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Encyclopedia > Origin of Pallava
Pallavas
Image:pallava_territories.png
Pallava kingdom c.645 CE during Narasimhavarman I
Official languages Prakrit
Tamil
Capital Kanchipuram
Government Monarchy
Preceding state Satavahana, Kalabhras
Succeeding states Cholas, Chalukya

The Pallava were a Southern Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in early the 4th century CE. The Pallava dominated the northern parts of Tamil region until the end of the 9th century for about six hundred years. The origins of the Pallava still remains a mystery. A number of hypotheses and views have been proposed on the origin and ethnicity of the Pallavas. Image File history File links Pallava_territories. ... Narasimhavarman I was one of the most famous Pallava kings who ruled from A.D. 630 - 668. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi... Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... A hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon or reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. ...

Contents


Tamil Origin

The word Pallava means branch or twig in Sanskrit. The word is rendered as Tondaiyar in Tamil language. The Pallava kings at several places are called Tondamans or Tondaiyarkon. The territory of the Pallavas was known as Tundaka Visaya or Tundaka Rashtra. The word Tondan in Tamil means slave or servant and is suggestive of the subordinate position the Pallavas bore to the Satavahanas. On collapse of the Satvahana power, the Pallavas asserted themselves and annexed a large part of Chola territory but the epithet Tondon remained and their territory also came to be called Tondamandlam. The word Pallava (which in Sanskrit means twig or branch) is a translation of Tamil word Tondaiyar and Tondaman and this finds confirmation in some of the copper plate charters which do bring in 'tender twigs' (=pallavams) of some kind in connection with the eponymous name Pallava'. Ref name="aiyanger"> Dr Krishnaswami Aiyangar[citation needed]</ref> But the scholars reject this view since this is a later usage of the term and therefore can not be stated to have given rise to the family name Pallava. R Sthainathaier seems to connect the Pallavas with ancient Pulindas, who according him, were identical to the Kurumbas of Tondamandlam. R. Sthainathaier also states that Tondamandlam was a province under Maurya king Asoka in third century BCE and later on, it was seized by the Satavahanas and thus Tondamandlam became a feudatory to the Satavahanas.[citation needed] He further believes that Tondaiyar is Tamil rendering of Pallava. After collapse of Satavahanas in about 225 AD, the Pallavas of Tondamandlam became sovereign and expanded to river Krishna river. Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ... Province is a name for a subnational entity. ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... The Krishna River is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ...


Chola Origin

A view has also been propounded that the Pallavas were an offshoot from the Cholas. It is claimed that the Pallavas were a lineage of the Chola kings who went on a maritime journey and begot a child who formed a separate dynasty called Pallava (Pallavam means bud in Sanskrit, from which the eponymous name is stated to derive). [citation needed] The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... From the latin maritimus, maritime refers to things relating to the sea. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ...


Sri Lankan Origin

Tamil literature relates the story of Chola king Killivalavan who moved his capital to Uraiyar after the destruction of the Chola capital of Puhar. Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam of Colombo claims that Killi Valavan had a liaison with the daughter of Naga king Valaivanam of Manipallavanam (in Jaffna peninsula) in Ceylon. From this union was born a child who was named Tondaiman Hantirayan whom his father, Killi Valavan, made the ruler of a territory which was named Tondamandlam with capital at Kanchi. It is pointed out that name Pallava derives from the last syllable of Manipallavanam ....the land of prince’s mother.[1] Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Killivalavan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli. ... Location Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates , Government District Colombo Division, Colombo District Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Independent Group) Geographical characteristics Area     City 248 mi²/ 642 km²     Land   / km²     Water   / km² Demographics Population     City (2001) 647,100 ( 2001 census )     Density   3,305/km²   Metro 2,234,289 (Colombo... The word Naga can refer to several different things. ... Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Jaffna (யாழ்ப்பாணம் in Tamil meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper, යාපනය in Sinhala) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. ... Peninsula A peninsula (from Latin paene insula, almost island) is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body, surrounded by water on three sides. ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ...


Telugu Origin

Mahavamsa has a tradition that Buddhist monks from Pallava Bogga attended the consecration ceremony of Duttagamini of Sri Lanka. This Pallava Boga has been identified by some scholars with the dominion of Kala in Andhra Pradesh. It is pointed out that the Telugu country south of Krishna had formed the major part of Pallava kingdom till sixth century, hence, it is argued that the Pallavas may have been from Andhra lineage. Other evidences also point out that Pahlava-Kambhojas, an Indo-Iranian Aryan tribe migrated Southward to Krishna valley and established themselves. This region is called Palnadu (Pallava Nadu) even today, well-known for the great battle of Palnadu. Another name for this region since ancient times is Kammanadu / Kammarattam, which can be traced to Kambojas closely associated with Pahlavas. According to many other scholars like Wilhelm Geiger Pallavabhoga refers to Persia.[2]. The Mahavamsa, also Mahawamsa, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Andhra Pradesh : (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, Urdu: آندھرا پردیش, IPA: / /), is a state in South India. ... Telugu may refer to: TELUGU PORTAL Telugu language Telugu script Telugu people This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Brahmanical Origin

