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Encyclopedia > Original Sin
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By original sin (also called ancestral sin, hereditary sin, birth sin, or person sin), when used as a theological term, is meant the fallen state of humanity. In the history of Christianity this condition has been characterized in ways ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency to something as drastic as total depravity. Western Christian tradition regards it as the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born, distinct from any actual sins that a person may or may not commit later. Eastern Christian Tradition too identifies original sin as physical and spiritual death, the spiritual death being the loss of "the grace of God, which quickened (the soul) with the higher and spiritual life"[1] Others see original sin also as the cause of actual sins: "a bad tree bears bad fruit" (Matthew 7:17, NIV), although, in this view, original and actual sin may be difficult to distinguish.[2] Original Sin refers to several things: Original sin - According to Christian tradition, the general and non-personal condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological doctrine that derives from the Augustinian doctrine of original sin and is advocated in many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of Lutheranism,1 Anglicanism and Methodism,2 Arminianism, and Calvinism. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... In Christian theology, actual sins are individual, concrete evil actions, performed in violation of the Law of God as recorded in the Bible. ... In Christian theology, actual sins are individual, concrete evil actions, performed in violation of the Law of God as recorded in the Bible. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ...


Used with the definite article, "the original sin" refers to the first sin, committed when Adam and Eve succumbed to the serpent's temptation, commonly known as "the Fall". For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos The Creation of Eve, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Eve from the side of Adam. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ...


This first sin ("the original sin") is traditionally understood to be the cause of "original sin" (the fallen state of humanity).


While Christians cite references to original sin in the Old Testament (such as Psalm 51:5), the doctrine is not found in Jewish theology. Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


The Western tradition, both Catholic and Protestant, concerning original sin is largely based on writings by Augustine of Hippo, who concluded that unbaptized infants go to hell[3][4] because of original sin. The Latin Church Fathers who followed Augustine adopted his position, and it became a point of reference for Latin theologians in the Middle Ages.[5] In the later mediaeval period, some theologians continued to hold Augustine's view, others held that unbaptized infants suffered no pain at all: unaware of being deprived of the beatific vision, they enjoyed a state of natural, not supernatural happiness. Starting around 1300, unbaptized infants were often said to inhabit the "limbo of infants".[6] The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1261 declares: "As regards children who have died without Baptism, the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God, as she does in her funeral rites for them. Indeed, the great mercy of God who desires that all men should be saved, and Jesus' tenderness toward children which caused him to say: 'Let the children come to me, do not hinder them,'[7] allow us to hope that there is a way of salvation for children who have died without Baptism. All the more urgent is the Church's call not to prevent little children coming to Christ through the gift of holy Baptism." But the theory of Limbo, while it "never entered into the dogmatic definitions of the Magisterium ... remains ... a possible theological hypothesis".[8] Augustinus redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... In Roman Catholic theology, the beatific vision is the eternal, direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme happiness or blessedness. ... This article is about the theological concept. ...


Augustine's formulation of original sin was popular among Protestant reformers, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin, and also, within Roman Catholicism, in the Jansenist movement, but this movement was declared heretical by the Roman Catholic Church.[9] Like other traditional church doctrines, original sin has been denied or reinterpreted by various modern Christian denominations (such as the Unity Church) and theologians (such as Matthew Fox). Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unity... Matthew Fox (1940-) is a controversial American priest and theologian, and the leading exponent of Creation Spirituality. ...


By analogy the term "original sin" is used in fields other than religion to indicate a pervading inherent flaw.[10]

Contents

The original sin (the Fall)

Main article: Fall of Man

Adam, Eve, and a female serpent (possibly Lilith) at the entrance to Notre Dame de Paris In Abrahamic religion, the Fall of Man, the Story of the Fall, or simply, the Fall, refers to mans transition from a state of innocence to a state of knowing only dualities such...

Classical Biblical view

Adam and Eve's sin, as recounted in the Book of Genesis is sometimes called in Hebrew החטא הקדמון (the original sin), on the basis of the traditional Christian term. But the term used in classical Jewish literature is חטא אדם הראשׁון (the sin of the first man, or of Adam). Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ...

