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Encyclopedia > Origin myths

An origin belief is any story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony). Such beliefs can be derived from many different venues including scientific investigation, metaphysical speculation, or religious belief, or any combination of these. As with any set of beliefs, opinions regarding the validity of particular origins beliefs differ — points of view on these subjects vary widely. Various creation stories have a first man, the first human being. ... // Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation) Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Plato and Aristotle, by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: belief Belief is usually defined as a conviction to the truth of a proposition. ... Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ...

Contents

Creation myths

Bill Reid's sculpture The Raven and The First Men, showing part of a Haida creation myth. The Raven represents the Trickster figure common to many mythologies. The work is in the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Vancouver.
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Bill Reid's sculpture The Raven and The First Men, showing part of a Haida creation myth. The Raven represents the Trickster figure common to many mythologies. The work is in the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Vancouver.

Origin beliefs commonly refer to creation mythsmytho-religious stories which explain the beginnings of the universe as a deliberate act of "creation" by a supreme being. However, "origin beliefs" may be generalized to include non-religious claims and theories based in contemporary science or philosophy. Photo of Bill Reids sculpture Raven and The First Men, showing part of a Haida creation myth. ... Photo of Bill Reids sculpture Raven and The First Men, showing part of a Haida creation myth. ... Bill Reids sculpture The Raven and The New Men, showing part of a Haida creation myth. ... The Haida are an indigenous people of the west coast of North America. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... Mythologies is the title of a book by Roland Barthes (ISBN 0374521506), published in 1957. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public university with its main campus located at Point Grey, in the University Endowment Lands adjacent to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and another smaller campus known as UBC Okanagan located in Kelowna, British Columbia. ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ... Various religious symbols Religion is a system of social coherence based on a common group of beliefs or attitudes concerning an object, person, unseen being, or system of thought considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine or highest truth, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such... Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions which maintains that one or a group of gods or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... Candidates for regular freemasonry are required to declare a belief in a Supreme Being; a generic description allowing the candidate to adhere to whichever deity or concept he holds to be appropriate. ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of knowledge attained by verifiable means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The term creation myth is sometimes used in a derogatory way to describe stories which are still believed today, as the term myth may suggest something which is absurd or fictional. While these beliefs and stories need not be a literal account of actual events, they may yet express ideas that are perceived by some people and cultures to be truths at a deeper or more symbolic level. Author Daniel Quinn notes that in this sense creation myths need not be religious in nature, and they have secular analogues in modern cultures. Daniel Quinn (born 1935 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a United States writer. ...


Many accounts of creation share broadly similar themes. Common motifs include the fractionation of the things of the world from a primordial chaos (demiurge); the separation of the mother and father gods; land emerging from an infinite and timeless ocean; and so on. The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Some religious groups assert that their accounts of creation should be considered alongside, supersede, or even replace scientific accounts of the development of life and the cosmos. This assertion has proven highly controversial (for one example, see creation-evolution controversy). Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of knowledge attained by verifiable means. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation) Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... The creation-evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. ...


Scientific observations

Science, strictly speaking, deals only with observable phenomena. Anything that cannot be observed (either directly or indirectly) is, by definition, not a subject of scientific investigation. Scientists look for patterns among observations, which give rise to hypotheses to be tested against further observations. If a hypothesis passes these tests, it is then called a scientific theory, which again is subject to amendment or rejection based on new observations. Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of knowledge attained by verifiable means. ... For the medical use of the term observation, see watchful waiting. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... A pattern is a form, template, or model (or, more abstractly, a set of rules) which can be used to make or to generate things or parts of a thing, especially if the things that are generated have enough in common for the underlying pattern to be inferred or discerned... A hypothesis (from Greek ) is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon or reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ...


Using verifiable observations science is able to measure some of the effects of past events of evolution of the early universe (for instance, via the microwave echo of the big bang) and interpret these observations within a scientific framework. By extrapolating the current observed state of affairs into the past, scientists seek to construct an accurate picture of the past. Those who are strict adherents to philosophical naturalism believe that such is all that is possible to know. This is not a universally accepted idea by any means, and there are many who promote other paths to knowledge which are not characterised as scientific inquiry. In cosmology, the cosmic microwave background radiation (most often abbreviated CMB but occasionally CMBR, CBR or MBR) is a form of electromagnetic radiation discovered in 1965 that fills the entire universe. ... In mathematics, extrapolation is a type of interpolation. ... Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that reject the validity of explanations or theories making use of entities inaccessible to natural science. ...


In scientific theories supported by the mainstream scientific community, the universe and life is described as developing through solely natural causes, and the progress of science is hoped to continue to improve the explanation of things and events in the past. In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... The scientific community consists of the interactions and relationships of scientists. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ...


Mainstream scientific theories

Graphical rendering of the expansion of the universe due to the Big Bang with the paradoxical singularity at the origin of time.
Graphical rendering of the expansion of the universe due to the Big Bang with the paradoxical singularity at the origin of time.

The Big Bang, the dominant cosmological theory about the early development and current shape and evolution of the universe, is supported by a collection of observed facts. It places origin of the Universe at about 13.7 +/-0.5 billion years ago. This widely accepted scientific dating contradicts many religious accounts of creation - for example, certain creationist accounts consider the Universe to be only a few thousand years old. The preconditions for the Big Bang are currently a subject of developing theories (e.g. cosmic inflation theory). According to the Big Bang theory, the universe originated in an infinitely dense singularity. ... According to the Big Bang theory, the universe originated in an infinitely dense singularity. ... According to the Big Bang, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state (bottom). ... A physical paradox is an apparent contradiction relating to physical descriptions of the universe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In mathematics, the origin of a coordinate system is the point where the axes of the system intersect. ... Two distinct views exist on the meaning of time. ... According to the Big Bang, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state (bottom). ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... Cosmic inflation is the idea, first proposed by Alan Guth in 1981, that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion (the inflationary epoch) that was driven by a negative pressure vacuum energy density. ...


The solar nebula which coalesced out of gas and dust about 4.3 billion years ago is considered the best planetary system formation model available for explaining the origin of the solar system. The Earth-moon system was formed out of this and there is evidence that the two bodies were formed after a collision between the proto-Earth and a Mars-sized object. ã ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale): The Sun, the eight planets, the asteroid belt containing the dwarf planet Ceres, outermost there is the dwarf planet Pluto (the dwarf planet Eris not shown), and a comet. ... // Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Bulk composition of the Moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... The Big Splash The giant impact theory (or Big Splash or Big Whack; cf. ...


The modern evolutionary synthesis is the dominant biological theory about the origin of human life on Earth. This combines Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism), generally denotes the integration of Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection, Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis... Human evolution is that part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of humans as a distinct species. ... In 1832, while travelling on the Voyage of the Beagle, naturalist Charles Darwin collected giant fossils in South America. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... The Galápagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Gregor Johann Mendel Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Biological inheritance is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism. ...


The origin of life itself on Earth is more contested. Scientific conjectures, hypotheses, and observations pertaining to this topic are detailed in the article on the origin of life. Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ...


It should be pointed out that the above scientific theories are not ex nihilo beliefs, that is they do not start from nothing. They provide no mechanism for the origin ex nihilo of energy or matter. In this respect they are unlike the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic beliefs which assert that the universe, Earth, and life originated in a unique creative act by God, or scientific speculations which propose an original cause of some other type. For a more precise understanding of modern science's concepts concerning "matter from vacuum" or "something from nothing" see virtual particle and vacuum energy. In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... In physics, a virtual particle is a particle-like abstraction used in some models of quantum field theory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zero-point energy. ...