According to Dr K. P. Jayswal, the Pallavas were a branch or twig (Sanskrit pallava) of the Brahmana royal dynasty of Vakatakas of the North. [citation needed]The branch was militaristic by profession and thus were able to carve out a kingdom in the South. But according to H. Krishna Sastri, the Pallavas were a mixture of Brahmana and Dravidian lines. Rayakotto copper plates of the Pallavas state that a Brahmin Ashvathama was the founder of the Pallava race. Ashvathama married a Naga girl and bore a son named Skandasisya. Other plates state Skandasisya to be the eponymous king Pallava after whom the family got its name [3]. Earlier Pallava king Sivaskandavarman is probably identified with Skandasisya of the Rayakotto copper plates. Some of their inscriptions state that Pallavas belonged to the Bharadvaja-gotra and had descended from Ashvathama of Bharadvaja Brahmana lineage. But Ashvathama Bharadvaja was an epic hero and was son of Dronacharya, the Commander-in-chief of the Kuru army. In all probability, this appears to be a usual Brahmanical attempt at fabrication of genealogy to connect the illustrious Pallavas to the epic cycles. Or else, the Bharadavaja gotra of the Pallavas might have been due to the reason that the priests and Purohits of the Pallava rulers might have been Brahmins from Bharadavaja lineage. It is pointed out in Aitreya Brahmana that the gotra of a Kshatriya would be the same as that of his Purohit or priest. [4] The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... The Vakataka was an Indian dynasty. ... Dravidias apparently indicates the ethnic population that existed prior to invasion of India by the Aryans. ... For other senses of this word, see race (disambiguation). ... The word Naga can refer to several different things. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Kuru can mean: Kuru, a disease, related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), affecting cannibals. ... Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ... This page deals with the Hindu varna. ... Kshatriya is the title of the princely military order within the Hindu varna system. ...


Kshatriya Origin

Contrasted to the above stated Brahmanical origin of the Pallavas, the Talagunda inscription, on the other hand, clearly states that the Pallavas were of Kshatriya lineage.[5]. The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Kshatriya is the title of the princely military order within the Hindu varna system. ...


Braham-Kshatriya view

To reconcile the last two views in the foregoing discussion, Dr V. D. Mahajan has proposed that the Pallavas belonged to the caste of Braham-Kshatriyas i.e. they were Brahmanas in origin and Kshatriyas by Dharama or profession. [6]. The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Dr H. G. Rawlinson's views

Dr Rawilinson writes that the Pallavas had collected round themselves the Kurumbas, Marayas, Kallars and other predatory tribes and formed them into a strong and aggressive power which rose into prominence in about 325 CE on the east coast of India, between the mouths of Krishna river and Godavari. The word Pallava is synonymous with rascal, robber or predator in Tamil language, says Dr Rawilinson [7][4]. About 350 CE, the Pallavas established themselves on the east coast and occupied famous city Kanchi or Conjeeavram. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kuruma. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... The Krishna River is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... The Godavari River is a major waterway in India, next to the Ganges and Indus rivers. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ...


Foreign Origin

Pallava vs Pahlava

The name Pallava resembles so much with the Pahlava that there is a school of scholars like Dr V. A. Smith, Dr Jouveau Dubreuil, Dr B. L. Rice, Dr V. Venkaya, G. Coedes, Dr. K. N. SITRA RAM, Dr H. H. Wilson, Dr P.P. Bulsara, Dr Dominique Boubouleix and numerous others who trace the origin of Pallavas in the Iranian Pahlavas. [8]. Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... ...


Several Puranic texts refer to the ethnic name Pallava and Pahlava interchangeably, thus attesting that the Pallavas of southern India are also derived from the Iranian Pahlavas. While the Vayu Purana writes the Pahlavas as Pahnavas [9], the Markendeya Purana[10] and the Brahmanda Purana [11] write them both as Pahlavas as well as Pallavas. The Vamana Purana [12] and the Matsya Purana [13] etc only write them as Pallavas [14] . Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... ... The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ... It’s the sixteenth Purana. ...


The great Indian epic Mahabharata also sometimes uses Pallava for Pahlavas at some places[15] The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ...


According to Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary Pahlavas are written both as Pahnavas and Pallavas in Puranas and Mahabharata.[16] Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ...

(See also: Pahlavas)

It appears that Pallava was a just local variant of Sanskrit Pahlava just as the Indo-Chinese Kambuja is a local variant of the standard Sanskrit Kamboja (or Persian Kambaujiya/Kambujiya). ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Look up Kambuja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ...


