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Encyclopedia > Origin of Romanians

The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. The Origin of Romanians has been for a long time disputed and there are two basic theories: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Latin peoples are those linguistic-cultural groups that speak one of the Romance languages; they are called this way because they speak languages descended from the vulgar form of Latin. ... Vlachs (also called Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs or Ulahs) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... Romance languages in the world: Blue – French; Green – Spanish; Orange – Portuguese; Yellow – Italian; Red – Romanian The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...

  1. Daco-Romanian continuity in Dacia and some adjacent regions.
  2. Migration of Romanic peoples from former Roman provinces south of the Danube in the Balkans.

The exact region where the Romanian language and people formed is not only a scientific puzzle, but also a heated political controversy. 19th-century Hungarian historians largely supported the migration theory, which maintained that Transylvania was not inhabited by Romanians at the time of the Magyar arrival in central Europe during the 10th century. Most Romanian historians support the theory of Daco-Romanian continuity, and maintain that Transylvania was continuously inhabited by the ancestors of Romanians. The debate is politically charged because of territorial conflicts concerning Transylvania between Romania and Hungary. Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120 AD. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin, provincia, pl. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Magyar may refer to: The Magyar language The Magyar people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Contents


Daco-Romanian continuity

Romanian continuity and migrations
Romanian continuity and migrations

After the Romans conquered Dacia in 106, a process of romanization of the Dacians took place. According to this theory, the Roman administration retreated from Dacia around 271, but romanized Dacians stayed on, and have continuously lived in Dacia throughout the Dark Ages. Romanians are their descendants. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (972x675, 689 KB) This is a map of the general areas in which ethnogenesis of the Romanian people is believed to have occured. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (972x675, 689 KB) This is a map of the general areas in which ethnogenesis of the Romanian people is believed to have occured. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... For other uses, see number 106. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... // The Province The Roman province of Dacia was limited to the modern Romanian regions of Transylvania, the Banat and Oltenia, and temporally, Muntenia and southern Moldova. ... Events Goths forced to withdraw across the Danube Roman Emperor Aurelian withdraws troops to the Danube frontier, abandoning Dacia. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...


Arguments for

  • Extensive Roman colonization of Dacia.
  • The colonists came from different provinces of the Roman empire. They had no common language except for Latin. In this multiethnic environment, Latin, being the only common language of communication, might have quickly become the dominant language. American history furnishes similar examples.
  • Dacian toponyms were kept; examples are the names of some rivers (Samus - Someş, Marisia - Mureş, Porata - Prut) and the names of some cities (Petrodava - Piatra Neamt, Abruttum - Abrud).
  • Some morpho-syntactic, lexical and phonetical regional differences within Romanian indicate that in certain regions of Romania the language preserved more Latin substance than in the rest of the country [1]. The boundaries of these linguistic areas coincide quite exactly with the borders of the ancient Roman province of Dacia, encompassing modern Transylvania, Banat and Oltenia.
The existence of a stronger Latin heritage in the territories of the ancient Roman Dacia is explained by the intense Romanisation of these territories, which formed core areas of the Romanian. The uninterrupted and isolated existence of a Romanised population living there ensured a conservative transmission of this Latin heritage across generations. From these core areas Romanian spread over the Carpathians, meanwhile losing a little of its Latin substance. The general dissemination into Romanian of words of Magyar origin supports the theory of the Romanian diffusion from Transylvanian core areas across the Carpathian.
  • The similarity between the current Romanian traditional clothes and the Dacian clothes, as depicted on Trajan's Column.
  • Constantine the Great assumed the title Dacicus Maximus in 336 just like Trajan did in 106, suggesting the presence of Dacians in Dacia even after the Aurelian withdrawal of 270-275.
  • Numerous archaeological sites prove the continuity of Latin settlements north of the Danube after the evacuation of 271, including:
    • Daco-Roman ceramic artifacts from the 5th-6th centuries, found at: Bratei, Soporu de Câmpie, Verbiţa, Sǎrata Monteoru
    • Christian tombs and objects found at: Cluj-Napoca, Alba-Iulia, Biertan, Dej
    • Walls erected in the 4th century at Sarmizegetusa
    • Many inscriptions in the Latin language: inscriptions on silver ring from Micia, ceramic objects from Porolissum, brick found at Gornea, inscription on bronze object found at Biertan (reading "EGO ZENOVIUS VOTUM POSUI").
  • A mosaic map found at Magada, Jordan, which, according to some scholars, represents the province of Dacia in the IV and V century AD, and its link to different Middle Eastern trade routes; at present this interpretation is highly controversial.

