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Encyclopedia > Origins of the Cold War
History of the
Cold War
   Origins
1947–1953
1953–1962
1962–1979
1979–1985
1985–1991
  Timeline
  of events

The Origins of the Cold War are widely regarded to lie most directly within the immediate post-World War II relations between the two main superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union in the years 1945–1947, leading to the Cold War that endured for just under half a century. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Cold War (1947-1953) discusses the period within the Cold War from the establishment of the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the Korean War in 1953. ... The Cold War (1953-1962) discusses the period within the Cold War from the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953 to the Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961. ... The Cold War (1962-1979) refers to the phase within the Cold War that spanned the period between the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis in late October 1962, through the détente period beginning in 1969, to the end of détente in the late 1970s. ... The Cold War (1979-1985) discusses the period within the Cold War between the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 to the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader in 1985. ... The Cold War (1985-1991) discusses the period within the Cold War between the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet leader in 1985 to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... Although the Cold War can be considered to have begun in 1947, the timeline also lists important dates in the origins of the Cold War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Superpower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Events preceding the Second World War, and even the Russian Revolution of 1917, are also considered by many historians as underlying prewar tensions between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...

Contents

Tsarist Russia and the West

Differences between the political and economic systems of Russia and the West predated the Russian Revolution of 1917. From the neo-Marxist World Systems perspective, Russia differed from the West as a result of its late integration into the capitalist world economy in the 19th century. Struggling to catch up with the industrialized West as of the late 19th century, Russia upon the revolution in 1917 was essentially a semi-peripheral or peripheral state whose internal balance of forces, tipped by the domination of the Russian industrial sector by foreign capital, had been such that it suffered a decline in its relative diplomatic power internationally. From this perspective, the Russian Revolution represented a break with a form of dependent industrial development and a radical withdrawal from the capitalist world economy. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed principally by Immanuel Wallerstein, with major contributions by Samir Amin, Giovanni Arrighi and Andre Gunder Frank. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Other scholars have argued that Russia and the West developed fundamentally different political cultures shaped by Eastern Orthodoxy and rule of the tsar. Others have linked the Cold War to the legacy of different heritages of empire-building between the Russians and Americans. From this view, the United States, like the British Empire, was fundamentally a maritime power based on trade and commerce, and Russia was a bureaucratic and land-based power that expanded from the center in a process of territorial accretion. Political culture can be defined as [1] // Kavanagh defines political culture as A shorthand expression to denote the set of values within which the political system operates. Pye describes it as the sum of the fundamental values, sentiments and knowledge that give form and substance to political process. It is... ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Imperial rivalry between the British and tsarist Russia preceded the tensions between the Soviets and the West following the Russian Revolution. Throughout the 19th century, improving Russia's maritime access was a perennial aim of the tsars' foreign policy. Despite Russia's vast size, most of its thousands of miles of seacoast was frozen over most of the year, or access to the high seas was through straits controlled by other powers, particularly in the Baltic and Black Seas. The British, however, had been determined since the Crimean War in the 1850s to slow Russian expansion at the expense of Ottoman Turkey, the "sick man of Europe." With the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, the prospect of Russia seizing a portion of the Ottoman seacoast on the Mediterranean, potentially threatening the strategic waterway, was of great concern to the British. British policymakers were also apprehensive about the close proximity of the Tsar's territorially expanding empire in Central Asia to India, triggering a series of conflicts between the two powers in Afghanistan, dubbed The Great Game. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Ottoman redirects here. ... The term Sick Man of Europe is a nickname associated with a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty and/or poverty. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ...


The British long exaggerated the strength of the relatively backward sprawling Russian empire, which according to the Wisconsin school[1][2]was more concerned with the security of its frontiers than conquering Western spheres of influence. British fears over Russian expansion, however, subsided following Russia's stunning defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict...


Historians associated with the Wisconsin school see parallels between 19th century Western rivalry with Russia and the Cold War tensions of the post-World War II period. From this view, Western policymakers misinterpreted postwar Soviet policy in Europe as expansionism, rather than a policy, like the territorial growth of imperial Russia, motivated by securing vulnerable Russian frontiers.