Michelangelo's painting of the sin of Adam and Eve (the Fall)
Michelangelo's painting of the sin of Adam and Eve (the Fall)

The account in Genesis 2-3 implies that Adam and Eve initially lived in a state of intimate communion with God. The narrative reads that God "caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" (Gen. 2:9, NASB). While not forbidding Adam, in that state, to eat of the tree of life, God forbade him to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, warning him that he would surely die if he did (Gen. 2:16-17). The serpent persuaded Eve to eat from the latter tree and "she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate" (Gen. 3:6, NASB). After eating the fruit, Adam and Eve became aware of their nakedness (Gen. 3:7). God bestowed a curse upon each of the active participants. The serpent has a lowly physical form and there is conflict between the woman and the serpent and between each one's offspring (Gen. 3:14-15). The woman undergoes childbirth pains and is dominated by the husband who is the object of her desire (Gen. 3:16). And the man has to struggle for his sustenance (Gen. 3:17-19). In addition, Adam and Eve are expelled from the Garden of Eden, so that they may not eat of the "tree of life" and so live for ever (Gen. 3:22-24). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4096x1846, 1028 KB) Description:  Title: de: Deckenfresko zur Schöpfungsgeschichte in der Sixtinischen Kapelle, Hauptszene: Ursünde und Vertreibung aus dem Paradies Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4096x1846, 1028 KB) Description:  Title: de: Deckenfresko zur Schöpfungsgeschichte in der Sixtinischen Kapelle, Hauptszene: Ursünde und Vertreibung aus dem Paradies Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... In the Bibles Book of Genesis, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil was the tree in the middle of the Garden of Eden from which God forbade Adam and Eve to eat. ... The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... Nude redirects here. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ...


Reform and Conservative Judaism's views

The more modern liberal branches of Judaism, such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism, which see no "evil" other than the evil actions of human beings, disagree with traditions that identify the serpent with Satan. Eve's only transgression was that she disobeyed God's order. Adam was with her the entire time and at no time stopped her. Therefore, it is incorrect to blame Eve alone. Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden and had to live ordinary, human lives. In other words, they had to "leave home" and grow up and live as responsible human beings. If they had never eaten from the forbidden tree, they would never have discovered their capacity to do evil. God gave Adam and Eve free will when He created them, but it was not until they ate the fruit that they became aware of the possibility of choosing to do evil or to do good, as they originally had no knowledge of both. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Dead Sea Community and Ancient Judaism

Some of the ancient Jewish peoples, most likely around the Second Temple era, viewed original sin not coming from Adam and Eve, but rather from just before the flood (Genesis 6:2) where the "sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married". The interpretation is that these "sons of God" were fallen spirits who married earthly women and their fallen state gets entered into humanity that way. This view is clearly seen in the Dead Sea community as the origins of original sin. Although this may have been in opposition to the Rabbinic Tradition at the time which saw dual created Adam, one as corrupt and fallen and the other as the Spiritual Man.


Disputes concerning original sin

The doctrine of original sin has received considerable scrutiny from contemporary Christians. The chief dispute centres over the emotional argument of whether an apparently innocent baby can be deemed subject to sin and death. The dispute centres around distinctions between personal sin (i.e. freely willed, conscious and understood) and original sin (not the result of free will). The Augustinian tradition makes a clear distinction between sin which is the result of freely and consciously chosen actions, and the impersonal nature of original sin; namely the unchosen context and situations into which the child is born and which surrounds the baby, and into which the child might be educated and formed. Effectively, the Augustinian teaching says that even though the baby has not made any conscious choice, it is nevertheless personally affected by—and subject to—sin, and that God's grace is essential to give hope and salvation. The Augustinian view is seen by some scholars as a negative view of human nature, since Augustine of Hippo believed that the human race, without God's help, is depraved. Augustinus redirects here. ... Augustinus redirects here. ...


Original sin, from the Augustinian perspective, is not a free and individual choice by a baby; but rather the effect of the sum total of "world sin", taught analogously through the story of the sin of Adam and Eve. The Augustinian doctrine of original sin teaches that every individual is born into a broken world where sin is already active; that they are inevitably influenced personally by the actions of others and the consequences of choices made by others. The Augustinian effectively believes that human nature—and hence every individual person—is flawed. The Augustinian remedy for original sin is baptism; the ritual washing away of the unchosen but inevitable condition of birth sin; and a vigorous declaration by Christians that sin shall not prevail, but that God's grace can overpower it with our free cooperation. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Some individuals challenge the entire doctrine of original sin as unbiblical, understanding that the children should not be punished for the sins of the fathers. Ezekiel 18:20 states unequivocally that descendants are not to be punished for their parents' sins. On the other hand, Exodus 20:5 says, "I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me." Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in...