For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... Someş (Hungarian: Szamos) is one of the most important rivers of Transylvania. ... The MureÅŸ (in Romanian, in Hungarian: Maros, in German: Mieresch / Marosch) is an approx. ... The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ... . Piatra Neamţ (population: 105,000) is the main city center of Neamţ county, Moldova, Romania. ... Abrud (Hungarian: Abrudbánya, German: Großschlatten) is a city in Alba county of Transylvania, Romania, situated on the river with the same name. ... Trajans Column. ... Constantine. ... Marble statue of Trajan at Xanten (Colonia Ulpia Traiana). ... Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the fourth. ... // The Province The Roman province of Dacia was limited to the modern Romanian regions of Transylvania, the Banat and Oltenia, and temporally, Muntenia and southern Moldova. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... County Alba County Status County capital Mayor Mircea Hava, since 2000 Area 103. ... Biertan and its fortified church Biertan (German Birthälm, Hungarian Berethalom) is a commune in central Romania in the north of the Sibiu County, 80 km north of Sibiu and 15 km east of MediaÅŸ. The first documentary testimony about the village is from 1283 in a document about the... Dej is located in the county of Cluj in Romania. ... Sarmisegetuza was the most important Dacian military, religious and political center. ... Porolissum was an ancient Roman city in Dacia. ... Biertan and its fortified church Biertan (German Birthälm, Hungarian Berethalom) is a commune in central Romania in the north of the Sibiu County, 80 km north of Sibiu and 15 km east of MediaÅŸ. The first documentary testimony about the village is from 1283 in a document about the... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... // The Province The Roman province of Dacia was limited to the modern Romanian regions of Transylvania, the Banat and Oltenia, and temporally, Muntenia and southern Moldova. ...

Contemporary sources

With the beginning of the 11th century, several contemporary sources mention the presence of Vlachs in Transylvania and the surrounding area, while a few other sources — though rather blunt in their nature — mention the Vlach presence in Transylvania as early as 8th century. These sources also mention the Vlach presence in Pannonia at the arrival of the Hungarians and they indicate that some of those Vlachs were pushed from Pannonia by the invading Hungarians and settled in Transylvania. Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ...


In 545, Procopius mention "the trick played by an Ant (a Slav or Alan from present-day Moldavia) who is supposed to have passed himself off as a Byzantine General by speaking a form of Latin which he had learned in these regions."[1] An ancient letter from one Emmerich of Elwangen to Grimaldus, abbot of St.Gall, written about 860 mention Vlachs living north of Danube together with Germans, Sarmatians, and Alans;[2] and "the Weltchronik of 1277, referring to the ninth century," calls those Dacians for "Wallachen".[3] The Weltchronik of Jansen Enikel, written in Vienna in 1277, mentions Charlemagne going on a campaign in the east (around 8th century) and met with Wallachians.[4] At the time of Charlemagne, the Hungarians of Arpad have yet not arrived in Pannonia, and the chronicle, when mentioning the Hungarians, refers to the people inhabiting the future Hungary. Procopius (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Charlemagne (742 or 747 – 28 January 814) (also Charles the Great[1]; from Latin, Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus), son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, was the king of the Franks from 768 to 814 and king of the Lombards from 774 to 814. ...


Nestor's Chronicle, (Kiev, 1097-1110), relating events from 862 to 1110, mention Wallachians attacking and subduing the Slavs north of Danube and settling among them. In the chronicle of Simon of Keza (1282 to 1290), the Vlachs of Pannonia are mentioned as a settled population after the collapse of the Hunnish Empire.[5] The Anonymous Notary of King Bela II (1131-1141) or Bela III also mention the presence of Vlachs in Pannonia and them mixing with Slavs, but retaining their language and culture.[6] The Descriptio Europæ Orientalis, which was written by a French monk in 1308, discovered in the Paris Library in 1913, mention ten Vlach kings that were defeated by the Hungarians of Arpad.[7] The Chronicon Pictum of Vienna, 1358, also mention the Vlachs remaining in Pannonia after the invasion of Atilla's Huns[8] and both Chronicon Pictum of Vienna and Simon of Keza note that "three thousand men of the Hunnish people remained in Pannonia ('in campun Csigla'), calling themselves Siculi (Zakuli), who upon the arrival of the Hungarians moved eastwards "cum Vlachis in montibus".[9] In 1236, the monk Ricardus mention seven Hungarian chiefs that while being in Pannonia, met a Vlach population[10] while Thomas of Spalato mentioned the same thing.[11] The poem of the Nibelungen, written between 1140 and 1160, mentions the wedding of Attila and the presence at it of Vlachs.[12] and Weltchronik of Rudolph von Ems, written circa 1250, mention Vlachs living in Pannonia.[13] Bela III of Hungary (Hungarian , Slovak: Belo III), born in 1148, was King of Hungary circa 1172-1196. ... Arpad is the name of: Arpad, a city in ancient Syria. ...