Political cartoon from 1919 depicting a Bolshevik anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty.
Political cartoon from 1919 depicting a Bolshevik anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty.

Political Cartoon, Literary Digest, 7/5/19 (Copyright expired. ... Political Cartoon, Literary Digest, 7/5/19 (Copyright expired. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ...

Russian Revolution

Main article: Russian Revolution

In World War I, the USA, Britain, and Russia had been allies for a few months from April 1917 until the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in November. In 1918, the Bolsheviks negotiated a separate peace with the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk, This separate peace contributed to American mistrust of the Soviets, since it left the Western Allies to fight the Central Powers alone. Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of strikes and anti-government violence against Tsar Nicholas II The Russian Revolution of 1917, which included: February Revolution, which resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... European military alliances in 1914. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


After the Russian Revolution in 1917, tensions between Russia (including its allies) and the West turned intensely ideological. The landing of U.S. troops in Russia in 1918, which became involved in assisting the anti-Bolshevik Whites in the Russian Civil War helped solidify lasting suspicions among Soviet leadership of the capitalist world. North Russia Campaign Arkhangelsk Oblast May 1918 – Sept 1919 Polar Bear Expedition Russian Civil War North Russia Relief Force // Introduction The North Russia Campaign (also known as the Northern Russian Expedition or the Allied Intervention in North Russia) was the involvement of international troops part of the Allied Intervention in... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


The ideological clash between communism and capitalism began in 1917 following the Russian Revolution, when the USSR emerged as the first major communist power. This was the first event which made Russian-American relations a matter of major, long-term concern to the leaders in each country.[3] Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ...


Interwar diplomacy (1918-1941)

Relations were never particularly good between the two nations in the inter-war period, with limited trade and diplomatic links being established in an atmosphere of extreme suspicion. Memories of US efforts to crush Bolshevism between 1918 and 1920, and Russia's efforts to spread communism beyond its own borders, further aggravated the tensions. The US refused to recognize the Soviet Union until 1933.[4] After winning the civil war (see Russian Civil War), the Bolsheviks proclaimed a worldwide challenge to capitalism.[5] Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Following the postwar Red Scare, many in the U.S. saw the Soviet system as a threat. Differences between the political and economic systems of the United States and the Soviet Union—capitalism versus socialism, models of autarchy versus trade, state planning versus private enterprise—became simplified and refined in national ideologies to represent two ways of life. The atheistic nature of Soviet communism also concerned many Americans. The American ideals of free determination and President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points conflicted with many of the USSR's policies. Political cartoon of the era depicting an anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ...


Up until the mid-1930s, both British and U.S. policymakers commonly assumed the communist Soviet Union to be a much greater threat than disarmed and democratic Germany and focused most of their intelligence efforts against Moscow. The United States did not establish relations with the Soviet government until 1933. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


Even after U.S. recognition of the Soviet Union, each side retained suspicions of the other's intentions and motives. The Soviets resented Western appeasement of Adolf Hitler after the signing of the Munich Pact in 1938. Following the signing of Munich Pact, Joseph Stalin reached his own settlement with Germany, the August 1939 German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact, which similarly shocked the West. Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


However it has also been stated that in the period between the two wars, the U.S. had little interest in the Soviet Union or its intentions. America, after minimal contribution to World War I and the Russian Civil War, began to favor an isolationist stance when concerned with global politics (something which contributed to its late involvement in the Second World War). An example of this can be seen from its absence in the League of Nations, an international political forum, much like the United Nations; President Woodrow Wilson was one of the main advocates for the League of Nations; the United States Congress, however, voted against joining. America was enjoying unprecedented economic growth throughout the 1910s and early 20s. However the Wall Street Crash of 1929 plunged America into the Great Depression and was therefore even less inclined to make contributions to the international community when it suffered from serious financial and social problems at home. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Crowd gathering on Wall Street. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


Wartime alliance (1941-1945)

U.S. Government poster showing a friendly Russian soldier as portrayed by the Allies of World War II.
U.S. Government poster showing a friendly Russian soldier as portrayed by the Allies of World War II.