Those who understand original sin as personal guilt and sin, rather than as sin in an analogous sense, are confronted with a yet graver difficulty, particularly if they conceive of sin as a matter of a person's soul as such, rather than of the ensouled body, or enfleshed soul, that is the person. Sin, they say, is an issue of the soul, but, if we inherit our bodies from our parents and our souls from God, then original sin, which is inherited with human nature from our parents, must be a matter of the body; or, if it is a matter of the soul, original sin must come from God.


Judaism rejects the concept of the original sin altogether and stresses free will and men's responsibility of their actions rather than religious obedience or faith. Why, they ask, would God, who is, by dogma, universal unconditional Love, create sentient and sapient beings, then intentionally let them become corrupt—and then punish them from generation to generation with eternal torture for simply just being born in the world and for nothing else—and judge people not on their actions but by their faith or its lack—and then by whim save the beings from nothing else but from his very own wrath.


Christian churches that deny original sin have differing explanations for the ancient Christian practice of conferring on infants what the Nicene Creed calls the "one baptism for the forgiveness of sins". Several denominations (following anabaptist traditions) deny offering infant baptism altogether and insist that only persons who have reached the "age of accountability" should be baptized. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek... Coming of age is a young persons formal transition from adolescence to adulthood. ...


Original sin (Christian doctrine)

There are wide-ranging disagreements among Christian groups as to the exact understanding of the doctrine about a state of sinfulness or absence of holiness affecting all human beings, even children, with some Christian groups denying it altogether.


Original sin in the New Testament

The doctrine of original sin is thought by some to be implied in the Apostle Paul's description of human sinfulness as no less universal than Christ's free gift of righteousness, especially in the verses here italicized:

Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.
Romans 5:12-14, ESV
Therefore, as one trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all men. For as by the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man's obedience the many will be made righteous. Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
—Rom. 5:18-21, ESV

Those who identify original sin with concupiscence apply to it also Paul's description of a general experience: The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible. ... In theology, concupiscence refers to the orientation or inclination of human desire towards a partial good before any voluntary and conscious decision. ...

I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate. Now if I do what I do not want, I agree with the law, that it is good. So now it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me. For I know that nothing good dwells in me, that is, in my flesh. For I have the desire to do what is right, but not the ability to carry it out. For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I keep on doing. Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I who do it, but sin that dwells within me.
So I find it to be a law that when I want to do right, evil lies close at hand. For I delight in the law of God, in my inner being, but I see in my members another law waging war against the law of my mind and making me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members. Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death?
—Rom. 7:15-24, ESV

Those who see original sin not as a positive reality but as something merely negative, namely lack of holiness, see the doctrine as implicit also in the teaching of Jesus, as expressed, for example, in the words: "I am the vine; you are the branches. If you remain in me and I in you, you will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing" (John 15:5, TNIV). For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... Todays New International Version is an English translation of the Bible developed by the Committee on Bible Translation, or CBT. The CBT is the same organization that translated the New International Version (NIV) in the 1970s. ...


Also, within Christian circles we see that John writes about "that ancient serpent" in Revelations 20:2. Which (unlike non-Christian interpretations) ties the serpent in to the garden to be identified as Satan.


Original sin in Roman Catholicism

Depiction of the original sin. Illuminated parchment, Spain, circa 950-955 A.D.
Depiction of the original sin. Illuminated parchment, Spain, circa 950-955 A.D.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church says: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1282x1922, 1052 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Original sin User:Dsmdgold/Manuscript galleries under construction ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1282x1922, 1052 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Original sin User:Dsmdgold/Manuscript galleries under construction ...

By his sin Adam, as the first man, lost the original holiness and justice he had received from God, not only for himself but for all human beings.


Adam and Eve transmitted to their descendants human nature wounded by their own first sin and hence deprived of original holiness and justice; this deprivation is called "original sin".


As a result of original sin, human nature is weakened in its powers, subject to ignorance, suffering and the domination of death, and inclined to sin (this inclination is called "concupiscence").


Catechism of the Catholic Church, 416-418

Catechism of the Catholic Church explains that in "yielding to the tempter, Adam and Eve committed a personal sin, but this sin affected the human nature that they would then transmit in a fallen state … original sin is called "sin" only in an analogical sense: it is a sin "contracted" and not "committed"—a state and not an act" (404). This "state of deprivation of the original holiness and justice … transmitted to the descendants of Adam along with human nature" (Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 76) involves no personal responsibility or personal guilt on their part (cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 405). Personal responsibility and guilt were Adam's, who because of his sin, was unable to pass on to his descendants a human nature with the holiness with which it would otherwise have been endowed, in this way implicating them in his sin.