Beliefs grounded in philosophical naturalism

Atomism is an ancient Greek philosophy supported by Democritus, Epicurus and Lucretius which held that events in the universe were not the consequence of any act by a Creator, but rather was the result of atoms moving about randomly. This philosophy was reformulated as determinism after the Enlightenment and still enjoys a following by some scientists, though the character of deterministic interactions in nature involving quantum mechanics is an outstanding question. In natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small, indestructible elements - atoms. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: Δημόκριτος) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace around 460 BC[1][2]). Democritus was a student of Leucippus and co-originator of the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable, indivisible elements which he called atomos, from which we get the... Roman marble bust of Epicurus Epicurus (Epikouros or in Greek) (341 BC, Samos – 270 BC, Athens) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the founder of Epicureanism, one of the most popular schools of Hellenistic Philosophy. ... Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (ca. ... Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Fig. ...


The Anthropic Principle and its more controversial derivative the Strong Anthropic Principle are explanations for the existence of humanity with respect to the conditions of the universe that we inhabit. The principle is used as a guide for some scientists to determine certain physical laws that have necessarily resulted in the existence of ourselves. In some sense, the Anthropic Principle is an empirical truism while the Strong Anthropic Principle is an idea that may defy falsification. In cosmology, the anthropic principle in its most basic form states the truism that any valid theory of the universe must be consistent with our existence as carbon-based human beings at this particular time and place in the universe. ... In cosmology, the anthropic principle in its most basic form states the truism that any valid theory of the universe must be consistent with our existence as carbon-based human beings at this particular time and place in the universe. ... A physical law or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations. ... Falsification may mean: The act of disproving a proposition, hypothesis, or theory. ...


Deism was a popular belief of many scientists and philosophers of the post-enlightenment, including Newton, Leibnitz, and Thomas Jefferson that kept the formality of a creator, but allowed creation to function solely based on natural laws that were established at the time of creation. In this formulation, every interaction was completely deterministic. Deism is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th century. ... Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... This article is 82 kilobytes or more in size. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential founder of the United States. ... In law, natural law is the doctrine that just laws are immanent in nature (that can be claimed as discovered but not created by such things as a bill of rights) and/or that they can emerge by natural process of resolving conflicts (as embodied by common law). ...


The Many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics and the idea of parallel universes are ways of resolving questions of causality and determinism in the framework of probabilistic interactions. In this speculative interpretation, the universe that we inhabit is one of many possible universes that all simultaneously exist, but are independent of each other, and each universe bifurcates with every quantum mechanical "observation". This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Fig. ... Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. ... The philosophical concept of causality, the principles of causes, or causation, the working of causes, refers to the set of all particular causal or cause-and-effect relations. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Creation ex nihilo

Creation ex nihilo (Latin: out of nothing) is at odds with our everyday experiences, in that nothing spontaneously comes into (or vanishes from) existence but instead matter and energy merely change forms. However, quantum mechanics allows for energy to be spontaneously created from the vacuum as long as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is not violated (usually, by the spontaneous annihilation of the created particles, e.g. the Lamb shift). This may give a means by which creation ex nihilo can be achieved, but nevertheless we are not currently able to explain creation ex nihilo, nor even to prove that it is required. Julian Barbour suggests that reality simply terminates on nothing at the alpha point, as a brute fact, in the same way that England abuts the sea at Land's End without requiring an explanation. Ex nihilo is a Latin term meaning out of nothing. It is often used in conjunction with the term creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning creation out of nothing. Due to the nature of this, the term is often used in philosophical or creationistic arguments, as a number of... Latin is an ancient [[Indo-European languages|Indo-well as the Roman CEuropean language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... In physics, matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, not counting the contribution of various energy or force-fields, which are not usually considered to be matter per se (though they may contribute to the mass of objects). ... Fig. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, sometimes called the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle, expresses a limitation on accuracy of (nearly) simultaneous measurement of observables such as the position and the momentum of a particle. ... In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a small difference in energy between two energy levels and of the hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics. ... Julian Barbour (born 1937) is a British physicist. ... Lands End (Cornish name: Pedn a Wollaz) is a headland on the Penwith peninsula, located near Penzance, Cornwall, at the extreme south-western tip of the British mainland. ...


An explanation advanced by some theists is that God created the Universe out of nothing; some creationists hold also that life was created in something like its present state of variety, so that organisms were fully speciated from the beginning. While there are various attempts to square these ideas with available evidence and currently accepted theory, their explanatory utility, predictive power, and scientific standing are questioned by critics of creationism. Many scientists in the relevant fields, theist and otherwise, do not regard notions like divine power or divine will as playing genuine scientific roles in cosmology or biology. Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ... The Creation of Light by Gustave Doré. In many religious traditions, creationism is ideological support of the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, or the universe as a whole was specially created by a supreme being (often referred to specifically as God[1]) or by other forms of supernatural intervention. ...


The scientifically prevalent view is that life originated on Earth, although other views hold that organic compounds from comets may have been an important source of material for the appearance of life. The Miller-Urey experiment showed that amino acids could arise from a type of primitive environment. Nevertheless, while scientific research on abiogenesis is ongoing, there is no consensus on how life began. The Miller-Urey experiment attempts to recreate the chemical conditions of the primitive Earth in the laboratory, and synthesized some of the building blocks of life. ... The general structure of an amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Religious creation beliefs

Several religions have creation stories, some of which account for the existence and present form of the Universe by the act of creation by a supreme being or the Creator God. Most of these accounts depict one or several gods fashioning things out of themselves, or from pre-existing material (for example chaos or prakriti). The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... Candidates for regular freemasonry are required to declare a belief in a Supreme Being; a generic description allowing the candidate to adhere to whichever deity or concept he holds to be appropriate. ... God is the divine being that created the omniverse. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language) is, according to samkhya philosophy the basic matter of which the universe consists. ...


The scholastic traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam for the most part speak of creation ex nihilo. This is typified, for example, by the assumption that the first verse of the Christian Bible ("In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth") indicates the only self-existent entity is God with all other things deriving from God. 2 Maccabees 7:28 indicates that this philosophy may have been a common Jewish understanding of creation: "I beseech thee, my son, look upon the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein, and consider that God made them of things that were not ...". Similar to this is the language found in the Book of Hebrews, which states, "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear". Some (notably Augustine of Hippo) also hold that God is altogether outside of time and that time exists only within the created universe. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbreviated Heb. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ...


However, in these traditions, the belief that God gave shape to pre-existing things was not unheard of, and that idea became more fully articulated especially under the influence of Greek philosophy. In both Judaism and Christianity, belief in creation "from nothing" began to dominate the traditions sometime in the second century C.E., in part as a reaction against classical philosophy. The following story from the Talmud illustrates this:

A philosopher said to R. Gamiliel: Your God was a great craftsman, but he found himself good materials which assisted him: Tohu wa-Bohu, and darkness, and wind, and water, and the primeval deep. Said R. Gamiliel to him: May the wind be blown out of that man! Each material is referred to as created. Tohu wa-Bohu: "I make peace and create evil"; darkness: "I form the light and create darkness"; water: "Praise him, ye heaven of heavens, and ye waters" -- why? -- "For he commanded, and they were created"; wind: "For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and created the wind"; the primeval deep: "When there were no depths, I was brought forth". BR 1.9, Th-Alb:8

Departing from this tradition, some modern scholars have argued that these statements and all others are still susceptible to ambiguous interpretation, so that creation ex nihilo may not be clearly supported by ancient texts, including the Bible. They point out the similarities of the biblical account, to other ancient religious beliefs that the universe was created by God or the gods out of pre-existing matter, as opposed to "out of nothing". Some scholars see evidence that the biblical account, like other ancient religious views, presumes pre-existence of some kind of raw material, albeit without form: "Now the earth was formless and void, darkness was over the face of the deep, and the spirit of God hovered over the waters." God then fashions the disordered material, to create the world. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Joseph Campbell wrote extensively on the subject and considered creative mythology a means to reconcile the waking consciousness to the mysterium tremendum et fascinans of this universe as it is. In his book The Masks of God: Creative Mythology he explains that the retelling of the creation myth would render an interpretive total image of creation to be known to contemporary culture. Renewing the act of the experience of creation the existence of adventure is renewed, “at once shattering and reintegrating the fixed already known, in the sacrificial creative fire of the becoming thing that is no thing at all but life, not as it will be or as it should be, as it was or as it never will be, but as it is, in depth, in process, here and now, inside and out.” Joseph Campbell For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ...