Following the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, the Soviets and the Western Allies were forced to cooperate, despite their past tensions. The U.S. shipped vast quantities of Lend Lease materiel to the Soviets. Britain and the Soviets signed a formal alliance, but the U.S. did not join until after the Attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Image File history File links Poster_russian. ... Image File history File links Poster_russian. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Lend-Lease This article is about the World War II program. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


During the war, both sides disagreed on military tactics, especially the question of the opening of a second front against Germany in Western Europe.


As early as July 1941, Stalin had asked Britain to invade northern France, but that country was in no position to carry out such a request.[6] Stalin had asked the Western Allies to open a second front since the early months of the war—which finally occurred on D-Day, June 6, 1944. Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Soviets believed at the time, and charged throughout the Cold War, that the British and Americans intentionally delayed the opening of a second front against Germany in order to intervene only at the last minute so as to influence the peace settlement and dominate Europe. Historians such as John Lewis Gaddis dispute this claim, citing other military and strategic calculations for the timing of the Normandy invasion.[7] In the meantime, the Russians suffered heavy casualties, with as many as twenty million dead. Nevertheless, Soviet perceptions (or misconceptions) of the West and vice versa left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers.[8] President George W. Bush and Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient John Lewis Gaddis. ...


Both sides, moreover, held very dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security. The Americans tended to understand security in situational terms, assuming that, if US-style governments and markets were established as widely as possible, countries could resolve their differences peacefully, through international organizations.[9] The key to the US vision of security was a post-war world shaped according to the principles laid out in the 1941 Atlantic Charter -- in other words, a liberal international system based on free trade and open markets. This vision would require a rebuilt capitalist Europe, with a healthy Germany at its center, to serve once more serve as a hub in global affairs.[4] For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... Churchill meets FDR aboard USS Augusta at their 1941 secret meeting at Argentia, Newfoundland. ...


This would also require US economic and political leadership of the postwar world. Europe needed the USA's assistance if it was to rebuild its domestic production and finance its international trade. The USA was the only world power not economically devastated by the fighting. By the end of the war, she was producing around fifty percent of the world's industrial goods.[4]


Soviet leaders, however, tended to understand security in terms of space.[10] This reasoning was conditioned by Russia's historical experiences, given the frequency with which the country had been invaded over the last 150 years.[11] The Second World War experience was particularly dramatic for the Russians: the Soviet Union suffered unprecedented devastation as a result of the Nazi onslaught, and over 20,000,000 Soviet citizens died during the war; tens of thousands of Soviet cities, towns, and villages were leveled; and 30,100 Soviet factories were destroyed.[12] In order to prevent a similar assault in the future, Stalin was determined to use the Red Army to gain control of Poland, to dominate the Balkans and to destroy utterly Germany's capacity to engage in another war. The problem was that Stalin's strategy risked confrontation with the equally powerful United States, who viewed Stalin's actions as a flagrant violation of the Yalta agreement. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


As the war came to an end, it seemed highly likely that cooperation between the Western powers and the USSR would give way to intense rivalry or conflict. This was due primarily to the starkly contrasting economic ideologies of the two superpowers, now quite easily the strongest in the world. Whereas the USA was a liberal, multi-party democracy with an advanced capitalist economy, based on free enterprise and profit-making, the USSR was a one-party Communist dictatorship with a state-controlled economy where private wealth and initiative was all but outlawed. It seemed obvious that, while America would be wholly in favour of a return to democracy for post-war Europe, providing it with allies and important trading partners, Russia (especially under Stalin's rule) would attempt to take advantage of the chaos and spread communism.


Breakdown of postwar peace (1945-1947)

Wartime conferences

Clement Attlee, Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945
Clement Attlee, Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945

Several postwar disagreements between U.S. and Soviet leaders were related to their differing interpretations of wartime and immediate post-war conferences. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source:http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source:http://www. ... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ...


The Tehran Conference in late 1943 was the first Allied conference in which Stalin was present. At the conference the Soviets expressed frustration that the Western Allies had not yet opened a second front against Germany in Western Europe. In Tehran, the Allies also considered the political status of Iran. At the time, the British had occupied southern Iran, while the Soviets had occupied an area of northern Iran bordering the Soviet republic of Azerbaijan. Nevertheless, at the end of the war, tensions emerged over the timing of the pull out of both sides from the oil-rich region. Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ...