Arguments against

  • The short time of occupation, which lasted only about 165 years, not to mention the fact that in the last period the Roman occupation was only formal.
  • Romans conquered only about 50% of the territories inhabitated by Romanians (Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and parts of Muntenia, southern Moldova, eastern Serbia and northern Bulgaria); besides, many Dacians lived in remote mountainous areas, with little contact with the main Roman colonies. However it is possible that the process of Romanization wasn't limited only to major centres.
  • Most colonists were brought from distant provinces of the Roman Empire, such as Iberia, Dalmatia, Gaul, Middle East and even Numidia; they couldn't have spoken a language as close to literary Latin as Romanian is.
  • After the Roman withdrawal, a Dacian tribe (the Carpians, living in Moldavia) conquered the abandoned areas and could have imposed their language or reverted the romanization process (if there was any romanization process).
  • There are very few written documents confirming that Romanic peoples lived in Dacia in the period between the Roman evacuation of Dacia and the 10th century. However, written documents from Dark Ages usually recorded only events relative to the area were they were compiled.
  • There are no clear traces of Teutonic influences in Romanian language and it is known that in the 5th and 6th centuries Dacia was inhabited by Teutonic tribes. The influence of passing populations might have been minimal.
  • According to Eutropius (book IX, 15), Aurelian abandoned Dacia Traiana and reorganised a new Dacia Aureliana inside former Moesia Superior in 270-275, settling it with Romans brought from the former Dacia Traiana. In order to increase taxation, Caracalla decrees in 212 that all freemen throughout the Roman Empire become Roman Citizens.

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Banat (Romanian: Banat; Serbian: Банат or Banat; German: Banat; Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság; Slovak: Banát) is a geographical and historical region in Southeastern Europe divided among three countries: the eastern part belongs to Romania (the counties of TimiÅŸ, CaraÅŸ-Severin, Arad, and MehedinÅ£i), the western... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Map of Croatia with Dalmatia highlighted Dalmatia is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin Gallia, Greek Galatia) was the region of Western Europe occupied by present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Numidia was an ancient African Berber kingdom and later a Roman province on the northern coast of Africa between the province of Africa (where Tunisia is now) and the province of Mauretania (which is now the western part of Algerias coastal area). ... The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Eutropius was a pagan Roman historian of the later 4th century, writing in Latin, whose brief remarks about himself let us know that he had served under Emperor Julian the Apostate (ruled 361 - 363) and his history covers the reigns of Valentinian and Valens (died 378). ... In ancient geography, Moesia was a district inhabited chiefly by Thracian peoples. ... Caracalla Caracalla (April 4, 186–April 8, 217) was emperor of the Roman Empire from AD 211–217. ...

Migration from the south

According to this theory, a Romanic population came from the south in the Middle Ages and settled down in present-day Romania.


Arguments for

  • Common words in Romanian and Albanian language which may be of Thracian or Illyrian origin (see also Origin of Albanians and List of Dacian words). However, according to a number of thracologists, the Proto-Albanian and Dacian languages were probably related and the common words could have come from the Dacian language. [2]
  • There are Vlachs living south of the Danube and speaking East Romance languages: Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians (in Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia). There are mentions of their presence in those areas since the early Middle Ages. However this does not necessarily support migration from the south northwards but rather the other way around.
  • There are no traces of Teutonic influence in Romanian and it is known that in the 5th and 6th century Dacia was inhabited by Teutonic tribes. [3] However influences by passing migratory peoples are usually minimal.
  • Romanian toponyms in Albania and Bulgaria. [4]
  • Vlach shepherds migrated northwards with their herds in search of better pastures. For example they moved along the Carpathian Mountains to present day Poland and even to the Czech Republic. They influenced very significantly the culture and language of Polish and Ukrainian highlanders.
  • Eutropius mentions the resettlement of Roman citizens from Dacia Traiana to the south of the Danube in 270-275. This, however, does not necessarily mean all Roman citizens.
  • There are far fewer Slavic words in Aromanian than Romanian. According to linguists proto-Romanian split after the Slavonic settlement in the Balcan peninsula. It supports the theory that the major Slavonic influence on Romanian took place after the migration of Vlachs and their settlement in Slav-populated territories North of the Danube.