Limits to the ontology of creation

While many scenarios are proposed by religion and science to identify 'first cause' and the origin of creation (ontology), there are some fundamental limits to the knowledge of humankind that present a barrier to finding any definitive answer. In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ...


Post-modern philosophy currently holds that there is nothing that one can know for certain. Immanuel Kant's philosophy can be seen as a forerunner of this idea — that because we view the universe through the lens of the mind, which is 'shaped' by space, time, and the things embedded in space and time, it is not possible to see things-in-themselves (noumena) - the real objects that lie behind the subjective objects (phenomena) we recognise. If true, it is beyond the mind of humankind to perceive a condition that has no space or time. Many other philosophers, most recently Popper have all shown that there is precious little one can be sure of that would provide a starting point to determine the 'first cause' that led to creation. Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, particularly something special (literally something that can be seen, derived from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ...


Modern physics is an empirical science based on experiment and observation that characterizes how things happen through scientific theories and physical laws, but ultimately does not answer the question of 'why' things happen at the foundational (ontological) level. For example, the existence of the Big Bang is not predicated on a reason for its occurrence. What's more, the modern physics breaks down at the Planck time/Planck length, where both the influences of quantum mechanics and gravity are required to be combined in order to characterize the interactions that occur. As such, there is no model available that has been tested at this level, and so any attempt to theoretically probe beyond this regime in search of a more fundamental appreciation of the nature of the universe is hampered. Physics (from the Greek, (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space and time. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions and observations, performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... For the medical use of the term observation, see watchful waiting. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... A physical law or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations. ... According to the Big Bang, the universe emerged from an extremely dense and hot state (bottom). ... In physics, the Planck time (tP), is the natural unit of time. ... The Planck length, denoted by , is the unit of length in the system of units known as Planck units. ... Fig. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Religion has philosophy and oral testimony available to it to demonstrate a God or a separate "first cause" that called the universe into existence. As such it is dependent on faith in God or the specific "first cause" to which it ascribes.


Creation within various belief systems

Some creation beliefs are part of a named system of beliefs and are labeled as such below. Some creation beliefs seem to be better characterized according to time and/or place as they are part of a human culture in a time/place.


Ainu

The Ainu people of Hokkaido recount the demiurge with a cosmology consisting of six heavens and six hells where gods, demons, and animals lived. Demons lived in the lower heavens. Amongst the stars and the clouds lived the lesser gods. In highest heaven lived Kamui, the creator God, and his servants. His realm was surrounded by a mighty metal wall and the only entrance was through a great iron gate. The Ainu IPA: /?ajnu/) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaido and north of Honshu in Northern Japan, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... For the dog breed, see Hokkaido (dog). ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell, according to many religious beliefs, is a place or a state of pain and suffering. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... St. ... The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. ... This article is about clouds in meteorology. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Kamui made this world as a vast round ocean resting on the backbone of an enormous trout. This fish sucks in the ocean and spits it out again to make the tides; when it moves it causes earthquakes. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Biwa trout (Oncorhynchus masou subsp) Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ...


One day Kamui looked down on the watery world and decided to make something of it. He sent down a water wagtail to do the work. By fluttering over the waters with its wings and by trampling the sand with its feet and beating it with its tail, the wagtail created patches of dry land. In this way islands were raised to float upon the ocean. Genera Dendronanthus Motacilla The wagtails are a group of small passerine birds with long tails which they wag frequently. ... The worlds oceans as seen from the South Pacific Ocean Oceans (from Okeanos in Greek, the ancient Greeks noticing the strong current that flowed off Gibraltar and assuming it was a great river) cover almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the...


When the animals who lived up in the heavens saw how beautiful the world was, they begged Kamui to let them go and live on it, and he did. But Kamui also made many other creatures especially for the world. The first people, the Ainu, had bodies of earth, hair of chickweed, and spines made from sticks of willow. Kamui sent Aioina, the divine man, down from heaven to teach the Ainu how to hunt and to cook.


Apache

In the beginning nothing existed, only darkness was everywhere. Suddenly from the darkness emerged a thin disc, one side yellow and the other side white, appearing suspended in midair. Within the disc sat a small bearded man, Creator, the One Who Lives Above. When he looked into the endless darkness, light appeared above. He looked down and it became a sea of light. To the east, he created yellow streaks of dawn. To the west, tints of many colours appeared everywhere. There were also clouds of different colors. He also created three other gods: a little girl, a Sun-God and a small boy. Then he created celestial phenomena, the winds, the tarantula, and the earth from the sweat of the four gods mixed together in the Creator's palms, from a small round, brown ball, not much larger than a bean. The world was expanded to its current size by the gods kicking the small brown ball. Creator told Wind to go inside the ball and to blow it up. The tarantula, the trickster character, spun a black cord and, attaching it to the ball, crawled away fast to the east, pulling on the cord with all his strength. Tarantula repeated with a blue cord to the south, a yellow cord to the west, and a white cord to the north. With mighty pulls in each direction, the brown ball stretched to immeasurable size--it became the earth! No hills, mountains, or rivers were visible; only smooth, treeless, brown plains appeared. Then the Creator created the rest of the beings and features of the Earth Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ...


Australian Aboriginal

There is no single creation story among Aboriginal peoples, who have a diverse mythology. Some traditions hold that the Earth was created by one of the gods of the Dreamtime, others that particular creatures were created by particular gods or spirit ancestors. The indigenous peoples of Australia can be classified into hundreds of language groups and clans. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Aztec

Quetzalcoatl in human form, from the Codex Borbonicus.
Quetzalcoatl in human form, from the Codex Borbonicus.

The Aztec narrative describing creation proceeds with an Earth mother, "Coatlique", the Lady of the Skirt of Snakes. She was decorated with skulls, snakes, and lacerated hands. At first she was whole without cracks in her body -- a perfect monolith (a totality of intensity and self-containment, yet her features were square and decapitated). Coatlique was first impregnated by an obsidian knife and gave birth to Coyolxauhqui, goddess of the moon, and to a group of male offspring, who became the stars. Image File history File links Quetzalcoatl_1. ... Image File history File links Quetzalcoatl_1. ... Quetzalcoatl in human form, from the Codex Borbonicus. ... The original page 13 of the Codex Borbonicus, showing the 13th trecena of the Aztec sacred calendar. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Earth Mother is a motif that appears in many mythologies. ... In Aztec mythology, Coatlicue (skirt of serpents) was our Mother goddess of the Earth, the goddess of fire and fertility, mother of the southern stars. ... Obsidian from Lake County, Oregon Top stone is obsidian, below that is pumice and in lower right hand is rhyolite (light color) Obsidian is a type of naturally occurring glass, produced by volcanoes (igneous origin) when a felsic lava cools rapidly and freezes without sufficient time for crystal growth (see... In Aztec mythology, Coyolxauhqui (golden bells) was a moon goddess. ...


Then one day Coatlique found a ball of feathers, which she tucked into her bosom. When she looked for it later, it was gone, at which time she realized that she was again pregnant. Her children, the moon and stars did not believe her story. Ashamed of their mother, they resolved to kill her. During the time that they were plotting her demise, Coatlique gave birth to the fiery god of war, Huitzilopochtli. With the help of a fire serpent, he destroyed his brothers and sister, murdering them in a rage. He beheaded Coyolxauhqui and threw her body into a deep gorge in a mountain, where it lies dismembered forever. A pictorial representation of Huitzilopochtli from the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e História, México In Aztec mythology, Huitzilopochtli, also spelled Uitzilopochtli, (IPA: (Hummingbird of the South, He of the South, Hummingbird on the Left (South), or Left-Handed Humming Bird – huitzil is the Nahuatl word for hummingbird...