Though Adam's sinful act is not the responsibility of his descendants, the state of human nature that has resulted from that sinful act has consequences that plague them: "Human nature, without being entirely corrupted, has been harmed in its natural powers, is subject to ignorance, suffering and the power of death, and has a tendency to sin. This tendency is called concupiscence" (Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 77), but is distinct from original sin itself.


The Church has always held baptism to be "for the remission of sins", and, as mentioned in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 403, infants too have traditionally been baptized, though not guilty of any actual personal sin. The sin that through baptism was remitted for them could only be original sin, with which they were connected by the very fact of being human beings. Based largely on this practice, Saint Augustine of Hippo articulated the teaching in reaction to Pelagianism, which insisted that human beings have of themselves, without the necessary help of God's grace, the ability to lead a morally good life, and thus denied both the importance of baptism and the teaching that God is the giver of all that is good. Augustinus redirects here. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ...


The Roman Catholic Church did not accept all of Augustine's ideas, which he developed to counter the claim by Pelagius that the influence of Adam on other human beings was merely that of bad example. For instance, the Church did not adopt the opinion that involvement in Adam's guilt and punishment takes effect through the dependence of human procreation on the sexual passion, in which the spirit's inability to control flesh is evident. Rather, the Church teaches that original sin comes to the soul simply from the new person taking his nature from one whose nature itself had original sin. In this way, the Church argues that original sin is not imputing the sin of the father to the son; rather, it is simply the inheritance of a wounded nature from the father, which is an unavoidable part of reproduction.


The Roman Catholic doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary is that Mary was conceived free from original sin: "the most Blessed Virgin Mary was, from the first moment of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege of almighty God and by virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, Savior of the human race, preserved immune from all stain of original sin."[11] The exceptional character that Catholic doctrine attributes to the conception of Mary thus depends on the reality of original sin. If, as some hold, original sin did not exist, all human beings, not just Mary, would be conceived without "all stain of original sin". Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...


Original sin in Eastern Christianity

Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism, which together make up Eastern Christianity, acknowledge that the introduction of ancestral sin into the human race affected the subsequent environment for mankind, but never accepted Augustine of Hippo's notions of original sin and hereditary guilt.[12] The act of Adam is not the responsibility of all humanity, but the consequences of that act changed the reality of this present age of the cosmos. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ...


Instead of the term "original sin", some prefer to use in English the term "ancestral sin", a literal translation of the term traditional in Greek (προπατορική ἁμαρτία). But the term traditional in English, "original sin", is also found in Orthodox catechisms such as the following, one written originally in English, the other translated from Russian: "[O]riginal sin is hereditary. It did not remain only Adam and Eve's. As life passes from them to all of their descendants, so does original sin. We all of us participate in original sin because we are all descended from the same forefather, Adam. This creates a problem for many people. They ask, why should we be responsible for the actions of Adam and Eve? Why should we have to pay for the sins of our parents? They say. Unfortunately, this is so, because the consequence of original sin is the distortion of the nature of man. Of course, this is unexplainable and belongs to the realm of mystery, but we can give one example to make it somewhat better understood. Let us say that you have a wild orange tree, from which you make a graft. You will get domesticated oranges, but the root will still be that of the wild orange tree. To have wild oranges again, you must regraft the tree. This is what Christ came for and achieved for fallen man" (Orthodox Catechism − Basic Teachings of the Orthodox Faith by Metropolitan Archbishop Sotirios).[13] "As from an infected source there naturally flows an infected stream, so from a father infected with sin, and consequently mortal, there naturally proceeds a posterity infected like him with sin, and like him mortal."[14] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The view of original sin is similar in the Armenian branch of Oriental Orthodoxy. The website of the Eastern United States diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Church, speaking of Mary, states: "According to the teaching of the Armenian Church, at the time of the Annunciation when the Holy Spirit entered her she was cleansed of all sin (original sin) as she was to be the vessel in which God manifest was to be incarnated."[15] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest...


Original sin in Lutheranism

The second article in Lutheranism's Augsburg Confession presents its doctrine of original sin in summary form: Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ...