Albanian (gjuha shqipe //) is a language spoken by over 6 million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, Greece, Serbia and Montenegro, and the Republic of Macedonia but also in other parts of the Balkans, along the eastern coast of Italy and in Sicily, as well as by emigrant groups in Scandinavia... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... The origin of Albanians has been for some time a matter of dispute among historians. ... The Romanian language contains about 200-300 words considered by many Romanian scholars to be of Dacian language origin. ... Vlachs (also called Wallachians, Wlachs, Wallachs, Olahs or Ulahs) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Aromanian shepherd in traditional clothes, photo from the early 1900s. ... Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: VlaÅŸi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες; Vlachomoglenítes) is a disputed exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená region spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as a single village across the border in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. ... Map of Istro-Romanian, made by Puşcariu in 1926 Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the upper northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Motto: (English: ) Anthem: (Transliteration: ) (English: ) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian, Albanian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  - Total    - Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 9,779 sq mi  1. ...    Serbia Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area – Total – % water 88. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians The Carpathian Mountains are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia and northern Hungary. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... The Slavic peoples are defined by their usage of the Slavic languages. ...

Arguments against

The Jireček Line divides the areas of the Balkans which were under Latin and Greek influences
The Jireček Line divides the areas of the Balkans which were under Latin and Greek influences
  • The few Greek loanwords for religious terms in Romanian entered via Vulgar Latin, not directly from Greek (ex: Ro. biserică <Latin *basilica <Greek basilike). Important religious terms in Romanian came directly from Latin, which suggests the Daco-Romanians were converted to Christianity in the Latin language. Later on, during the Middle Ages, Romanians used Church Slavonic as their liturgical language, so the Eastern Orthodox church organization was probably brought by Bulgarian Slavs. This seems to imply the presence of a Slavic buffer zone between Greeks and Romanians [5] [6]. However this argument may support the theory about migration from the south since Old Church Slavonic (the ancestor of the Church Slavonic used in Romania) became a liturgical language in the Balkans no earlier than 890 AD. The Vlach migrants from the south could start using it after arriving to present day Romania, that has been largely inhabited by Slavonic tribes and subdued to Bulgarian Tsars and influenced by Bulgarian Orthodox Church. Besides the conversion to Christianity would be made on the territories of present day Serbia and northern Bulgaria, south of Danube.
  • Dacian toponyms were kept; examples are the names of some rivers (Samus - Someş, Marisia - Mureş, Porata - Prut) and the names of some cities (Petrodava - Piatra Neamţ, Abruttum - Abrud). It should be noted, however, that the preservation of toponyms only indicates continuous settlement, and not necessarily continuous settlement by the same people.
  • A 13th century Hungarian chronicle, Gesta Hungarorum, claims that when the Magyars arrived in Pannonia, the surrounding areas were inhabited by Vlachs (Romanians), but this chroncile also said, that Hungarian king, Ladislaus I. (1077-1095) fought against Cumanians, but Cumanians didn't live there that time, only from the 13th century. [7]
  • A chronicle by Venerable Nestor (1056 - 1136 AD) mentions Walachians (Romanians) fighting against Magyars north of the Danube in 898. [8]
  • No medieval chronicle mentions any large-scale migrations of Romanic peoples from the Balkans to Romania; contrary to a south to north movement, a chronicle indicates rather a north to south movement: according to Cecaumenos' Strategicon (1066), the Vlachs of Epirus and Thessalia came from north of the Danube and from along the Sava. [9]
  • Regional differences within Romanian language indicate that in certain Romanian areas which coincide quite exactly with the ancient Roman province of Dacia, the language preserved more Latin substance than in the rest of the country[10]. It would be extremely hard to explain why Romanians supposedly coming from remote territories southern of the Danube speak a more Latin Romanian language exactly within the boundaries of what used to be a Roman province 6-7 centuries before their alleged arrival to these areas, while in the Romanian spoken outside the Carpathian Basin those Latin elements were lost.
  • Morpho-syntactical, lexical and phonetical differences between Romanian and Aroumanian are considerable, making mutual comprehension impossible. It is therefore extremely difficult to explain how could appear and differentiate two different Romance languages at the same time and in the same area, as implied by the immigration theory.
  • If the hypothesis of a single proto-Romanian language is assumed, than the split of the proto-Romanian into Aroumanian and Romanian should have taken place some centuries before the 9th century, since linguists agree that the build up process of both Romanian and Aromanian was completed up to the 9th century. This implies that a northwards Vlach migration should not have been possible later than the 7-8th century and not, as some immigrationists claim, as early as the 11th century.
  • The name of the Danube in Romanian has a form which appears to be original (derived from a reconstructed *donaris) and not borrowed from other languages, which shows that the Romanians always lived somewhere near this river and not far south like some theories suggest.