At the February 1945 Yalta Conference, the Allies attempted to define the framework for a postwar settlement in Europe. The Allies could not reach firm agreements on the crucial questions: the occupation of Germany, postwar reparations from Germany, and loans. No final consensus was reached on Germany, other than to agree to a Soviet request for reparations totaling $10 billion "as a basis for negotiations."[13] Debates over the composition of Poland's postwar government were also acrimonious.[14] The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ...


Following the Allied victory in May, the Soviets effectively occupied Eastern Europe, while the US had much of Western Europe. In occupied Germany, the US and the Soviet Union established zones of occupation and a loose framework for four-power control with the ailing French and British.

Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. From left to right, first row: Stalin, Truman, Soviet Ambassador Andrei Gromyko, Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Second row: Truman confidant Harry Vaughan [1], Russian interpreter Charles Bohlen, Truman naval aide James K. Vardaman, Jr., and Charles Griffith Ross (partially obscured) [2].
Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. From left to right, first row: Stalin, Truman, Soviet Ambassador Andrei Gromyko, Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Second row: Truman confidant Harry Vaughan [1], Russian interpreter Charles Bohlen, Truman naval aide James K. Vardaman, Jr., and Charles Griffith Ross (partially obscured) [2].

At the Potsdam Conference starting in late July 1945, the Allies met to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier on May 7 and May 8, 1945, VE day. Serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and Eastern Europe.[15] At Potsdam, the US was represented by a new president, Harry S. Truman, who on April 12 succeded to the office upon Roosevelt's death. Truman was unaware of Roosevelt's plans for post-war engagement with the Soviet Union[citation needed],, and more generally uninformed about foreign policy and military matters.[12] The new president, therefore, was initially reliant on a set of advisers (including Ambassador to the Soviet Union Averell Harriman, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Truman's own choice for secretary of state, James F. Byrnes). This group tended to take a harder line towards Moscow than Roosevelt had done.[12] Administration officials favouring cooperation with the Soviet Union and the incorporation of socialist economies into a world trade system were marginalised. The UK was represented by a new prime minister, Clement Attlee, who had replaced Churchill after the Labour Party's defeat of the Conservatives in the 1945 general election. Image File history File links Trumanstalin. ... Image File history File links Trumanstalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Andrei Gromyko Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко) (July 18 (July 5, Old Style), 1909 – July 2, 1989) was Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Charles E. Bohlen Charles Eustis Chip Bohlen (August 30, 1904–December 31, 1974 1), was a United States diplomat (1929–1969) and Soviet Union expert, serving in Moscow before and during World War II, succeeding George F. Kennan as US Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1953–1957... Charles Griffith Ross (1885 - 1950) was a U.S. journalist. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Averell Harriman William Averell Harriman (November 15, 1891 – July 26, 1986) was a Governor of New York. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ...


One week after the Potsdam Conference ended, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki added to Soviet distrust of the United States because they had not informed the USSR of their possession of the atomic bomb; and shortly following the attacks, Stalin protested to U.S. officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan.[16] The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied...


The immediate end of Lend-Lease from America to the USSR after the surrender of Germany also upset some politians in Moscow, who believed this showed the U.S. had no intentions to support the USSR any more than they had to. The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ...


Challenges of postwar demilitarization

The formal accords at the Yalta Conference, attended by U.S President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, was key in shaping Europe's balance of power in the early postwar period. In the words of Immanuel Wallerstein, "When the war ended in Europe, Soviet and Western (that is, U.S., British, and French) troops were located in particular places line in the center of Europe that came to be called the Oder-Neisse Line. Aside from a few minor adjustments, they stayed there. In hindsight, Yalta signified the agreement of both sides that they could stay there and that neither side would use force to push the other out. This tacit accord applied to Asia as well, as evidenced by U.S. occupation of Japan and the division of Korea. Politically, therefore, Yalta was an agreement on the status quo in which the Soviet Union controlled about one third of the world and the United States the rest.[17] Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born 28 September 1930, New York City) is a U.S. sociologist by credentials, but a historical social scientist, or world-systems analyst by trade. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ...