This precipitated a great civil war in heaven which crumbled to pieces. Coatlique fell and was fertilized, while her children were torn apart by fratricide and them scattered and disjointed throughout the universe. Who remained were Ometecutli and his wife Omecihuatl that created life. Their children were: Xipe Totec the god of spring, Huitzilopochtli the Sun god, Quetzalcoatl the "light one" and "plumed serpent", and Tezcatlipoca, the "dark one" and god of night and sorcery. In Aztec mythology, Ometecuhtli (two-lord; also Ometeoltloque, Ometecutli, Tloque Nahuaque, Citlatonac) was a god of fire, a creator deity and one of the highest gods in the pantheon, though he had no cult and was not actively worshipped. ... In Aztec mythology, Omecihuatl (also Omeciuatl) was a creator goddess who, along with her husband, Ometecuhtli, was the source of all life on Earth; the pair were aspects of Ometeotl. ... Xipe Totec in an illustration from Rig Veda Americanus, an 1890 book on American aboriginal literature In Aztec mythology, Xipe Totec (our lord the flayed one) was a life-death-rebirth deity, god of agriculture, the west, disease, spring, goldsmiths and the seasons. ... Look up spring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pictorial representation of Huitzilopochtli from the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e História, México In Aztec mythology, Huitzilopochtli, also spelled Uitzilopochtli, (IPA: (Hummingbird of the South, He of the South, Hummingbird on the Left (South), or Left-Handed Humming Bird – huitzil is the Nahuatl word for hummingbird... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... Quetzalcoatl in human form, from the Codex Borbonicus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca saw that whatever they created was eaten by Coatlique who floated in the abyss eating everything with her many mouths. To stop her, they changed into two serpents and descended into the water. One grabbed the goddess by the arms while the other grabbed her by the legs, and before she could resist they pulled her apart into different pieces. Her head and shoulders became the earth and the lower part of her body the sky. Serpent can be any of the following: The reptile commonly called snake. ...


The other deities were angry at what the two had done and decided, as compensation for her dismemberment, to allow her to provide the necessities for people to survive; so from her hair they created trees, grass, and flowers; caves, fountains, and wells from her eyes; rivers from her mouth; hills and valleys from her nose; and mountains from her shoulders.


Still the goddess was often unhappy and the people could hear her crying in the night. They knew she wept because of her thirst for human blood, and that she would not provide food from the soil until she drank. So the gift of human hearts is given her. She who provides sustenance for human lives demands human lives for her own sustenance. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Babylonian

The Babylonian creation myth is recounted in the "Epic of Creation" also known as the Enûma Elish. The Mesopotamian "Epic of Creation" dates to the late second millennium B.C.E. Enûma EliÅ¡ is the creation epic of Sumerian Babylonian mythology. ...


In the poem, the god Marduk (or Assur in the Assyrian versions of the poem) is created to defend the divine beings from an attack plotted by the ocean goddess Tiamat. The hero Marduk offers to save the gods only if he is appointed their supreme unquestioned leader and is allowed to remain so even after the threat passes. The gods agree to Marduk's terms. Marduk challenges Tiamat to combat and destroys her. He then rips her corpse into two halves with which he fashions the Earth and the heavens. Marduk then creates the calendar, organizes the planets, stars and regulates the moon, sun, and weather. The gods pledge their allegiance to Marduk and he creates Babylon as the terrestrial counterpart to the realm of the gods. Marduk then destroys Tiamat's husband, Kingu using his blood to create mankind so that they can do the work of the gods. (Sources, Foster, B.R., From Distant Days : Myths, Tales, and Poetry of Ancient Mesopotamia. 1995, Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press. vi, 438 p., Bottéro, J., Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia. 2004, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. x, 246 p., Jacobsen, T., The Treasures of Darkness : A History of Mesopotamian Religion. 1976, New Haven: Yale University Press. 273.) Marduk [märdook] (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical Merodach) was the name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ...


Bahá'í

The founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh, wrote that the material universe has always existed, though in a different form, and that the Word of God was its generating impulse. He further writes that God's Will expresses itself in the contingent world as nature, and that creation in totality has neither beginning nor end. Bahá'í Writings state that the material universe is only part of creation: there are many "worlds of God". (Sources: Bahá'u'lláh, Lawh-i-Hikmat p140-142 [1], `Abdu'l-Bahá, Promulgation of Universal Peace p47 [2]) Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born (Persian: ‎ ​), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ... `Abdul-Bahá Sir `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎ ), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...


Bantu

The Bantu account of demiurge is as follows. Originally, the Earth was nothing but water and darkness. Mbombo, the white giant ruled over this chaos. One day, he felt a terrible pain in his stomach, and vomited the sun, the moon, and the stars. The sun shone fiercely and water steamed up in clouds. Gradually, the dry hills appeared. Mbombo vomited again, this time the trees came out of his stomach, and animals, and people , and many other things: the first woman, the leopard, the eagle, the anvil, monkey Fumu, the first man, the firmament, medicine, and lighting. Nchienge, the woman of the waters, lived in the East. She had a son, Woto, and a daughter, Labama. Woto was the first king of the Bakuba. Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Buddhist

Buddhism generally ignores the question regarding the origin of life. The Buddha regarding the origin of life has said "Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it." AN IV.77, and in regard to ignoring the question of the origin of life the Buddha has said "And why are they undeclared by me? Because they are not connected with the goal, are not fundamental to the holy life. They do not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, calming, direct knowledge, self-awakening, Unbinding. That's why they are undeclared by me." MN 63. The Buddha also compared the question of the origin of life - as well as many other metaphysical questions - to the parable of the poison arrow: a man is shot with a poison arrow, but before the doctor pulls it out, he wants to know who shot it (arguing the existence of God), where the arrow came from (where the universe and/or God came from) why that person shot it (why God created the universe), etc. If the man keeps asking these questions before the arrow is pulled out, the Buddha reasoned, he will die before he gets the answers. Buddhism is less concerned with answering questions like the origin of life, and more concerned with the goal of saving oneself and other beings from suffering by attaining Enlightenment, or Nirvana. However, the esoteric Buddhist teaching, the Kalachakra Tantra, deals with the formation and functioning of reality. Modern day Buddhists such as the Dalai Lama don't perceive a conflict between Buddhism and science and consider they are complementary means of understanding the world around us. [3] A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Media:Example. ... Disenchantment (Entzauberung) in social sciences refers to the devaluation of mysticism. ... Plato and Aristotle, by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). ... . It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Spiritual enlightenment. ... [ (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna निब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing (ie, of the passions) is a mode of being that is free from mind-contaminants (Kilesa) such as lust, anger or craving. ... Kalachakra is a term used in tantric Buddhism that means time-wheel or time-cycles. ... The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (Tibetan: ཏ་ཱལའི་བླ་མ་; Wylie: Taa-la’i Bla-ma; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dálài LÇŽmā) form a tulku lineage of Gelug leaders which trace back to 1391. ...


Cherokee

In the beginning, there was just water. All the animals lived above it and the sky was overcrowded. They were all curious about what was beneath the water and one day Dayuni'si, the water beetle, volunteered to explore it. He explored the surface but could not find any solid ground. He explored below the surface to the bottom and all he found was mud which he brought back to the surface. After collecting the mud, it began to grow in size and spread outwards until it became the Earth as we know it. A water beetle is a sexy beetle adapted for living in water. ...


After all this had happened, one of the animals attached this new land to the sky with four strings. The land was still too wet so they sent the great buzzard from Galun'lati to prepare it for them. The buzzard flew down and by the time that he reached the Cherokee land he was so tired that his wings began to hit the ground. Wherever they hit the ground a mountain or valley formed. A buzzard is one of several large birds, but there are a number of meanings as detailed below. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


The animals then decided that it was too dark, so they made the sun and put it on the path in which it still runs today.