Pahlavas & Kambojas in Southwest India

The Pallavas appear to have been foreign intruders, apparently an offshoot from the Pahlavas or the Parthians of north-western India. According to Dr V. A. Smith: "It is possible that the Pallavas were not one distinct tribe or class but a mixed population composed partly of foreigners and partly of the Indian population but different in race from Tamils and taking their name from the title of an intruding foreign dynasty (Pahlava) which obtained control over them and welded them into an aggressive political power" [17]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tamil people are an ethnic group from South Asia with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ...


Classical Sources

The ancient inscriptions and coins make it clear that the Pahlavas were ruling in north-west in the beginning of Christian era. There is classical evidence that the Pahlavas were in occupation of Anarta, Soparka and Kalyana region of India in post-Christian times. Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus, whom they regard as a/the Christ. ... The word classical has several meanings: Pertaining to the societies of the classical antiquity, ancient Greece or Rome. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus, whom they regard as a/the Christ. ...


Periplus (80 C AD) attests a Parthian kingdom comprising south-western parts of Kathiawad and region from Narbada to as far as Kalyana (Thana in Bombay) including the Apranta which was ruled by Pahlavas. Their capital has been mentioned as Minagara which city was different from the Minnagra of the Indo-Scythians located on the Indus[18]. A periplus in the ancient navigation of Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans is a manuscript document that lists in order the ports and coastal landmarks, with approximate distances between, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... Kathiawar is a peninsula in western India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... The Indus River in Northern Areas of Pakistan, near the rock Aornus. ...


"Arrian who resided in the second century at Barugaza (Bhroach) describes a Parthian sovereignty as extending from Indus to the Nerbuda. Their capital has been mentioned as Minagara....." [19] Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ...


Strabo also attests the Pahlava rule in south-west India around Narbada to as far as Thana District in Konkan (Bombay) in Maharashtra [20]. the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... Maharashtra (Devanagari: महाराष्ट्र mahārāṣṭra, literally: Great Nation; IPA: / /)( ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


The Pahlavas governors were in-charge of Anarta and Saurashtra which is mentioned in the Junagad rock inscriptions of Scythian ruler Rudradaman I. A governor is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ...


According to Dr Jouveau Dubreuil, Savisakha, a Pahlava minister of Rudradaman-I, was the ancestor of the Pallavas of Kanchi. From Anarta and Konkan, the Pahlavas had penetrated southern India via Kuntala or Vanavasa. "The Pallavas were immigrants from north, or properly speaking from Konkan and Anarta, into Deccan. They came into south India through Kuntala or Vanvasa..." (Jouveau Dubreuil). Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... The Konkan, also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is the name given to a stretch of rugged and beautiful section of the western coastline of India from Ratnagiri to Mangalore. ...


It is probable that the Pahlavas had penetrated Deccan before the reign of Gautamiputra Satkarni. Gautamiputra Satkarni is stated to have put to sword the Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and the Kshahratas (=Kambojas) [21]. The defeat of Pahlavas, Kambojas etc by Gautamiputra Satakarani had probably forced them to move further into the Deccan. The Pahlavas and Kambojas appear to have made inroads into western and south-western India and the Pahlavas subsequently settled at Tondamandlam on east coast of India. When the Satavahana fortunes sagged, these Pahlavas seized the opportunity and established themselves as the lords of Kanchi. The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Gautamiputra Satkarni (c. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ...


Some early sculptures in the temple of Kanchi and Mahabalipuram depict a crown shaped like an elephant’s scalp which the Pallava kings wore on their heads. This head-dress was definitely foreign in origin and was used by the Greek kings of north-west with whom the Pahlavas (as well as Kambojas) were in close cultural, linguistic and political intercourse. It is pointed out that the Pallavas had copied this head-dress from the Greeks. [citation needed] An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Mahabalipuram (also known as Mamallapuram) is a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas around 60 km south from the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. ... ...


Indigenous Evidence

Apart of classical evidence, there are also Indian references which attest the Pahlavas, Kambojas, Sakas etc to have been in occupation of south-west India. The word classical has several meanings: Pertaining to the societies of the classical antiquity, ancient Greece or Rome. ... ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ...


There is a distinct prophetic statement in the Mahabharata that the Mlechcha kings of Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas etc will rule the prithivi (=sacred Indo-Aryan land) unrighteously in Kaliyuga, which is too clear a statement to be ignored (Dr Raychaudhury). This statement, couched in the form of prophecy in true puranic style, is believed to allude to a historical situation (second/first century BCE downwards) which followed the collapse of Maurya and Sunga dynasties in North India when the foreign hordes of the Sakas, Pahlavas, Yavanas, Kambojas etc had entered Indian mainland and established their respective kingdoms in the sacred Indo-Aryan land.[22] Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... The Sakas are a peoples that lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ... ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ...