However, toward the end of the war, the prospects of an Anglo-American front against the Soviet Union seemed slim from Stalin's standpoint. At the end of the war, Stalin assumed that the capitalist camp would resume its internal rivalry over colonies and trade, giving opportunity for renewed expansion at a later date, rather than pose a threat to the USSR. Stalin expected the United States to bow to domestic popular pressure for postwar demilitarization. Soviet economic advisors such as Eugen Varga predicted that the U.S. would cut military expenditures, and therefore suffer a crisis of overproduction, culminating in another great depression. Based on Varga's analysis, Stalin assumed that the Americans would offer the Soviets aid in postwar reconstruction, needing to find any outlet for massive capital investments in order to sustain the wartime industrial production that had brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression.[18] However, to the surprise of Soviet leaders, the U.S. did not suffer a severe postwar crisis of overproduction. As Stalin had not anticipated, capital investments in industry were sustained by maintaining roughly the same levels of government spending. Eugen Samuilovich Varga (November 6, 1879 – October 7, 1964) was a Marxist economist of Hungarian origin. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


In the United States, a conversion to the prewar economy nevertheless proved difficult. America's military-industrial complex that was created during the Second World War was not scaled back following the war. Pressures to "get back to normal" were intense. Congress wanted a return to low, balanced budgets, and families clamored to see the soldiers sent back home. The Truman administration worried first about a postwar slump, then about the inflationary consequences of pent-up consumer demand. The G.I. Bill, adopted in 1944, was one answer: subsidizing veterans to complete their education rather than flood the job market and probably boost the unemployment figures. Also, on July 20, 1948, President Truman issued the first peacetime military draft in U.S. history in the early years of the Cold War. In the end, the postwar U.S. government strongly resembled the wartime government, with the military establishment—along with military-security industries—heavily funded. The postwar capitalist slump predicted by Stalin was averted by domestic government management, combined with the U.S. success in promoting international trade and monetary relations. The Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 (better known as the G.I. Bill) provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Conscription is a general term for forced labor demanded by some established authority, e. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Conflicting visions of postwar reconstruction

There were fundamental contrasts between the visions of the United States and the Soviet Union, between the ideals of capitalism and communism. Those contrasts had been simplified and refined in national ideologies to represent two ways of life, each vindicated in 1945 by previous disasters. Conflicting models of autarky versus exports, of state planning against private enterprise, were to vie for the allegiance of the developing and developed world in the postwar years. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


U.S. leaders, following the principles of the Atlantic Charter, hoped to shape the postwar world by opening up the world's markets to trade and markets. Administration analysts eventually reached the conclusion that rebuilding a capitalist Western Europe that could again serve as a hub in world affairs was essential to sustaining U.S. prosperity. Churchill meets FDR aboard USS Augusta at their 1941 secret meeting at Argentia, Newfoundland. ...


World War II resulted in enormous destruction of infrastructure and populations throughout Eurasia with almost no country left unscathed. The only major industrial power in the world to emerge intact—and even greatly strengthened from an economic perspective—was the United States. As the world's greatest industrial power, and as one of the few countries physically unscathed by the war, the United States stood to gain enormously from opening the entire world to unfettered trade. The United States would have a global market for its exports, and it would have unrestricted access to vital raw materials. Determined to avoid another economic catastrophe like that of the 1930s, U.S. leaders saw the creation of the postwar order as a way to ensure continuing U.S. prosperity.


Such a Europe required a healthy Germany at its center. The postwar U.S. was an economic powerhouse that produced 50% of the world's industrial goods and an unrivaled military power with a monopoly of the new atom bomb. It also required new international agencies: the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, which were created to ensure an open, capitalist, international economy. The Soviet Union opted not to take part. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ...