Chinese

Main article: Chinese creationism

There are five major views of creation in China: In Chinese mythology, Pangu was given birth from chaos and created Earth and Sky. ...

  • The first, and most consistent historically, is that no myth exists. This is not to say there were none existing at all, only that there is no evidence showing an attempt to explain the world's origin.
  • The second view is very indirect. It is merely based on a question of a dialog in an earlier reference. The idea in the question implies that the heavens and the earth separated from one another.
  • The third view is the one perpetuated by Taoism by the nature of its philosophy. It appears "relatively" late in Chinese history. In it, Tao is described as the ultimate force behind the creation. With tao, nothingness gave rise to existence, existence gave rise to yin and yang, and yin and yang gave rise to everything. Due to the ambiguous nature of this myth, it could be compatible with the first myth (and therefore say nothing). But it could, like its antithesis, be explained in a way to better fit the modern scientific view of the creation of universe.
  • The fourth view is the relatively late myth of Pangu. This was an explanation offered by Taoist monks hundreds of years after Laozi; probably around 200 CE. In this story, the universe begins as a cosmic egg. A god named Pangu, born inside the egg, broke it into two halves: The upper half became the sky, the lower half became the earth. As the god grew taller, the sky and the earth grew thicker and were separated further. Finally the god died and his body parts became different parts of the earth.
  • The fifth view would be tribal accounts that vary widely and not necessarily connect to a system of belief.

Taoism (sometimes written as and actually pronounced as Daoism(dow-ism)) is the English name for: Dao Jia [philosophical tao]philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi [Lao Tzu] and alternately spelled Dào Dé Jīng) and the Zhuangzi; a family of organized... Taijitu, the traditional symbol representing the forces of Yin and Yang The concepts of Yin and Yang originate in ancient Chinese philosophy and metaphysics, which describes two primal opposing but complementary forces found in all things in the universe. ... In later Chinese mythology, Pangu (盤古; pinyin: pan2 gu3; also PanGu, PanKu, Pan Guo) was the first living being and the creator of all. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mythology A world egg or cosmic egg is a mythological motif used in the creation myths of many cultures and civilizations. ... In later Chinese mythology, Pangu (盤古; pinyin: pan2 gu3; also PanGu, PanKu, Pan Guo) was the first living being and the creator of all. ...

Choctaw

The Choctaw who remain in Mississippi recount a narrative explanation of how they came to the land where they live now and of how Naniah Waiya Mound came to be. Chata and Chicksah, two brothers, led the original people from a land in the far west that had ceased to prosper. The people traveled for a long time, guided by a magical pole. Each night, when the people stopped to camp, the pole was placed in the ground and in the morning the people would travel in the direction in which the pole leaned. For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


After traveling for an extremely long time, they finally came to a place where the pole remained upright. In this place, they laid to rest the bones of their ancestors, which they had carried in buffalo sacks from the original land in the west. The mound grew out of that great burial. After the burial, the brothers discovered that the land could not support all the people. Chicksah took half the people and departed to the North and eventually became the Chickasaw tribe. Chatah and the others remained near the mound and are now known as the Choctaw. The Chickasaws are a Native American people of the United States, originally from present-day Mississippi, now mostly living in Oklahoma. ...


Christian

Creation of Light, by Gustave Doré. The painting depicts a literal representation of Genesis 1:1 ("Let there be light").
Creation of Light, by Gustave Doré. The painting depicts a literal representation of Genesis 1:1 ("Let there be light").

According to the book of Genesis, God eternally pre-existed the created order. As Genesis' first recorded act in reference to the world we know today, "God created" (Gen. 1:1). All the created order, from the luminaries of the sky to the fish of the sea, to the mingling of dust and divine breath that is humankind (Heb. adam, covering both male and female humankind), were created by God to embrace and enjoy the optimal living environment that is earth. Man and woman were made to reflect God's authority, love and good government into the world as stewards, and to offer up the praises of creation back to God. Download high resolution version (513x646, 398 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (513x646, 398 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... The Creation of Light by Gustave Doré. In many religious traditions, creationism is ideological support of the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, or the universe as a whole was specially created by a supreme being (often referred to specifically as God[1]) or by other forms of supernatural intervention. ...


Unique in all the created order, humanity, male and female, are the sole bearers of the imago Dei, the image (Heb. tselem - as in a child in the image of a parent) of God among animate and inanimate creation. As image-bearers, human beings have a mandate to walk in community with God, community and care for one another, and as caretakers of this good world. Resisting the invitation to the "We" of community with God and one another, human beings chose to live in the "I" of individualism and self-actualization.


At this point in the Genesis origins narrative, human beings became, as Francis Schaeffer put it, "indisputably bent." This self-made isolation moves the human soul toward self-preservation and self-absorption. This "falling into shadow," has unleashed destructive patterns within and without the human race, and the need for a redemptive adam to choose to live a human life in community with God, thereby reversing the effects of the fall, was exposed.


In Christian belief, Jesus, the Christ of God, was the new adam sent to us "at the fullness of time." Humanity's search to return to the Eden of our origin will culminate in a new and amplified Eden in the age to come, manifest in a new heaven and a new earth.


On First Cause


References to God in the New Testament vary, however, overall they demonstrate an incorporation of the first cause. It should be noted, however, that the Christian conception of God, the holy trinity, is more complex. The following examples illustrate this: John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ...


Revelation 1:8 - I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end... that which is, which has been, and that which is yet to come, Almighty God.


John 1:1-4 - In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life; and the life was the light of men.


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Followers of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints believe that physical reality (space, matter and/or energy) is eternal, and therefore does not have an absolute origin. The Creator is an architect and organizer of pre-mortal matter and energy, who constructed the present universe out of the raw material (demiurge). In addition to the pre-mortal organization of the earth from existing matter, Joseph Smith taught that "there is no such thing as immaterial matter. All spirit is matter, but it is more fine or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes; we cannot see it; but when our bodies are purified we shall see that it is all matter." (Doctrine and Covenants 131:7,8) Eternal can refer to: The British R&B group Eternal Eternals, the Marvel Comics characters created by Jack Kirby The eternity puzzle The concept of eternity The philosophical notion of the incorporeal, or immaterial realm. ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ...


Creek

The Creek believe that the world was originally entirely underwater. The only land was a hill, called Nunne Chaha, and on the hill was a house, wherein lived Esaugetuh Emissee ("master of breath"). He created humanity from the clay on the hill.


Digueno

The Digueno creation narrative tells of the beginning of creation with the male sky coming down upon the female Earth. The extant deities were weighed down by the sky being so close to the ground and all walked with a stoop. To combat this problem, a creator deity, Tu-chai-pai, separated the Earth from the heavens by blowing on rubbed tobacco three times. He had his brother, Yo-ko-mat-is, do the same, and then the two brothers placed the four cardinal directions at the ends of the Earth. Tu-chai-pai then proceeded to create hills, valleys, forests and lakes for the benefit of humanity. The brothers made men easily but had trouble making women. Initially, human beings were not subject to fatigue, but to prevent them from hurting themselves in the dark they were made to sleep at night. Tu-chai-pai then made the Sun and Yo-ko-mat-is made the moon to help humanity find the light they were instructed to race towards. The Kumeyaay, also known as the Diegueño and sometimes confused with the Luiseño, are a Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ...


Egyptian

There were at least three separate cosmogenies in Egyptian mythology, corresponding to at least three separate groups of worshippers. Cosmogony [Gr. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ...