It is also taught among us that since the fall of Adam all men who are born according to the course of nature are conceived and born in sin. That is, all men are full of evil lust and inclinations from their mothers’ wombs and are unable by nature to have true fear of God and true faith in God. Moreover, this inborn sickness and hereditary sin is truly sin and condemns to the eternal wrath of God all those who are not born again through Baptism and the Holy Spirit. Rejected in this connection are the Pelagians and others who deny that original sin is sin, for they hold that natural man is made righteous by his own powers, thus disparaging the sufferings and merit of Christ.[16]

Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ...

Original sin in mainstream Protestantism

The notion of original sin as interpreted by Augustine of Hippo was affirmed by the Protestant Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin. Both Luther and Calvin agreed that humans inherit Adamic guilt and are in a state of sin from the moment of conception. This inherently sinful nature (the basis for the Calvinistic doctrine of "total depravity") results in a complete alienation from God and the total inability of humans to achieve reconciliation with God based on their own abilities. Not only do individuals inherit a sinful nature due to Adam's fall, but since he was the federal head and representative of the human race, all whom he represented inherit the guilt of his sin by imputation. Augustinus redirects here. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological doctrine that derives from the Augustinian doctrine of original sin and is advocated in many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of Lutheranism,1 Anglicanism and Methodism,2 Arminianism, and Calvinism. ...


The Methodist Church, founded by John Wesley, upholds Article VII in the Articles of Religion in the Book of Discipline of the Methodist Church: The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... The Articles of Religion are an official doctrinal statement of American Methodism. ... The Book of Discipline constitutes the law and doctrine of the United Methodist Church[1]. It follows similar works for its predecessor denominations. ...

Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam (as the Pelagians do vainly talk), but it is the corruption of the nature of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam, whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and of his own nature inclined to evil, and that continually.[17]

Because of this conundrum, Protestants believe that God the Father sent Jesus into the world. The personhood, life, ministry, suffering, and death of Jesus, as God incarnate in human flesh, is meant to be the atonement for original sin as well as actual sins; this atonement is according to some rendered fully effective by the Resurrection of Jesus. A conundrum is a puzzling question. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ...


Original sin in Restoration Movement

Most Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement Churches, such as the Churches of Christ, Christian Churches, and other Congregational Churches of the same origin, reject the notion of original sin, believing only in the sins for which men and women are personally responsible. Adam and Eve did bring sin into the world by introducing disobedience. This spread to further generations in much the same way other ideas spread, thus ensuring an environment that will produce sin in any individual above "The Age of Accountability." Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone...


In the Old Testament, in the Book of Ezekiel, God's people are rebuked for suggesting that the children would die/suffer for their father's sins: Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ...

The word of the Lord came to me: "What do you people mean by quoting this proverb about the land of Israel: 'The parents eat sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge'? As surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, you will no longer quote this proverb in Israel. For everyone belongs to me, the parent as well as the child—both alike belong to me. The one who sins is the one who will die.
—Ezek. 18:1-4, TNIV

The Lord then gives examples of a good father with a bad son, of a good son with a bad father, etc. and states:

"Yet you ask, 'Why does the son not share the guilt of his father?' Since the son has done what is just and right and has been careful to keep all my decrees, he will surely live. The one who sins is the one who will die. The child will not share the guilt of the parent, nor will the parent share the guilt of the child. The righteousness of the righteous will be credited to them, and the wickedness of the wicked will be charged against them.
—Ezek. 18:19-20, TNIV

God concludes: "house of Israel, I will judge each of you according to your own ways … Repent! Turn away from all your offenses; then sin will not be your downfall. Rid yourselves of all the offenses you have committed, and get a new heart and a new spirit" (Ezek. 18:30-31, TNIV).


Many Restoration movement churches and individuals, however, do believe that Adam's sin made us depraved (that is, with a tendency towards sin) without making us guilty of Adam's sin. Man is predisposed towards sin, but though every person sins, they are not intrinsically forced to sin.


Original sin for Seventh-day Adventists

One authoritative Adventist position is outlined by reference to publicly available theological positions available on the General Conference of the Seventh-day Adventist Church’s official website on theological doctrine, the Biblical Research Institute.[18] The General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists[1] is the governing organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. ... The Biblical Research Institute is a service department of the Seventh-day Adventist Church with the three stated functions of research, apologetics, and service to the church. ...