The American vision of the postwar world conflicted with the goals of Soviet leaders, who, for their part, were also motivated to shape postwar Europe. The Soviet Union had, since 1924, placed higher priority on its own security and internal development than on Leon Trotsky's vision of world revolution. Accordingly, Stalin had been willing before the war to engage non-communist governments that recognized Soviet dominance of its sphere of influenced and offered assurances of non-aggression. In September, 1947 the Central Committee secretary Andrei Zhdanov declared that the Truman Doctrine "intended for accordance of the American help to all reactionary regimes, that actively oppose to democratic people, bears an undisguised aggressive character." Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states, agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them even if they find themselves fighting third countries, or even if one is fighting allies of the other. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... Andrei Zhdanov Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov (Андре́й Алекса́ндрович Жда́нов) (February 26 [O.S. February 14] 1896–August 31, 1948) was a Soviet politician. ...


After the war, Stalin sought to secure the Soviet Union's western border by installing communist-dominated regimes under Soviet influence in bordering countries of Poland, Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Having lost 20 million dead in the war, suffered German invasion through Poland twice in 30 years, and suffered tens of millions of casualties from onslaughts from the West three times in the preceding 150 years, the Soviet Union was determined to destroy Germany's capacity for another war. This was in alignment with the U.S. policy which had foreseen returning Germany to a pastoral state without heavy industry (the Morgenthau plan). The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ...


Because of the increasing costs of food imports to avoid mass-starvation in Germany, and with the danger of losing the entire nation to the communism, the U.S. government abandoned the Morgenthau plan in September 1946 with Secretaty of State James F. Byrnes' speech Restatement of Policy on Germany.[19] Seal of the United States Department of State. ... James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ...


With the initial planning for the Marshall plan in mid 1947, a plan which depended on a reactivated German economy[20], restrictions placed on German production were lessened. The roof for permitted steel production was for example raised from 25% of pre-war production levels to 50% of pre-war levels. The U.S. occupation directive JCS 1067 which had prohibited any action designed to maintain or strengthen the German economy was simultaneously scrapped, paving the way for the 1948 currency reform which halted rampant inflation. The dismantling of West German industry was finally halted in 1951, when Germany agreed to place its heavy industry under the control of the European Coal and Steel Community, which in 1952 took over the role of the International Authority for the Ruhr. Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower the German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference the victorious Allies had decided to abolish the German armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member...


The dispute over Germany escalated after Truman refused to give the Soviet Union reparations from West Germany's industrial plants because he believed it would hamper Germany's economic recovery further. Stalin responded by splitting off the Soviet sector of Germany as a communist state. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


At other times there were signs of caution on Stalin's part. The Soviet Union eventually withdrew from northern Iran, at Anglo-American behest; Stalin observed his 1944 agreement with Churchill and did not aid the communists in the struggle against the British-supported monarchial regime in Greece; in Finland he accepted a friendly, noncommunist government; and Russian troops were withdrawn from Czechoslovakia by the end of 1945.


"Long Telegram" and "Mr. X"

In February 1946, George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow helped articulate the growing hard line against the Soviets.[21] The telegram argued that the Soviet Union was motivated by both traditional Russian imperialism and by Marxist ideology; Soviet behavior was inherently expansionist and paranoid, posing a threat to the United States and its allies. Later writing as "Mr. X" in his article "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" in Foreign Affairs (July 1947), Kennan drafted the classic argument for adopting a policy of "containment" toward the Soviet Union. George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as the father of containment and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... This article is about a journal. ...


"Iron Curtain" speech

On March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill, while at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, gave his speech "The Sinews of Peace," declaring that an "iron curtain" had descended across Europe. From the standpoint of the Soviets, the speech was an incitement for the West to begin a war with the USSR, as it called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets [22]"[12] This article is about the day. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Westminster College is the name of several colleges including: In the UK: Westminster College, Cambridge, UK Westminster College, Oxford, UK In the United States: Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Westminster College, Missouri, USA Westminster College, Pennsylvania, USA This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... // Alexander Fulton, founder of the Iowa State Agricultural Society Alice Fulton, poet, author, feminist Andrew Fulton Bob Fulton, Australian rugby league coach Charles B. Fulton David Fulton Davie Fulton Eileen Fulton Fred Fulton, heavyweight boxer Hamilton Fulton James G. Fulton, US Congressman from Pennsylvania John Fulton, guitarist John Fulton Reynolds... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


On September 6, 1946, James F. Byrnes made a speech in Germany, repudiating the Morgenthau Plan and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely. (see Restatement of Policy on Germany) As Byrnes admitted one month later, "The nub of our program was to win the German people [...] it was a battle between us and Russia over minds [....]"[23] The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ...