Over time, the rival groups gradually merged, Ra and Atum were identified as the same god, making Atum's mysterious creation actually due to the Ogdoad, and Ra having the children Shu and Tefnut, etc. In consequence, Anubis was identified as a son of Osiris, as was Horus. Amun's role was later thought much greater, and for a time, he became chief god, although he eventually became considered a manifestation of Ra. The Ennead (a word derived from Greek, meaning the nine) is a grouping of nine deities, most often used in the context of Egyptian mythology. ... History Atum (alternatively spelt Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an early deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... Mulher Sentada de Coxas Abertas, Drawing 1916 by Gustav Klimt Masturbation is the manual excitation of the sexual organs, usually to the point of orgasm. ... Human semen Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... In Egyptian mythology, Tefnut is a goddess of water and fertility, indeed her name means moist waters (i. ... In Egyptian mythology, Shu (meaning dryness and he who rises up) is one of the primordial gods, a personification of air, one of the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... Dryness, a property of alcoholic beverages, is the lack of sweet taste. ... Amongst the group who believed in the Ennead, a form of Egyptian mythology centred in Heliopolis, Geb (also spelt Seb, and Keb) was the personification of the earth, and indeed this is what his name means - earth, and thus it was said that when he laughed, it caused earthquakes. ... // Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... In Egyptian mythology, Nuit or Nut was the sky goddess, in contrast to most other mythologies, which usually have a sky father. ... A typical daytime sky. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Set, in KV34 Set (also Setekh, Seth, etc) was originally a god of strength, war, storms, foreign lands (and foreigners) and deserts in Egyptian mythology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation), Lives (disambiguation) or Living (disambiguation), Living Things (disambiguation) Look up life, living in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys (spelt Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, in transliteration from Egyptian hieroglyphs) is one of the Ennead of Heliopolis, a daughter of Nut and Geb, and the wife of Set. ... Fertility is the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring in abundance. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad are the eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis. ... , , , or [1] This article is about the Egyptian god. ... In most birds and reptiles, an apple (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Binomial name Nymphaea caerulea Sav. ... In Egyptian mythology, Naunet (or Nunet) is the goddess of the primordial, watery abyss of the underworld and one of the Ogdoad. ... Water is a tasteless, odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... In Egyptian mythology, Amunet (also spelled Amonet, Amaunet, Amentet, Amentit, Imentet, Imentit, and Ament) was originally the female form of the originally androgynous god Amun. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Egyptian mythology, Kuk (also spelt Keku) was the deification of the primordial concept of darkness, in the Ogdoad cosmogony, his name meaning darkness. ... Darkness is the absence of light. ... In Egyptian mythology, Huh (also spelled Hu, Hah, or Heh) was the deification of eternity in the Ogdoad, his name itself meaning endlessness, and is not to be confused with the identically named Hu a god in the Ennead system. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... Statue of Hathor (Luxor Museum) In Egyptian mythology, Hathor (Egyptian for house of Horus) was originally a personification of the Milky Way, which was seen as the milk that flowed from the udders of a heavenly cow. ... Horus is an ancient god of Egyptian mythology, whose cult survivved so long that he evolved dramatically over time and gained many names. ... Anubis is the Greek name for the ancient jackal-headed god of the dead in Egyptian mythology whose hieroglyphic is more accurately spelled Anpu (also Anup, Anupu, Wip, Ienpw, Inepu, Yinepu, or Inpw). ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Look up Speech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tetragrammaton. ...


For a time, Ra and Horus were identified as one another, and when the Aten monotheism was unsuccessfully introduced, it was Ra-Horus who was thought of as the Aten, and the consequent cosmogony this inspired. Later, Osiris' cult became more popular, and he became the main god, being identified as a form of Ptah. Eventually, all the gods were thought of as aspects of Osiris, Isis, Horus, or Set (who was by now a villain), indeed, Horus and Osiris had started to become thought of as the same god. Ptah eventually was identified as Osiris. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In theology, monotheism (in Greek μόνος = single and θεός = God) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ...


Evolutionary Spirituality

see The Great Story This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Finnish

Ancient Finns believed that the world was formed from egg that was broken.


A bird was flying above the sea, seeking a place to make a nest and lay her eggs. She searched everywhere, but found nothing but water. Then she noticed the first dry place. In some stories it was an island, in other stories it was a boat and in other stories it was a body part of a floating being, like the wizard Väinämöinen. The place was too unstable for a nest: a big wave came and broke the eggs, spreading their parts all over. However the eggs were not wasted: the upper part of egg covers formed the sky, yolk became the sun, and lower parts of egg formed the mother earth. The first human was Väinämöinen, he was borned from the maiden of air Ilmatar that was made pregnant by the sea. Väinämöinen ordered forests to be planted, and started human culture. Illustration from the Kalevala, by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1896. ... Illustration from the Kalevala, by Akseli Gallen-Kallela 1896. ... In Finnish mythology, Ilmatar or Luonnotar was the virgin goddess of the heavens. ...


Greek (Classical)

Plato, in his dialogue Timaeus, describes a creation myth involving a being called the demiurge. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Timaeus is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ...


Hesiod, in his Theogony, says that Chaos existed in the beginning, and then gave birth to Gaia (the Earth), Tartarus (the Underworld), Eros (desire), Nyx (the darkness of the night) and Erebus (the darkness of the Underworld). Gaia brought forth Ouranos, the starry sky, her equal, to cover her, the hills, and the fruitless deep of the Sea, Pontus, "without sweet union of love," out of her own self. But afterwards, Hesiod tells, she lay with Heaven and bore the World-Ocean Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and the Titans Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne and Phoebe of the golden crown and lovely Tethys. "After them was born Cronos the wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire." Cronos, at Gaia's urging, castrates Ouranos. He marries Rhea who bears him Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. Zeus and his brothers overthrow Cronos and the other Titans, then draw lots to determine what each of them will rule. Zeus draws heaven, Poseidon draws the sea, and Hades draws the underworld. The Earth was contested and no one of them had absolute sovereignty over it, as shown by Poseidon's anger when Zeus forced him to leave the battlefield in the Iliad. Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony Wikisource has original text related to this article: Theogony (in Greek) Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of ancient Greek religion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ... Gaia (pronounced // or //) (land or earth, from the Greek ; variant spelling Gaea—see also Ge from ) is a Greek goddess personifying the Earth. ... Tartarus, or Tartaros is a place of eternal torment and suffering, similar to the Hell of Christianity, Netherworld of Pagan religions, the Buddhist Naraka, Judaic Gehenna, Chinese Di Yu, and the Islamic Jahannam , and Roman Paradise. ... In Greek mythology, Eros was the god responsible for lust, love, and sex; he was also worshipped as a fertility deity. ... In Greek mythology, Nyx (, Nox in Roman translation) was the primordial goddess of the night. ... In Greek mythology Erebus (Έρεβος Erebos, Desert from eremos ) was a primordial god, the personification of darkness and shadow, which filled in all the corners and crannies of the world. ... Uranus is the Latinized form of Ouranos, Greek name of the sky. ... In Greek mythology, Pontus (or Pontos, sea) was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, son of Gaia and Aether, the Earth and the Air. ... Oceanus or Okeanos refers to the ocean, which the Greeks and Romans regarded as a river circling the world. ... In Greek mythology, Coeus (also Koios) was the Titan of intelligence. ... In Greek mythology, Crius was one of the Titans, a son of Uranus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek Τιτάν, plural Τιτάνες) were a race of powerful deities that ruled during the legendary Golden Age. ... In the Homers Iliad and Odyssey the sun god is called Helios Hyperion, Sun High-one. But in the Odyssey, Hesiods Theogony and the Homeric Hymn to Demeter the sun is once in each work called Hyperonides son of Hyperion and Hesiod certainly imagines Hyperion as a separate... In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and through Prometheus and Epimetheus and Atlas an ancestor of the human race. ... In Greek mythology, Theia (also written Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa (wide-shining), was a Titan. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... Mnemosyne (Greek , IPA in RP and in General American) (sometimes shortened to Mneme) was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. ... Phoebe (pronunced fee-bee) was one of the original Titans, one set of sons and daughters of Uranus and Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, Tethys was a Titaness and sea goddess who was both sister and wife of Oceanus. ... Rhea tricking Cronus with a wrapped stone. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... Ceres (Demeter), allegory of August: detail of a fresco by Cosimo Tura, Palazzo Schifanoia, Ferrara, 1469-70 Dêmêtêr (or Demetra) (Greek: , mother-earth or perhaps distribution-mother, perhaps from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth *mater) is the Greek goddess of agriculture, the pure nourisher... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (IPA pronunciation: ; Greek or ) was the wife and older sister of Zeus. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city centre, Bristol, formerly the largest port in England outside London. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving In Greek mythology, Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Ζεύς Zeús, genitive... The Iliad (Ancient Greek , Ilias) is, together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer, a supposedly blind Ionian poet. ...