Original sin according to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (also known as the LDS Church, and the "Mormons") teaches a doctrine, known as the Fall of Adam, that the actions of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden brought about spiritual and physical death. Latter-day Saints believe that separation from God (spiritual death) was an intended part of the plan of God, but that Adam and Eve needed to exercise their own free will and were thus given to "choose for themselves." The main objective of the plan was that mankind should be tested (see Book of Abraham). Because separation from God was necessary, Latter-day Saints see the transgression of Adam and Eve as a great and necessary choice to gain knowledge and experience, rather than a "mistake". After committing their transgression, Adam and Eve were cast out of God's presence and were capable of suffering physical pain and death. Their choice to enter that fallen state willingly meant that God's "Plan of Happiness" could proceed as intended, and was in line with His will, because of the foreordination of Jesus Christ as the Redeemer from death and the Atoning One. For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... For other meanings of this name, see Book of Abraham (disambiguation). ...


Mormons do not believe that the transgression in Eden was of a sexual nature—nor could it have been, they hold, as God commanded Adam and Eve to multiply and replenish the Earth, implying that sexual relations between our progenitors were sanctioned, and that they were de facto married by God in Eden. Likewise, they do not blame Eve for being the first to partake of the fruit, but rather celebrate her wisdom in recognizing that her descendants would have to be born, live, and make righteous choices on Earth, learn to repent through the Atonement of Jesus Christ, and pass through death, in order eventually to be fully redeemed and return to live with God again. The idea is that it is better to pass through the sorrow of this life, in order to know the Good from the Evil, rather than to exist in a perpetual state of innocence and stagnant ignorance. (2 Nephi 2:11)


Mormons do not believe in the concept of original sin as it is used in modern Christendom, but that everyone will be punished for their own individual sins and not for any transgression of Adam or Eve.[19] Neither do Mormons believe that children are conceived in sin or come into the world with any kind of "impurity" whatsoever. Rather, Jesus Christ atoned for any "original guilt" and the sins of parents cannot be answered upon the heads of their children. Furthermore, Mormons hold that little children are incapable of even committing sin and as such have no need of baptism until age eight when they can fully discern right from wrong, and are thus capable of sin and can be held accountable. Little children who die before reaching the age of accountability (even though they are unbaptized) are automatic heirs of salvation and are saved in the Celestial Kingdom of God.


The original sin in the Unification Church

Unification Church members believe that there were an actual Adam and Eve although the names were not necessarily the same. The story of the fall, as written in the Bible, is interpreted by Unificationists as an actual historical event rather than a parable. However, some elements in the story of the fall in Genesis, the Tree of Life, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, the forbidden fruit, and the snake, are believed to be, by Unificationists, symbolic metaphors for ideal man, ideal woman, sexual intercourse, and Satan respectively. The essence of the fall is that Eve was convinced by an angelic being (Satan) to center her love on Satan instead of God (Yahweh). Eve then convinced Adam to center his love also on Satan. This was consummated through sexual intercourse between Adam and Eve apart from the will of God. Unificationists generally believe there was a “spiritual (sexual) fall,” between Eve and the angel, and a “physical (sexual) fall” between Eve and Adam. Unificationists have the literal belief, based on their strict moral code of "absolute love" and sexual purity and the need for indemnity, that since the "fall of humanity" all of human history has been God's providence to restore man to his original position and purpose of creation as a loving child with his loving parent God. The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ...


Unification theology views the Biblical tale of the fall partially in symbolic terms. The serpent here, as in some other interpretations, represents Lucifer. Eve's acceptance of the fruit symbolizes an act of adultery, by which evil enters into Eve; Adam's acceptance of the fruit likewise is an act of intercourse, which spreads the evil from Eve to Adam. Having not waited until they had matured into perfect love with God, they became separated from God: "spiritually dead" and consequently could not raise their descendants to God's original ideal of creation. God's providence through history has been to raise man up spiritually to the point where the Messiah can re-establish the family of God's original purpose of creation without the fall. This article is about the star or fallen angel. ...


The Unification Church sees that the pattern (attitudes of thinking and acting) of the angel's fall became part of man's inclination to sin (concupiscence), which is called Fallen Nature:

  1. a failure to see from God's viewpoint and love others as God loves them; i.e., to perceive from a self-centered rather than God-centered viewpoint
  2. desire and action to remove oneself from God's appointed position
  3. a reversal of dominion over those whose position it is not yours to dominate
  4. a multiplication of evil: self-justification, gathering others to one's viewpoint in opposition to God's viewpoint, sin etc.