I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Jireček Line The Jireček Line is an imaginary line that divided in the ancient Balkans, until the 4th century, the influences of the Latin (in North) and Greek (in South) languages. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... Events The sovereignty of prince Svatopluk I in Bohemia is confirmed. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ...    Serbia Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area – Total – % water 88. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Someş (Hungarian: Szamos) is one of the most important rivers of Transylvania. ... The MureÅŸ (in Romanian, in Hungarian: Maros, in German: Mieresch / Marosch) is an approx. ... The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ... Piatra NeamÅ£ (population: 105,000) is the main city of NeamÅ£ county, Moldavia, Romania. ... Abrud (Hungarian: Abrudbánya, German: Großschlatten) is a city in Alba county of Transylvania, Romania, situated on the river with the same name. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... There are two works with the name Gesta Hungarorum. ... Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. ... Nestor (c. ... Events Creation of the Crab Nebula observed by a Chinese astronomer Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Events Accession of Pope John IX Accession of King Kasyapa IV of Sri Lanka Magyar army headed by Álmos besieges Kiev Magyar tribes found state of Szekesfahervar in Hungary Bologna joins Italian Kingdom End of Yodit era in Ethiopia Foundation of Bhaktapur in Nepal Births Deaths Category: ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Êpeiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 22
  2. ^ The letter reads: "gentes innumeras... "Sunt his Germanique truces et Sarmata bellax-atque Getae nec non Bastarnae semina gentis-Dacorumque manus et Martia pectori Alani." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 26
  3. ^ A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 27
  4. ^ The chronicle says: "Dâ mit fuor der wîgant; Hin ze Ungern in daz land; Und begund si Kristen machen; Die Ungern unz in Walachen." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 39
  5. ^ The chronicle reads: ""Blakis, qui ipsorum fuerunt pastores et coloni, remanentes spone in Pannonia"; "Pannonia extitit decem annis sine rege, Sclavis tantummodo, Grecis, Teutonicis, Messianis, et Vlachis advenis remanentibus in eadem, qui vivente Ethela populari servicio ibi serviebant," A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 23
  6. ^ The chronicle reads: "Rex Athila...de terro scithia descendens cum valida manu in terram Pannoniae venitm et fugatis Romanis regnum obninuit. "Quam terram (Pannoniam) habitabant Sclavi, Bulgarii et Blachii ac pastores Romanorum. Quia post mortem Athilae regis terram Pannoniae Romani dicebant pascua esse, eo quod greges eorum in terra Panoniae pascua Romanorum esse dicebatur, nam et modo Romani pascumtur de bonis Ungariae... "Et murtuo illo (Athila) preoccupassent Romani principes terram Pannoniae usque ad Danubium, ubi collocassent pastores suos." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 24
  7. ^ Descriptio Europæ Orientalis, Latin MS. no. 5515, published at Cracow 1916 reads: "Notandum est hic quod inter Machedoniam, Achayan et Thessalonicum est quidam populus valde magnus et spaciosus qui vocantur Blazi, qui et olim fuerunt Romanorum pastores, ac in Ungaria, ubi erant pascua Romanorum, propternimiam terrae viriditatem et fertilitatem olim morabantur. Sed tandem ab Ungaris (the Hungarians of Arpad) inde expulsi" (they had therefore remained in Pannonia after the depature of the Huns) "ac partes illas fugierunt; habundat enim caseis optimis, lacte et carnibus super omnes nationes" And "Pannoni autem, qui inhabitant tunc Pannoniam, omnes erant pastores Romanorum, et habebant super se decem reges potentes in tota Moesia at Pannonia, deficiente autem imperio Romanorum egressi sunt Ungari de Chycia provincia...et pugnaverunt in campo magno." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History pp. 24, 25
  8. ^ The chronicle reads: "...natali soli derelicto" (by the other races) "...Vlachis qui ipsorum coloni existere ac pastores remanentes sponte in Pannonia." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 25
  9. ^ Simon de Keza writes: "remanserant quoque de Hunis virorum tria milia...in campo Csiglae usque Arpad permanserunt, qui se ibi non Hunos sed Zaculos vocaverunt...insimulque Pannonia conquestrata...cum Blackis in montibus confinii sortem habuerunt." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 26
  10. ^ Ricardus writes: "...tendem venerunt in terram quae nunc Ungariam dicitur, tunc vero dicebatur pascua Romanorum. Quam inhabitandam pre terris ceteris elegerunt, subjectis sibi populis, qui tunc habitabant ibidem." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 29
  11. ^ Thomas writes: "Haec regio" (Pannonia) "dicitur antiquitus fuisse pascua Romanorum." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 30
  12. ^ The poem reads: "Der herzoge Ramunc üzer Vlachen land mit sieben hundert mannen komer fûr si gerant." A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 38
  13. ^ Rudolph writes: "Im vromdin sundir sprachin; Valwen und wilde Vlachin; Ienseit; des sneberges hant; Sint lant du si begant" A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History p. 38