Fifth century Brahmanical text Markendeya Purana attests that the Pahlavas and Kambojas had their settlements not only in Udichya (north-west) but also in south-west India. [23]. The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ...


The sixth century Brhatsamhita of Varahamihira also attests that the Pahlavas and Kambojas were in occupation of south-west (=nairRtyAM dizi) India [24].


The Kambojas as close allies of the Pahlavas are also abundantly attested to have been in south-western as well as southern India by several ancient texts. And very interestingly, Agni Purana locates two Kamboja settlements within India itself.......the Kambhoja in south-west India and the Kamboja in southern parts of India [25]. Agni Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled in the 10th century, contains descriptions and details of various incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu. ... Kamboja is ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Garuda Purana also collocates a Kamboj settlement in the neighborhood of Ashmaka, Pulinda, Jimuta, Narashtra, Lata and Karnata countries and specifically informs us that this section of Kambojas were living in southern division of India (dakshina.path.vasinah) [26] Garuda Purana is one of the great puranas of India. ...


Even the Udyogaparava of Mahabharata collates the Shakas, Pahlavas, Paradas and Kamboja-Rishikas apparently situated in/around the Anupa region i.e Anupa-Desa (Narbuda/Tapti region) in south-western India: Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ...

Shakanam Pahlavana.n cha Daradanam cha ye nripah |
Kamboja Rishika ye cha pashchim.anupakash cha ye ||5.5.15||

TRANS: The kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas, Daradas (=Paradas), and the Kamboja-Rishikas live in the west around Anupadesa or region.[27]


For more on the Kambojas, Pahlavas etc in south-west India please see: [5].


Further Evidence on Kambojas/Pahlavas in South

King Yasovarman, the eighth century king of Kanauj is stated to have fought with the king of Magadha, killed the king of Vanga, reached the eastern shore, defeated the kings of Deccan, crossed the Malaya mountains (east coast of Malabar, southern Mysore), reached the southern sea and fought with the Parasika. He then received tribute from Western Ghats and turned to the north, reaching the banks of Narbada [28]. This eighth century evidence again proves that the Parasikas (=Pahlavas here) had indeed penetrated deep into the southern India. Kanauj, or Kannauj, is an ancient city of Uttar Pradesh state of India (1991 pop. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Genera Calicalicus Schetba Vanga Falculea Artamella Leptopterus Cyanolanius Oriolia Euryceros Tylas Hypositta Xenopirostris The vangas are a group of little-known small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to Madagascar. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and comprising the northern half of the state of Kerala. ... Mysore (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು) is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. ...


Similarly, the Kambojas also find references in southern Indian inscriptions/records and literature. Chidambram Inscriptions (1114 CE according to Dr Hultzsch) of king Rajendra Chola references one Kamboja king making precious gift to Rajendra Chola (Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, 1898-99, pp 105-106, Edtor E. Hultzsch). Further, there is also a reference to the Kambojas having wrested north-west Bengal from the Pallas of Bengal in ninth/tenth century AD. Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ...


The above references sufficiently prove that both the Pahlavas and Kambojas had penetrated southern, central and eastern India. It is probable that the Pallavas of Kanchi whom Dr V. A. Smith states as a mixture of foreigners and Indiginous non-Tamil population had included the Kambojas as well. The Tamil people are an ethnic group from South Asia with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ...