This pattern can easily be seen in the failure of most human relationships by simply substituting the term "boss, leader, superior, spouse, parent, etc." for God and "subordinate" for the complainant. [It can also work in reverse as when an employer refuses to fulfill the obligations of his position and forces others to take responsibility that is not theirs] See "Equity Theory" as a later-developed research-psychology parallel of the Divine Principle's theological/ethical pattern.


Unificationists strive to overcome this fallen pattern by living for the sake of others, forgiving "enemies", striving to work for reconciliation and peace from historical racial, ethnic, religious divisions.


The 2nd chapter of the Divine Principle explains the fall and original sin.[20] The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle (in Korean, Wolli Kangron) is the main theological textbook of the Unification Church, held to have the status of scripture by believers. ...


Unificationists believe that the fallen lineage begun by the first parents'original sin (e.g. Jn 8:44) is changed to a heavenly lineage through the God-sanction marriage.Blessing Ceremony. In the Unification Church the Blessing is considered the most important and central ceremony in a person’s spiritual life. ...


Original sin in the Unity Church

The Unity Church believes original sin to be false doctrine, and a blasphemous one. If a manufacturer consistently puts out a product with the same flaw, it is the fault of the company, not its products, and so it would be if God were creating beings with the same flaw. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unity... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ...


The Unity Church say the Bible is cited as self-contradictory in this matter. In Genesis 1, God created everything in God's image and called it "good", then Genesis 2 comes along like a retcon by a different author. Then Psalm 8 calls humans "a little lower than God" and Psalm 82 calls humans "gods, children of the most high", which Jesus quotes in John 10:34. Jesus also says we are the "light of the world" and capable of perfection in Matthew 5, and capable of greater things than he is in John 14:12. This is not consistent with the concept of original sin. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unity... There has long been interest in the subject of internal consistency and the Bible. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ...


The original sin in religions other than Christianity

The original sin in Gnosticism

Many Gnostic sects (particularly the Ophites) saw the figure of the serpent as a divine benefactor and liberator of humanity, rather than as Satan, Lucifer, or any other ill-intentioned figure. They held that the world was created by the Demiurge, an imperfect creator who wished to rule it as a tyrant. However, the spirit of Christ interfered by possessing the serpent and telling Eve to eat the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Eating from this tree allowed Adam and Eve to have free will and thus defy, if need be, their Demiurge creator. Therefore, according to many Gnostics, what Christians call the Fall of Man was really the freeing of humanity's minds and souls. The Ophites is a blanket term for numerous gnostic sects in Syria and Egypt about 100 A.D. The common trait was that these sects would give great importance to the serpent of the biblical tale of Adam and Eve, connecting the Tree of Knowledge (of Good and Evil) to... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... Demiurge (from the Greek , Latinized , meaning artisan or craftsman, literally worker in the service of the people, from of the people + work) is a term for a creator deity, responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ...


The original sin in Islam

Islam teaches that all humans are innocent by birth and they become sinful only when they consciously commit a sin. Islam regards the concept of “original sin” and the need for atonement by God Himself - via dying on the Cross - as a pure invention of those who came after Jesus Christ, declaring themselves as Christians.


Another important point to bear in mind about the Islamic concept of sin is that one man’s sin cannot be transferred to another; nor can the reward due to a person be transferred either. Every individual is responsible only for his or her actions, for God is never unjust. This is made clear in the following in Surah 17, verse 25:

  • {Who receiveth guidance, receiveth it for his own benefit: who goeth astray doth so to his own loss. No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another: nor would We punish until We had sent a messenger [to give warning].}*

Excerpts from Qur'an

Is it certain that it was Adam and not Eve who was tempted? Irrespective of this, both are forgiven together, the concept being that Man and Woman were created equally, by God, of the same material and therefore have equal rights to redemption.


This episode is mentioned in the Qur'an in several places. Amongst them are:

  • But the Satan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time. [Qur'an 2:36]
  • But the Shaitan made an evil suggestion to them that he might make manifest to them what had been hidden from them of their evil inclinations, and he said: Your Lord has not forbidden you this tree except that you may not both become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortals. And he swore to them both: Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you. Then he caused them to fall by deceit; so when they tasted of the tree, their evil inclinations became manifest to them, and they both began to cover themselves with the leaves of the garden; and their Lord called out to them: Did I not forbid you both from that tree and say to you that the Shaitan is your open enemy? They said: Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers. [Qur'an 7:20]

Adam and Eve are forgiven by God after they repent: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

  • Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful. [Qur'an 2:37]

Therefore, the idea that the sin propagates to their offspring is categorically refused by Muslims, citing verses such as: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ...