See also

This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... The origin of Albanians has been for some time a matter of dispute among historians. ... The Jireček Line The Jireček Line is an imaginary line that divided in the ancient Balkans, until the 4th century, the influences of the Latin (in North) and Greek (in South) languages. ... NeacÅŸus letter, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian has the oldest appearence of the word Romanian Romanians are a people living in South-Eastern Europe speaking a Romance language. ... Protochronism (Romanian: Protocronism, originating in the Ancient Greek terms for before time [itself]) is a modern tendancy in cultural nationalism. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ...

References

  1.   Anonymous, "Gesta Hungarorum"
  2.   Ghyka, Matila, "A Documented Chronology of Roumanian History", Oxford: B. H. Blackwell Ltd. 1941.
  3.   Iorga, Nicolae, "History of Romanian Church" (Istoria Bisericii Româneşti), Bucureşti, 1908 - Online text (in Romanian)
  4.   Jirecek, Konstantin. "The history of the Serbians" (Geschichte der Serben), Gotha, 1911
  5.   Nestor of Kyiv, Chronicles of Venerable Nestor, translated by George Skoryk
  6.   Rosetti, Alexandru. "History of the Romanian language" (Istoria limbii române), 2 vols., Bucharest, 1965-1969.
  7.   Mellish, Liz and Green, Nick Eliznik.org.uk: map of the Balkans: places with endings in "-eşti"
  8.   Some examples of a more pronounced Latin linguistic heritage in areas of the ancient Roman Dacia compared to remaining Romania from Atlas Lingvistic Român pe regiuni, vol. I – V, Editura Academiei:
1. Use of the typical Latin tense of simple past
e.g. fui/fuşi/fu
2. Use of the typical Latin inverted interrogation form
e.g. “dusu-te-ai ?” vs. “te-ai dus ?”
3. Existence of Latin words not used in the remaining Romania
e.g. mâneca (lat.manicare) – to wake up early in the morning
mănea – (lat. manere) – to stay overnight
4. Existence of Latin forms in contrast to Slavic forms of the same word
e.g. snow: nea (lat. nive) – zăpadă (sl. zapaditi)
garlic: aiu (lat. alium) – usturoi (rom. constr)
slave: şerb (lat. servus) – rob (sl. robu)
sand: arină (lat. arena) – nisip (bg. nasip)
5. Existence of lexical forms closer to Latin
e.g. flour: fărină (lat. farina) – făină
6. Existence of phonetical forms closer to Latin
e.g. pronunciation of the Romanian diphthong “oa” like “o”, thus closer to the original Latin “o”, like in “mo(a)rte” (lat. mortis) (death), “so(a)rtă” (lat. sortis) (fate)

portrait of Nicolae Iorga Nicolae Iorga (a. ... Nestor (c. ...

External links

Sources

Anna Comnena cap7 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/AnnaComnena-Alexiad.html (also part 2) Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna Komnēnē) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ...


 
 

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