On Pahlava-Kamboja Connections

The Kambojas and Pahlavas have been shown as allied Iranian tribes of Uttarapatha in several ancient references. Kirfel's list of Uttarapatha countries of the Bhuvanakosha locates the Pahlavas along with the Tusharas, Chinas, Angalaukikas, Barbaras, Kambojas, Daradas, Bahlikas and other countries of the Udichya division of ancient India. The Balakanda of the Ramayana states that the Pahlavas along with Kambojas and some other Kshatriya tribes were jointly created by sage Vasishtha through the divine powers of Shavala (55/2-3). The kings of the Pahlavas, Kambojas, Tukharas were also present at the Rajasuya sacrifice of king Yudhishtra. The Shanti Parva of Mahabharata also associates the Pahlavas with the Gandharas, Kambojas, Shakas, Tusharas, Sabaras, Barbaras, etc. and addresses them all as the Barbaric tribes of the Uttarapatha (MBH 12.65.13-15). The Udyoga-Parva of Mahabharata groups the Pahlavas with the Shakas, Paradas and the Kambojas-Rishikas and locates them all in/around Anupa region in western India (MBH 5.5.15). The Buddhist drama Mudrarakshas by Visakhadutta says that the Parasikas (=Pahlavas here) and the Kambojas had both joined the composite army of Chandragupta Maurya consoisting of some other formidable warrior clans of the north-west, mostly Iranians (Mudrarakshas, II). Manusmriti (X.43-44) states that the Pahlavas, Kambojas and some other tribes like the Sakas, Yavanas, Paradas, Dravidas etc were originally noble Kshatriyas, but later on, due to their non-observance of sacred Brahmanical codes as well as their neglect of the priestly class, they were gradually relegated to the status of Mlechchas. Numerous Puranic texts associate the Pahlavas and the Kambojas with the Sakas, Yavanas and Paradas and call them as panca-ganah (five-hordes). These five hordes were militaristic allies of the Haihaya and Taljunga Kshatriyas of Yadava line and were chiefly responsible for the dethroning king Bahu of Kosala. There are several more ancient references like these in the ancient Sanskrit texts attesting close links of Pahlavas and the Kambojas. Therefore, all this ancient indigenous evidence does show that the Kambojas and Pahlavas were indeed closely allied Iranian tribes living in the north-west. Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... The (Devanagari: ) is a Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and is an important part of the Hindu canon (smá¹›ti). ... Kshatriya is the title of the princely military order within the Hindu varna system. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... Sage or SAGE can refer to: Look up sage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vasishtha, in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... Rajasuya was a sacrifice performed by the ancient kings of India. ... ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states, though some modern theorists hold that contemporary tribes can only be understood in terms of their relationship to states. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrocottus ) (ruled 322–298 BC) was the founder of the Mauryan Empire. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... ... Kshatriya is the title of the princely military order within the Hindu varna system. ... Yadu is the name of one of the five Aryan clans mentioned in the Rig Veda. ... Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


On Pallava-Kambuja Connections

The Pallava is a simple variant of Sanskrit Pahlava as the Indo-Chinese Kambuja is simple variant of Sanskrit Kamboja. Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Look up Kambuja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


According to celebrated French investigator G. Coedes, an authority on Cambodian history, there is seen a close kinship between the Kambu-Mera legend on the origin of the Kambuja royal dynasty of Kambodia and the genealogical myth of the Pallavas of Kanchi (Conjeevaram) [29]. Look up Kambuja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Khmer: Nation, Religion, King) Anthem: Nokoreach Capital Phnom Penh Largest city Phnom Penh Official language(s) Khmer2 Government Democratic const. ... Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ...


G. Coedes further writes: "The cylindrical coiffure of pre-Angkorian images of Vishnu found in Kambuja can be regarded as showing marked Iranian influence [30]. It is true that the immediate model for this hair style is found in the sculptures of the Pallava kings. But we also know that one group of scholars is convinced of the northern origin of the Pallavas, maintaining that they are the descendants of the Pahlavas, that is, the Parthians[31]...... Finally, even the name of the Kambujas, the heir of Funan may be related to the Iranian Kambojas....It would be impudent to push these comparisons too far, but they are worth pointing out, especially, because the discovery at Oc Eo in western Cochin China of an intaglio representing a libation to fire and of a cabochon with a Sassanid effigy has furnished tangible proof of Funan’s relations with Iranian world" .[32] Angkor was the site of a series of capital cities of the Khmer empire for much of the period from the 9th century to the 15th century CE. Their ruins (13°24N, 103°51E) are located amid forests and farmland to the north of the Great Lake (Tonle... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Funan was the pre-southern Chinese inhabitant in SEA (the Mongoloid-southern Chinese), which is today became Thai-Lao-and Vietnam. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


It has been pointed out that some families from the Kambojas of Southern India, the allies of the Pahlavas, had sailed to Indo-China and founded the Kambuja/Kamboja principality in Mekong Basin, north of Funan. Later it grew powerful, engulfed the Hindu kingdom of Funan and thus evolving itself into one of the very powerful and glorious empires in the then world. G. Coedes, an authority on Cambodian history sees close kinship between the Pallavas of Kanchi (whom he identifies with Iranian Pahlavas) and the Kambujas of Indo-China (whom he seems to connect with the Iranian Kambojas). Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... View of the Mekong before the sunset The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ... Basin has several meanings: Look up basin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Funan was the pre-southern Chinese inhabitant in SEA (the Mongoloid-southern Chinese), which is today became Thai-Lao-and Vietnam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Funan was the pre-southern Chinese inhabitant in SEA (the Mongoloid-southern Chinese), which is today became Thai-Lao-and Vietnam. ...


In view of the close social, cultural and geographical connections of the ancient Kambojas and the Pahlavas of the north-west as seen in ancient Sanskrit texts, a close kinship about the origin of the Kambujas of Cambodia and Pallavas of Kanchi is but natural since Kambuja rulers of Cambodia are also believed to be an offshoot from the ancient Kambojas who had sailed from southern India (or else from Sri Lanka) to the Far East and founded the Kambuja colony in Indo-China in post-Christian period. Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ...