Disagreement over the beginning of the Cold War

The usage of the term "cold war" to describe the postwar tensions between the U.S.- and Soviet-led blocs was popularized by Bernard Baruch, a U.S. financier and an adviser to Harry Truman, who used the term during a congressional debate in 1947.[24] Image:Bernard Baruch. ...


Since the term "Cold War" was popularized in 1947, there has been extensive disagreement in many political and scholarly discourses on what exactly were the sources of postwar tensions.[25] In the American historiography, there has been disagreement as to who was responsible for the quick unraveling of the wartime alliance between 1945 and 1947, and on whether the conflict between the two superpowers was inevitable or could have been avoided. [26] Discussion of these questions has centered in large part on the works of William Appleman Williams, Walter LaFeber, and John Lewis Gaddis.[27] William Appleman Williams (1921–1990) was one of the 20th centurys most prominent historians of American diplomacy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... President George W. Bush and Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient John Lewis Gaddis. ...


Williams, in his 1959 The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, challenged the "official" version of U.S. foreign policymakers on the causes of the Cold War. [28] Officials in the Truman administration placed responsibility for postwar tensions on the Soviets, claiming that Stalin had violated promises made at Yalta, pursued a policy of "expansionism" in Eastern Europe, and conspired to spread communism throughout the world.[29] Williams, however, placed responsibility for the breakdown of postwar peace mostly on the U.S., citing a range of U.S. efforts to isolate and confront the Soviet Union well before the end of World War II. According to Williams and later writers influenced by his work—such as Walter LaFeber, author of the popular survey text America, Russia, and the Cold War (recently updated in 2002)—U.S. policymakers shared an overarching concern with maintaining capitalism domestically. In order to ensure this goal, they pursued a policy of ensuring an "Open Door" to foreign markets for U.S. business and agriculture across the world. From this perspective, a growing economy domestically went hand-in-hand with the consolidation of U.S. power internationally. [30] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... – Spheres of influence in China prior to the Open Door Policy. ...


Williams and LaFeber also complicated the assumption that Soviet leaders were committed to postwar "expansionism." They cited evidence that Soviet Union's occupation of Eastern Europe had a defensive rationale, and Soviet leaders saw themselves as attempting to avoid encirclement by the United States and its allies.[31] From this view, the Soviet Union was so weak and devastated after the end of the Second World War as to be unable to pose any serious threat to the U.S., which emerged after 1945 as the sole world power not economically devastated by the war, and also as the sole possessor of the atomic bomb until 1949.[32]


Gaddis, however, argues that the conflict was less the lone fault of one side or the other and more the result of a plethora of conflicting interests and misperceptions between the two superpowers, propelled by domestic politics and bureaucratic inertia. While Gaddis does not hold either side as entirely responsible for the onset of the conflict, though he has argued that the Soviets should be held at least slightly more accountable for the problems. According to Gaddis, Stalin was in a much better position to compromise than his Western counterparts, given his much broader power within his own regime than Truman, who was often undermined by vociferous political opposition at home. Asking if it were possible to predict if the wartime alliance would fall apart within a matter of months, leaving in its place nearly a half century of cold war, Gaddis wrote in a 1997 essay, "Geography, demography, and tradition contributed to this outcome but did not determine it. It took men, responding unpredictably to circumstances, to forge the chain of causation; and it took [Stalin] in particular, responding predictably to his own authoritarian, paranoid, and narcissistic predisposition, to lock it into place." [33]


