with Sinhala only, rather than with joint official languages of Sinhala and Tamil as most of the Tamil community advocated. A small minority Sri Lanka's population in 1956—Sinhala, Tamil and Muslim—were proficient in English; approximately 75% of the population had proficiency or fluency in the Sinhala language, and a majority of the remaining 25% were proficient in Tamil. Some speakers, of course, were and are proficient in multiple languages. The Sinhala Only Act was a law passed in the Sri Lankan parliament in 1956. ...


The SLFP government led by Solomon Bandaranaike was sworn into office on a platform that of helping the growing population of unemployed youth who despite general educational achievement were disenfranchised by the ‘Sinhala Only’ language policy. A majority of civil servants under colonial rule were Tamil whose positions benefited from free English-medium missionary schools in the north and east of the island. When Sinhala became the official state language, many Tamil workers in government employment who were not fluent in Sinhala lost their jobs.[citation needed] The Tamil Federal Party led a group of Tamil volunteers and staged a sit-down satyagraha (peaceful protest). This protest was broken up by alleged hardline Sinhalese nationalist gangs.[citation needed] The Sri Lanka Freedom Party (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය pron:Sri Lanka Nidahas Pakshaya) is a major political party in Sri Lanka. ... Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (1899-September 26, 1959) was Prime Minister (1956-59) of Ceylon (later Sri Lanka). ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ...


The Sinhala Only language policy was gradually weakened by all subsequent governments and in 1987 Tamil was made an official language of Sri Lanka[1], alongside Sinhala. English has remained the de facto language of governance; government activity continues to be carried out in English, including the drafting of legislation. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


1958 riots

In the 1958 riots another 150-200 Tamils were murdered, thousands more were assaulted and Tamil property looted. Over 25,000 Tamil refugees were relocated to the North. In May 1958, Sri Lanka was hit by riots between the Sinhalese and Tamil communities on the island state. ... In May 1958, Sri Lanka was hit by riots between the Sinhalese and Tamil communities on the island state. ...


1970 - Banning of Tamil media and literature importation

Importing Tamil language films, books, magazines, journals, etc. from the cultural hub of Tamil Nadu, India was banned. Sri Lanka also banned groups such as the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagham and the Tamil Youth League. Culturally, Tamil Sri Lankans were cut off from Tamil Nadu. Foreign exchange for the long established practice of Tamil students going to India for university education was stopped. Equally, examinations for external degrees from the University of London were abolished. The government insisted this was a part of a general program of economic self-sufficiency, part of its socialist agenda, however most of the Tamil population did not accept nor believe this. Banning of Tamil language media importation by the government of Sri Lanka in 1970 was perceived by some minority Sri Lankan Tamil politicians as directed against their cultural survival. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Website http://www. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


1971 - Universities Act

Main article: Policy of standardization

During the 1970s university admissions were standardized. This initiative took place to rectify disparities created in university enrollment during colonial rule. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Under the British, English was the state language and consequently greatly benefited English speakers. However, the majority of the Sri Lankan populace lived outside urban areas and did not belong to the social elite, and therefore did not enjoy the benefits of English-medium education. The issue was compounded further by the fact that in northern and eastern regions of the island, where a largely Tamil speaking populace resided, students had access to English-medium education through missionary schools regardless of their socio-economic status. This created a situation where the large proportion of students enrolled in universities were English speaking Tamils, particularly in professional courses such as medicine and engineering. Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...


The government policy of standardization in essence was an affirmative action scheme to assist geographically disadvantaged students to gain tertiary education. The benefits enjoyed by Sinhalese students also meant a significant fall in the number of Tamil students within the university population. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


Rise of separatism

At first, Tamil politicians pushed for a federal system through the Federal Party. This was met with suspicion and resistance from many Sinhalese. In the 1960s, the government of Sirimavo Bandaranaike proceeded to nationalize most missionary schools in the country, secularizing them and changing the language of instruction from English to Sinhala and Tamil. After this, it became rare for Sinhalese and Tamil children to attend school together. Without the advantage of English education, it became increasingly difficult for Tamil youth to gain access to coveted civil service jobs, and unemployment rose. The Federal Party was a political party in Sri Lanka active from the mid-1950s until the 1970s. ... Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (April 17, 1916 - October 10, 2000) was a politician from Sri Lanka. ...


The name of the country was changed from Ceylon to Sri Lanka in 1970, a name of Sinhalese origin that angered and alienated many Tamils.


The concept of a separate nation, Tamil Eelam, was proposed by the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) in 1976 . TULF was a coalition of parties who went on to campaign in the 1977 elections for an independent state for Tamils in Sri Lanka. They won most of the Tamil seats, but the government later banned them from Parliament for advocating an independent state. Area of Sri Lanka claimed for Tamil Eelam Political status Unrecognized state Languages      Tamil (de facto official) English Capital Trincomalee[1][2] (claimed) Kilinochchi (effective) Independence (from Sri Lanka) No official declaration   Area 19,509 km² claimed[3] Population (of claimed area) 3,162,254 (2001)[4] Currency Sri Lankan... TULF Election Symbol The Tamil United Liberation Front (in Sinhala: Tamil Vimuktasi Peramuna) is a political group in Sri Lanka, which seeks autonomy or independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka, which they call Tamil Eelam. ... The 1977 Sri Lankan election heralded the beginning of a new period of Sri Lankas history - a period of unprecendented violence. ...


1977 riots

Riots broke out again in 1977, in response to an alleged assault on Sinhalese policemen. Up to 3000 Tamils were killed[citation needed] and 25,000 fled their homes. The Sri Lankan riots of August 1977 were a series of attacks on Tamils by Sinhalese mobs in revenge for an alleged assault on policemen. ...


1981 - Destruction of the Jaffna Public Library

A mob went on rampage on the nights of May 31 to June 2 burning the market area of Jaffna, the office of the Tamil Newspaper, the home of the member of Parliament for Jaffna, the Jaffna Public Library and killing four people.[6] The destruction of the Jaffna Public Library was the incident which appeared to cause the most distress to the people of Jaffna. The 95,000 volumes of the Public Library destroyed by the fire included numerous culturally important and irreplaceable manuscripts. Witnesses reported the presence of uniformed police officers in the mob[7] and their involvement in the deaths of four individuals. Burning of Jaffna library was a watershed event in the ongoing Sri Lankan civil war. ...


Outbreak of war

Main article: Black July
Main article: Sri Lankan civil war

Location of Sri Lanka Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... Combatants Military of Sri Lanka Indian Peace Keeping Force Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Commanders Junius Richard Jayawardene (1983-89) Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-93) Dingiri Banda Wijetunge (1993-94) Chandrika Kumaratunga (1994-2005) Mahinda Rajapaksa (2005-present) Velupillai Prabhakaran (1983-present) Strength 111,000[1] 11,000[1] The Sri...

References

  1. ^ K. M. de Sila, History of Sri Lanka, Penguin 1995
  2. ^ Communal Politics under the Donoughmore Constitution 1982
  3. ^ Hansard 1935 Column 3045
  4. ^ Hindu Organ, June 1, 1939
  5. ^ BBCSinhala.com
  6. ^ Unesco Quarterly Bulletin, Volume 14, Issue 1. UNESCO (June-September 2004). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  7. ^ Two decades after the burning down of the Jaffna library in Sri Lanka. World Socialist Web Site (30 May 2001). Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

 
 

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