Criticism of Foreign Origin Theory

Some writers criticize the foreign origin of the Pallavas. They say that the kingdom of Pallavas in southern India was located thousands of miles away from the northwestern Pahlavas and there was also a time-frame discrepancy between the ancient Pahlavas and the early Mediaeval era Pallavas of Kanchi. Therefore, it is not appropriate to connect the Pallavas with the Iranian Pahlavas. Furthermore, the Pallavas of Kanchi are known to have been Brahmanical followers, the devotees of Hindu religion & culture and patrons of the Sanskrit learning. They are also known to have performed Asvamedha sacrifices which exclusively belong to Hindu culture. It is further pointed out that the earliest inscriptions of the Pallavas are similar to Nasik inscriptions of Gautamiputra Satkarni. Their accounts are also said to be similar to those of the Satavahanas. All this evidence, according the critics, point out to the indigenous origin of the Pallavas. A compass rose with Northwest highlighted Northwest is the ordinal direction halfway between West and North on a compass. ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Nashik or Nasik is a city, and also a district and division, in Indias Maharashtra state. ... Gautamiputra Satkarni (c. ...


But it is stated that the critics’ objection regarding the time-frame discrepancy or the distance factor does not hold the ground in view of the numerous references produced in the forgoing discussion. The Pahlavas, the supposed ancestors of the Pallavas, had been subjects of the Satavahanas for centuries and therefore were likely to have been influenced by illustrious and favorite Gautamiputra Satakarani and other Satavahanas who were Brahmanical followers and thus soon got acclimattised to the indigenous environs. This is the reason that once the Pallavas became independent, they also followed the Satavahanas in the matters of royal and religious culture and duties like the performance of Asvamedha sacrifices and adoption of Brahmanical religion and Hindu culture. Being settled deep within the remotest parts of India in the heart of predominant Hindu population, it was also a political sagacity to adopt Hinduism so as to gain the political, military and moral support of the local population. The fact that the original inscriptions of the Pallavas were written in Prakrit also alludes to their being from the north-west. But soon as they became fully indianised with time, Pallavas switched to Sanskrit language. The case is not unique in Indian history. Earlier, a section of Iranian Kambojas (See: Language and ethnicity of Kambojas) are also known to have become similarly Hinduised so much so that they became especially renowned as Vedic teachers and their homeland as seat of Brahmanical learning. (See: Brahmanism of Ancient Kambojas for evidence). Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... The Ashvamedha, or the horse-sacrifice is one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion (1st millennium BC, the last recorded performance dates to the 4th century AD), described in detail in the Yajurveda (books 22–25) and the pertaining commentaries. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit - Sanātana (eternal) Dharma also known as Vaidika (Vedic) Dharma) is a religion or philosophy that originated from the Indian subcontinent and nearby surrounding areas. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Kamboja was the ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit - Sanātana (eternal) Dharma also known as Vaidika (Vedic) Dharma) is a religion or philosophy that originated from the Indian subcontinent and nearby surrounding areas. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of Indian sub-continent (Central Asia). ...


And lastly, the Talagunda inscriptions clearly state that the Pallavas were Kshatriyas. And it is also an indisputable fact of history that the ancient Sanskrit texts like numerous Puranic texts, Manusmriti, Mahabharata etc also address the Pahlavas including allied tribles like the Kambojas, Sakas, Paradas, Yavanas etc as Kshatriyas. All this evidence sufficiently neutralizes the objections raised by the critics of the 'Foreign Origin' of the Pallavas. A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ...