See also

Western betrayal is a popular term in many Central European nations (including Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania and the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries which violated allied pacts and agreements during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through... As soon as the term Cold War was popularized to refer to postwar tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, interpreting the course and origins of the conflict has been a source of heated controversy among historians, political scientists, and journalists. ... The Cold War was reflected in culture through music, movies, books, and other media. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Wisconsin school of interpretation, which argues that the U.S. and the Soviet Union were economic rivals that made them natural adversaries regardless of ideology and views the U.S. as the primary causing agent for the Cold War
  2. ^ The term "Wisconsin school" refers to interpretations of the Cold War influenced by William Appleman Williams, a historian at the University of Wisconsin. The term is used because his research interests were continued by some of his students, particularly Walter La Feber.
  3. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, Russia, the Soviet Union, and the United States An Interpretive History. 1990, p. 57
  4. ^ a b c Walter LaFeber, "Cold War." A Reader's Companion to American History, Eric Foner and John A. Garrraty, eds. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.
  5. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  6. ^ Gaddis 1990, p. 149
  7. ^ Gaddis 1990, pp. 151-153
  8. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, Russia, the Soviet Union, and the United States An Interpretive History. 1990, p. 151.
  9. ^ Gaddis 1990, p. 156
  10. ^ Gaddis 1990, p. 176
  11. ^ Id.
  12. ^ a b c d David F. Schmitz, "Cold War (1945–91): Causes" The Oxford Companion to American Military History. John Whiteclay Chambers II, ed., Oxford University Press 1999.
  13. ^ Gaddis, 164
  14. ^ Walter LaFeber, Russia, America, and the Cold War (New York, 2002), p. 15
  15. ^ Peter Byrd, "Cold War" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  16. ^ LaFeber 2002, p. 28
  17. ^ Immanuel Wallerstein, "The Eagle Has Crash Landed," Foreign Policy, July-August 2002.
  18. ^ William O. McCagg, Stalin Embattled, 1943-1948, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1978. pp. 63, 151-8.
  19. ^ John Gimbel "On the Implementation of the Potsdam Agreement: An Essay on U.S. Postwar German Policy" Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 87, No. 2. (Jun., 1972), pp. 242-269.
  20. ^ Pas de Pagaille! Time Magazine July 28, 1947.
  21. ^ Schmitz
  22. ^ Stalin Interview With Pravda on Churchill. New York Times, 1946, March 14, p. 6.
  23. ^ Curtis F. Morgan, Southern Partnership: James F. Byrnes, Lucius D. Clay and Germany, 1945 1947
  24. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024721
  25. ^ Jonathan Nashel, "Cold War (1945–91): Changing Interpretations" The Oxford Companion to American Military History. John Whiteclay Chambers II, ed., Oxford University Press 1999.
  26. ^ Brinkley, Alan (1986). American History: A Survey. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 798-799.
  27. ^ Brinkley, 798-799
  28. ^ "Cold War," Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Craig Calhoun, ed. Oxford University Press. 2002.
  29. ^ Brinkley, 798-799
  30. ^ Jonathan Nashel, "Cold War (1945–91): Changing Interpretations" The Oxford Companion to American Military History. John Whiteclay Chambers II, ed., Oxford University Press 1999.
  31. ^ Calhoun
  32. ^ Brinkley, 798-799
  33. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking the Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997)

Walter LaFeber (born 1933 in Walkerton, Indiana) was a Marie Underhill Noll Professor and a Steven Weisse Presidential Teaching Fellow of History at Cornell University. ... President George W. Bush and Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient John Lewis Gaddis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... President George W. Bush and Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient John Lewis Gaddis. ... Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born 28 September 1930, New York City) is a U.S. sociologist by credentials, but a historical social scientist, or world-systems analyst by trade. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

References

  • Gaddis, John Lewis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War 1941–1947, Columbia University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-231-08302-5 (pbk) ISBN 0-231-03289-7 (hbk)
  • Porter, Bernard, The Lion's Share: A Short History of British Imperialism 1850-1995, Longman, 1996. pp. 84-89.
  • Yergin, Daniel, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State, Houghton Mifflin, 1977. ISBN 0-395-24670-9

President George W. Bush and Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient John Lewis Gaddis. ...

External links

  • The division of Europe Portal to topic documents
  • The beginning of the Cold War Portal to topic documents
  • James F. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly The division of Germany
  • The Sinnews of Peace Recording of Winston Churchill's speech in 5, March, 1946, warning about the advance of communism in central Europe.
  • Dividing up Europe The 1944 division of Europe between the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom into zones of influence.

 
 

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