Hermeticism

In Hermeticism, the origin belief is not taken literally, but an attempt is made to understand it metaphorically. Not all Hermeticists understand it in the same way, and it is mainly up to personal understanding. The tale is given in the first book of the Corpus Hermeticum by God's Nous to Hermes Trismegistus after much meditation. Also, not all Hermeticists put much weight on the symbolic texts, and may be unaware of the story. Hermes Trismegistus depicted as European in a medieval rendering. ... Corpus Hermeticum is collection of several Greek texts from the second and third centuries, survivors from a more extensive literature, known as Hermetica. ... The All is the Hermetic version of God, to some and not to others. ... Nous (Νους) is a Greek word (pronounced noose), that corresponds to the English words intelligence, intellect, or mind. ... Hermes Trismegistus (Greek for Hermes the thrice-greatest, Greek: Ερμης ο Τρισμεγιστος) or Mercurius ter Maximus in Latin, is the syncretism of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian Thoth. ...


It begins as God creates the elements after seeing the Cosmos and creating one just like it (our Cosmos) from its own constituent elements and souls. From there, God, being both male and female, holding the Word, gave birth to a second Nous, creator of the world. This second Nous created seven powers (often seen as Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Sun and the Moon) to travel in circles and govern destiny. The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... The shield and spear of the Roman God Mars are often used to represent the male sex In heterogamous species, male is the sex of an organism, or of a part of an organism, which typically produces smaller, mobile gametes (spermatozoa) that are able to fertilise female gametes (ova). ... The hand mirror and comb of the Roman Goddess Venus is often used to represent the female sex. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Adjective Jovian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Adjective Saturnian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Bulk composition of the Moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ...


The Word then leaps forth from the matterializing elements, which made them unintelligent. Nous then made the governors spin, and from their matter sprang forth creatures without speech. Earth then was separated from Water and the animals (other than Man) were brought forth from the Earth. In physics, matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed, not counting the contribution of various energy or force-fields, which are not usually considered to be matter per se (though they may contribute to the mass of objects). ...


The Supreme Nous then created Man, hermaphroditic, in his own image and handed over his creation. Man carefully observed the creation of his brother, the lesser Nous, and received his and his Father's authority over it all. Man then rose up above the spheres' paths to better view the creation, and then showed the form of God to Nature. Nature fell in love with it, and Man, seeing a similar form to his own reflecting in the water fell in love with Nature and wished to dwell in it. Immediately Man became one with Nature and became a slave to its limitations such as gender and sleep. Man thus became speechless (for it lost the Word) and became double, being mortal in body but immortal in spirit, having authority of all but subject to destiny. The 1st-century BC sculpture The Reclining Hermaphrodite, in the Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme in Rome In zoology and botany, a hermaphrodite is an organism that possesses both male and female sex organs during its life[1]. In many species, hermaphroditism is a common part of the... The word gender describes the state of being male, female, or neither. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath. ... Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events. ...


The tale does not specifically contradict the theory of evolution, other than for Man, but most Hermeticists fully accept evolutionary theory as a solid grounding for the creation of everything from base matter to Man. In 1832, while travelling on the Voyage of the Beagle, naturalist Charles Darwin collected giant fossils in South America. ...


Hindu

The Mahaa-Vishnu, into whom all the innumerable universes enter and from whom they come forth again simply by His breathing process, is a plenary expansion of Krishna. Therefore I worship Govinda, Krishna, the cause of all causes. (Brahma-samhitaa 5.48)

In Hindu philosophy, the existence of the universe is governed by the Trimurti of Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Sustainer) and Shiva (the Destroyer). The sequence of Avatars of Vishnu- the Dasavatara (Sanskrit: Dasa—ten, Avatara—incarnation) is generally accepted by most Hindus today as correlating well with Darwin's theory of evolution, the first Avatar generating from the environment of water. Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... == krishna full name krishnadas and he is a hardware eng working in a mnc company his native is in kerala palghat alathur kunissery. ... Krsnas name is Govinda. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: , , also known as , ) is a religion that originated on the Indian Subcontinent. ... In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) are three aspects of God, or Parabrahman, in Gods personae as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. ... This article concerns the Hindu creator god, Brahma. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... Shiva (English IPA: Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव; Malayalam ശിവന്‍; Tamil: சிவன் (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Åšiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... The ten avatars of Lord Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar, avatara or avatarim (Sanskrit: , IAST: ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... In Hinduism, an avatar is the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of an Immortal Being, or of the Ultimate Supreme Being. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ...


Hindus thus do not see much conflict between creation and evolution. An additional reason for this could also be the Hindu concept of cyclic time, such as yugas, or days of Brahma in approximately 4.3 billion year cycles (unlike the concept of linear time in many other religions). In fact, time is represented as Kaala Chakra — the Wheel of Time. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In computational complexity, an algorithm is said to take linear time, or O(n) time, if the time it requires is proportional to the size of the input, which is usually denoted n. ...


In Hinduism, nature and all of God's creations are manifestations of Him. He is within and without his creations, pervading the entire universe and also observing it externally. Hence all animals and humans have a divine element in them that is covered by the ignorance and illusions of material or profane existence.


In earlier Vedic thinking, the universe was created by Hiranyagarbha (here interpreted as 'the golden embryo') or by Prajapati who was born from the Hiranyagarbha (here interpreted as 'the golden womb'). Prajapati was later identified with the puranic Brahma. Other gods are credited with acts of creation, primarily the act of propping apart the sky and the Earth - gods who are said to have done this include Indra, Varuna and Vishnu. Another myth which began in late Rig-Vedic times with the Purusha Sukta hymn was the story of the creation of the universe from the remains of the primaeval cosmic male Purusha, who had sacrificed himself or been sacrificed by other primaeval beings (not the most popular Vedic gods because they were said to have been born from Purusha after the sacrifice) at the Purushamedha yajna. According to HINDU MYTHOLOGY creation happened gradually. The universe in primitive form was made up of ISHWAR TATTVA, the ISHWAR TATTVA primarily spread homogeneously throughout the universe. SARVESHAKTIMAN and SARVEVYAPAK, were some other names of ISHWAR TATTVA. PURUSHA and PRAKRITI identifies as energy and matter, mixing of these two in different ratios resulted in SATTVA, RAJAS and TAMAS. SATTVA having great amount of energy and little matter, TAMAS having less energy and big matter, RAJAS being in between, are basic building blocks of our Universe. Presently they can be interpreted as Electron, Proton and Neutron. These three basic Gunas in different ratio made five elements, named as Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth. These five elements present in the universe can be observed directly by our Ten INDRIYAS, five Gyanendriyans and five Karmendriyans. According to an account of the Hindu mythology, Hiranyagarbha, meaning the golden womb, is the source of the creation of the universe. ... In Hinduism, Prajapati is Lord of Creatures, thought to be depicted on ancient Harappan seals, sitting in yogic posture, with an erection and what appear to be bison horns. ... Purana (Sanskrit पुराण, purāṇa, meaning ancient or old) is the name of a genre (or a group of related genres) of Indian written literature (as distinct from oral literature). ... Deva (देव in Devanagari script, pronounced as dévə) is the Sanskrit word for god, deity. It can be variously interpreted as a spirit, demi-god, celestial being, angel, deity or any supernatural being of high excellence. ... A typical daytime sky. ... // Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Indra is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... This article is about the god. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛgveda from ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a Rucha.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In Hinduism, Purusha ([Cosmic] Man) is the self which pervades the universe. ... Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient cultures. ... Purushamedha (lit. ...