Notes

  1. ^ See: Ancient India, 2003, pp 704-705, Dr V. D. Mahhajan
  2. ^ Mahavamsa, Trans., 194, n. 2.; Dr. G.P. Malalasekara also accepts this view
  3. ^ Ancient India, 2003, p 707, Dr V. D. Mahajan
  4. ^ As per Aitreya Brahmana evidence, for the purpose of performance of Yajna/other religious rituals, the gotra of a Kshatriya would be same as that of his family priest/Chaplain/Purohit (i.e. A Kshatrya’s gotra is the same as that of his family priest for religious functions/rituals etc..... See Aitareya Brahmana, Ch 32, Kanda, 7, verse 25; Also see Asvalayana Srauta-Sutra XII,15; Also :Some Kshatrya Tribes of ancient India, 1924, p 13-14, Dr B. C. Law; also see: Vaisnavism, Saivism and minor Religious Systems p 12, Sir R. G. Bhandarkar etc). It is because of this fact that the ancient Licchavis though Varatya Kshatriyas (See: Manusmriti verse X.22; also see: Jaiansutra, Part II, S.B.E., Vol XLV, p 321), have been called Vasetthas or Vasishthas in the Buddhist and Jaina sacred texts since their family purohits or priests were the Vasishtha Brahmanas (op cit. p 13-24, 150, Dr B. C. Law). Buddhist and Jaina Canonical works specifically inform us that that the Licchivis were Vasitthas or Vasishthas. Lord Buddha also spoke to the Licchavis as Vasishthas e.g. Licchavika ahansu. Anyadapi Bhagvan. Bhagavanaha, anyadapi Vasittha. Bhutapurvah Vasittha atitmadhvane Pancale Janapada Kampillanagare raja Brahmdatto nama rajyam karesi (Mahavastu Avadana--- see: Le Mahavastu edited by R. Senart, Vol I, pp 286, 289, 300); Life of the Buddha, p 97ff, Rockhill; Sacred Books of the East, XXII, p xii; Jainasutras, S.B.E. Vol XXII, p 193, Jacobi etc). Similarly, the Mallas, though Kshatriyas (Manusmriti X.22) are also addressed as Vasitthas or Vasishthas (see: Digha Nikaya, (Pali Text Series), Vol III, p 209)
  5. ^ Ancient India, 2003, p 705, Dr V. D. Mahajan
  6. ^ Ancient India, 2003, p 707, Dr V. D. Mahajan.
  7. ^ Pallavar [ pallavar ] , s. rakes, gallants, turttar; 2. low persons, the base, kizmakkal; 3. many persons, palar. The above definition of Pallavar (Qu: is Pallavar same as Pallava?) is taken from page 674 of J. P. Fabricious’s Tamil English Dictionary.
  8. ^ For further references on Pallava/Pahlava connection, see R. Gopalan: History of the Pallas of Kanchi (Madras, 1928), Chapter II; Cadambi Minakshi, Administration and Social Life under the Pallavas (Madras, 1938) reviewed in BEFEO, XXXVIII, p 331-32
  9. ^ Vayu Purana: 45.115
  10. ^ Bangavasi Office, Calcutta Edition: 57.23
  11. ^ Bangavasi Office, Calcutta Edition: I.2.16-46; Sri Venkateshwara Press, Bombay Edition: I.2.16-64
  12. ^ Vamana Purana: 13.37
  13. ^ Matsya Purana: Sri Venkateshwara Press, Bombay Edition: 113.40; Nandalal Mor Edition, Clive Row, Calcutta: 113.40
  14. ^ See also: A Critical Study of the Geographical Data of Early Puranas, 1972, Table, pp 117-119, Dr M. R. Singh
  15. ^ .
    UttarAshchApare MlechchhA janA Bharatasattama ||63||
    YavanAshcha sa KAmbojA DAruNA Mlechchha jAtayaH |
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    ShUdrAbhIrAtha DaradAH KAshmIrAH PashubhiH saha |
    KhashikAshcha TukhArAshcha PallavA girigahvarAH ||66||
    (Mahabharata, Bhishama Parava 6.11.63-66)
  16. ^ Monier-Williams defines Pallava = Pl. N. of a people MBh. Pur. (v.l. for %{Pahlava}) [1]
  17. ^ Early History of India, 1924, Dr V. A. Smith.
  18. ^ Hist and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity, p 121, 178, Dr Majumdar, Dr Pusalkar etc
  19. ^ Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol I, p 179, James Tod
  20. ^ History and Culture of Indian People, The Classical Age
  21. ^ Ancient India, 2003, p 395, 705, Dr V. D. Mahajan; The Kshahratas have been identified with the Kambojas by scholars like Dr T. L. Shah etc
  22. ^ .
    viparite tada loke purvarupan kshayasya tat ||28||
    bahavo mechchha rajanah prithivyam manujadhipa |
    mithyanushasinah papa mrishavadaparayanah.||29 ||
    Andhrah Shakah Pulindashcha Yavanashcha naradhipah |
    Kamboja Aurnikah Shudrastathabhira narottama. ||30 ||
    (MBH 23/187/28-30)
    • A same Kaliyuga scenario is also depicted in the Bhagavata Purana which also states that the Mlecchas rulers of the Andhras, Abhiras, Gardabhis, Kankas, Yavanas, Turushkas, Gurundas and Maulas (Maunas) etc will rule unrighteously in Kaliyuga [2]. The Gardhabins and Gurundas of the Bhagavata Purana refer to the Iranian Kambojas and Pahlavas (cf: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol I, 2002, p 189-90, James Tod). Both these terms 'literally' means the people connected with the Donkeys/Asses etc. Since the north-west Kambojas were also known as Ashvakas (the people connected with the horses), the irate Brahmanical class of Madhyadesa out of malice has disparagingly labeled the Ashvakas (the horse-people) as Gardabhins (the donkey-people) etc.