  • Say: What! shall I seek a Lord other than Allah? And He is the Lord of all things; and no soul earns (evil) but against itself, and no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another; then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you of that in which you differed. [Qur'an 6:164]
  • Allah does not impose upon any soul a duty but to the extent of its ability; for it is (the benefit of) what it has earned and upon it (the evil of) what it has wrought: Our Lord! do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake; Our Lord! do not lay on us a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us, Our Lord do not impose upon us that which we have not the strength to bear; and pardon us and grant us protection and have mercy on us, Thou art our Patron, so help us against the unbelieving people. [Qur'an 2:286]

That is to say, all children are born without sin in the state of purity. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


References

  1. ^ Catechism of St. Philaret, questions 166, 167, 168
  2. ^ Johann Gerhard, Loci theologici, 5.17, quoted by Henri Blocher, Original Sin: Illuminating the Riddle, (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997), 19.
  3. ^ "Infernum", literally "underworld," later identified as limbo.
  4. ^ "Limbo: Past Catholic statements on the fate of unbaptized infants, etc. who have died"[1]
  5. ^ Study by International Theological Commission, 19 January 2007, 19-21
  6. ^ Study by International Theological Commission, 19 January 2007, 22-25
  7. ^ Mark 10:14; cf. 1 Tim 2:4
  8. ^ Study by International Theological Commission, 19 January 2007, secondary preliminary paragraph; cf. paragraph 41.
  9. ^ "Jansenius and Jansenism" in The Catholic Encyclopedia
  10. ^ See, e.g., Environmentalism's view of original sin.
  11. ^ Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus (1854) quoted in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 491[2]
  12. ^ stmaryorthodoxchurch.org
  13. ^ Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Toronto (Canada)
  14. ^ The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church also known as the Catechism of Philaret, question 168
  15. ^ armenianchurch.org
  16. ^ Theodore G. Tappert, The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959), 29.
  17. ^ The United Methodist Church: The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church - Article V—Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation
  18. ^ adventistbiblicalresearch.org
  19. ^ Articles of Faith, article #2
  20. ^ unification.net

This article is about the theological concept. ...

See also

For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... In Christian theology, actual sins are individual, concrete evil actions, performed in violation of the Law of God as recorded in the Bible. ... The eternal sin (often called the unforgivable sin or unpardonable sin) is a concept of sin in Christian theology, whereby salvation or eternal life with God becomes impossible. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... Adam, Eve, and a female serpent (possibly Lilith) at the entrance to Notre Dame de Paris In Abrahamic religion, the Fall of Man, the Story of the Fall, or simply, the Fall, refers to mans transition from a state of innocence to a state of knowing only dualities such... Hamartiology is the branch of Christian theology that is concerned with the study of sin. ... Incurvatus in se (Latin: turned/curved inward on oneself) is a theological phrase describing a life lived inward for self rather than outward for God and others. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... Pandoras Box is the box entrusted to the mythological figures Epimetheus and his wife Pandora. ... Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Augustinian theology[1] and embraced primarily by Arminian Christians who are influenced by the theology of John Wesley and who are part of the Methodist movement. ... The Antichrist (German: Der Antichrist) is a book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1895. ... Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological doctrine that derives from the Augustinian doctrine of original sin and is advocated in many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of Lutheranism,1 Anglicanism and Methodism,2 Arminianism, and Calvinism. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Original sin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4774 words)
The Augustinian tradition makes a clear distinction between sin which is the result of freely and consciously chosen actions, and the impersonal nature of original sin; namely the unchosen context and situations into which the child is born and which surrounds the baby, and into which the child might be educated and formed.
Original sin, from the Augustinian perspective, is not a free and individual choice by a baby; but rather the effect of the sum total of "world sin", taught analogously through the story of the sin of Adam and Eve.
The notion of original sin as interpreted by Augustine of Hippo was affirmed by the Protestant Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Original Sin (3847 words)
Original sin may be taken to mean: (1) the sin that Adam committed; (2) a consequence of this first sin, the hereditary stain with which we are born on account of our origin or descent from Adam.
Original sin is the privation of sanctifying grace in consequence of the sin of Adam.
In a child original sin is distinct from the fault of Adam, it is one of its effects.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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