    • A further clue to the Parasika (=Pahlava here), Abhira, Saka, Yavana, Kamboja invading hordes from north-west having entered Sindhu, Rajasthan and Gujarat etc in large numbers, wresting political control of northern India and establishing their respective kingdoms/pricipalities in the Indo-Aryan land is provided in Brahata Katha of Kshmendra also. According to this Brahmanical text, the chaotic situation created by these invading Mlechcha hordes is stated to have ended with the destruction of these Saka, Kamboja, Yavana, Parsika invading hordes by king Vikramaditya of Ujjaini (60 c BC) and the establishment of Vikram era:
    ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah |
    Mlechchana Kamboja. Yavanan neechan Hunan Sabarbran ||
    Tushara.Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan |
    hatya bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate ||
    (Brahata Katha, 10/1/285-86, Kshmendra)
    • There are important references to the warring Mleccha hordes of the Pahlavas, Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas etc in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana also (1.54.18-23; 1.55.2-3):
    tasya humbha rava uthsristah Pahlavah shatasho nripa || 1-54-18
    nashayanti balam sarvam vishvamitrasya pashyatah || 1-54-19a ||
    taih asit samvrita bhuumih Shakaih-Yavana mishritaih || 1.54-21 ||
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    taih taih Yavana-Kamboja barbarah ca akulii kritaah || 1-54-23 ||
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    tasya humkaarato jatah Kamboja ravi sannibhah |
    udhasah tu atha sanjatah Pahlavah shastra panayah || 1-55-2 ||
    yoni deshaat ca Yavanah Shakri deshat Shakah tathaa |
    roma kupesu Mlecchah ca Haritah sa Kiratakah || 1-55-3 ||
    Foremost Indologists like Dr H. C. Raychadhury clearly see in these verses the glimpses of the struggles of the Hindus with the mixed invading hordes of the barbaric tribes of Pahlavas, Shaks, Yavanas, Kambojas etc from north-west. The time frame for these struggles is second century BCE downwards. Dr Raychadhury fixes the date of the present version of the Valmiki Ramayana around/after second century CE (See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 3-4). [3]
  23. ^ Markendeya 58.30-32; Geographical Data in Early Purana, 1972, p 134-135, Dr M. R. Singh; Ancient Kamboja People and the Country 1981, p 305, Dr Kamboj
  24. ^ .
    Nairrtyam dizi dezah Pahlava Kamboja Sindhu Sauvirah | 14.17
    (Brhatsamhita 14.17a-d); Geographical Data in Early Purana, 1972, p 134-135, Dr M. R. Singh; Ancient Kamboja People and the Country 1981, p 305, Dr Kamboj; cf also: India as Seen in the Brhatsamhita of Varahamihira, 1969, Dr A. M. Shastri, Reader in Ancient Indian History & Culture, Nagpur University,
  25. ^ Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, p 305, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  26. ^
    pulinda ashmaka jimuta narrashtara nivasinah:
    carnata kamboja ghata dakshinapathvasinah:
    Garuda Purana 1/15/13)
  27. ^ There seems to be a copyist’s mistake in this verse of Mahabharata since per Puranic accounts, it is the Paradas and not the Daradas who form a militaristic group with the Shakas, Pahlavas and the Kambojas—the so-called panca-ganah (five-hordes) of Puranic accounts. Further, based on strict Sanskrit grammar, Sanskrit scholars like prof. Misra identify the Rishikas also as a section of Kambojas.
  28. ^ Ancient India, 2000, p 630, Dr V. D. Mahajan
  29. ^ The Indianised States of Southeast Asia, 1968, p 66, G. Coedes
  30. ^ Vishnu mitres de l indochine occidentle, BEFEO, XLI, p 249, Pierre Dupont
  31. ^ See Refs: R. Gopalan: History of the Pallas of Kanchi (Madras, 1928), Chapter II; Cadambi Minakshi, Administration and Social Life under the Pallavas (Madras, 1938) reviewed in BEFEO, XXXVIII, p 331-32
  32. ^ Indianised States of Southeast India, 1968, p 47, G. Coedes.

The Mahavamsa, also Mahawamsa, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. ... Kshatriya is the title of the princely military order within the Hindu varna system. ... Kshatriya is the title of the princely military order within the Hindu varna system. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam, written c. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... Maharishi Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मिकी, vālmikī) is the author of the Hindu epic Ramayana. ... The (Devanagari: ) is a Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and is an important part of the Hindu canon (smṛti). ...

References

  • Ancient India, 2003, Dr V. D. Mahajan
  • A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002), Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955)
  • Les Etats hindouises d'Indochine et d'Indonesie, 1963, G. Coedes
  • Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  • History and Culture of Indian People, (Editors) Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar.
  • Indianised States of Southeast Asia, 1968, G. Coedes (Trans by Susan Brown Cowing
  • South Indian Inscriptions - http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/
  • See Dr. Samar Abbas, India's Parthian Colony, May 2003 [6]

 
 

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