Hopi

The Elders say that the first Hopi had chosen to live in the barren desert so that they would always need to pray for rain. Thus, they would not lose faith in their ceremonies, which maintain their bond with the Mother Nature and Creator. They said that the True Hopi people represent the Red race through the authority vested in them by the Creator, Maasaw. An elder refers to various Wikipedia topics. ... Hopi woman dressing hair of unmarried girl. ... Mother Nature is a mythical personification of nature. ... The creator god is the divine being that created the universe, according to various traditions and faiths. ... The creator god is the divine being that created the universe, according to various traditions and faiths. ...


Hmong

According to Hmong tradition, a long time ago the rivers and ocean covered the Earth. A brother and sister were locked in a yellow wooden drum. The Sky People looked out and saw the Earth. Everything was dead. Only a yellow wooden drum was left on the water. The terms Hmong (IPA:) and Mong [mɔ̃ŋ] both refer to an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China. ...


"Punch holes in the Earth so the water will drain away," said the King above the Sky.


The water went down. Finally, the drum bumped against the ground. The brother and sister came out of the drum and looked around. Everything was dead.


"Where are the people?" asked the sister.


But the brother had an idea. "All the people on Earth are gone. Marry me, we can have children."


"I can't marry you, we are brother and sister."


But he asked her again and again and she said, "No."


Finally the brother said, "Let's carry the grindstones up the hill and roll them into the valley. If the stones land on top of each other, then you shall marry me."


The sister rolled her stone and then, as soon as the brother rolled his stone he ran as fast as he could down the hill and stacked the stones on top of each other.


When the sister saw the stones she cried. Finally she said, "I will marry you, because it was meant to be."


A year later the wife gave birth to a baby, but the baby was not a real baby. It had no arms or legs. It was just round like a pumpkin. The husband cut it up and threw the pieces away. One piece fell on the garden and it became the "Vang" clan because "Vang" sounds like the word for "garden" in Hmong. One piece fell on the goat house. Some pieces fell on the leaves and grass and they became the other Hmong clans. The Nhia, Mhoua, Pao, Ho, Xiong, Vue, and so on. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The next morning the village was full of houses. Everyone came to the husband and wife and said, "Mother and father, come have breakfast with us."


The husband said to his wife, "I asked you to marry me because all the people on Earth were dead. Now these people are our family -- our sons and daughters."


Inca

Enlarge
Hand drawn image of Manco Capac, founder of the Incan empire and, according to Incan custom, created along with the world.

The Incan account of creation is known based on what was recorded by priests, from the iconography on Incan pottery and architecture, and the myths and legends which survived amongst the native peoples. According to these accounts, in the most ancient of times the earth was covered in darkness. Then, out of a lake called Collasuyu (modern Titicaca), the god Con Tiqui Viracocha emerged, bringing some human beings with him. Then Con Tiqui created the sun (Inti), the moon and the stars to light the world. It is from Inti that the Sapa Inca, emperor of Tawantin Suyu, is descended. Out of great rocks Con Tiqui fashioned more human beings, including women who were already pregnant. Then he sent these people off into every corner of the world. He kept a male and female with him at Cusco, the "navel of the world." Image File history File links page 86 of El Primer Nueva Coronica I buen Gobierno by Guaman Poma (written 1615 CE) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links page 86 of El Primer Nueva Coronica I buen Gobierno by Guaman Poma (written 1615 CE) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... A boat made of reeds on Lake Titicaca. ... In Inca mythology, Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra was the creator of civilization, and one of the most important deities in the Inca canon. ... Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... Sapa Inca is the title of the ruler of the Inca Empire. ... A view of Machu Picchu, the Lost City of the Incas, now an archaeological site. ... Cusco (also Cuzco, Qosqo, or Qusqu) is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley (Sacred Valley) of the Andes mountain range. ...


Con, the Creator; was in the form of a man without bones. He filled the earth with good things to supply the needs of the first humans. The people, however, forgot Con's goodness to them and rebelled. So he punished them by stopping the rainfall. The miserable people were forced to work hard, drawing what little water they could find from stinking, drying riverbeds. Then a new god, Pachacamac, came and drove Con out, changing his people into monkeys. Pachacamac then took earth and made the ancestors of human beings.. Pachacamac empire The ancient city of Pachacamac is a ruin 40 km southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River. ...


The founder of the first dynasty of the kingdom of Cuzco was Manco Capac. In one legend he was brought up from the depths of Lake Titicaca by the sun god Inti. In another he was the son of Tici Viracocha. However commoners were not allowed to speak the name of Viracocha, which is possibly an explanation for the need for two foundation legends. Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... Lake Titicaca is the highest commercially navigable lake in the world [1], at 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level. ... Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... In Inca mythology, Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra was the creator of civilization, and one of the most important deities in the Inca canon. ...


In one myth Manco Capac was the brother of Pachacamac, both were sons of the sun god Inti who is also known as Apu Punchau. Manco Capac himself was worshiped as a fire and sun god. According to the Inti legend, Manco Capac and his siblings were sent up to the earth by the sun god and emerged from the cave of Pacaritambo carrying a golden staff, called ‘tapac-yauri’. They were instructed to create a Temple of the Sun in the spot where the staff sank into the earth, they traveled to Cusco via underground caves, and built a temple in honor of the sun god Inti, their father. During the journey to Cuzco, one of Manco’s brothers, and possibly one of his sisters, were turned to stone (huaca). In another version of this legend, instead of emerging from a cave in Cuzco, the siblings instead emerged from the waters of Lake Titicaca. Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... Pachacamac empire The ancient city of Pachacamac is a ruin 40 km southeast of Lima, Peru in the Valley of the Lurín River. ... Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god and the god of rainbows, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: nonsense If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... In Quechua, a Huaca is an object that represents something revered, such as an ancestor, a god or even a character trait. ... Lake Titicaca is the highest commercially navigable lake in the world [1], at 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level. ...


In the Tici Virachocha legend, Manco Capac was the son of Tici Viracocha of Pacari-Tampu (today Pacaritambo, 25 km south of Cuzco). He and his brothers (Ayar Anca, Ayar Cachi and Ayar Uchu) and sisters (Mama Ocllo, Mama Huaco, Mama Raua and Mama Cura) lived near Cuzco at Paccari-Tampu, and united their people and ten ayllu they encountered in their travels to conquer the tribes of the Cuzco Valley. This legend also incorporates the golden staff, which is thought to have been given to Manco Capac by his father. Accounts vary, but according to some versions of the legend, the young Manco jealously betrayed his older brothers, killed them, and became the sole ruler of Cuzco. In Inca mythology, Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra was the creator of civilization, and one of the most important deities in the Inca canon. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: nonsense If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... In Inca mythology, Mama Ocllo was deified as a mother and fertility goddess. ... Cusco (also Cuzco, Qosqo, or Qusqu) is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley (Sacred Valley) of the Andes mountain range. ... Ayllu were the basic political unit of pre-Inca and Inca life. ...


Inuit

The traditional account of the Inuit people is that the trickster in the form of Raven created the world. When the waters forced the ground up from the deep Raven stabbed it with his beak and fixed it into place. This first land was just big enough for a single house occupied by a single family: a man, his wife and their son, Raven who had fixed the land. The father had a bladder hanging over his bed. After much pleading by Raven the father allowed the boy to play with it. While playing Raven damaged the bladder and light appeared. The father not wanting to have light always shining took the bladder from the boy before he could damage it further. This struggle is the origin of day and night. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... Species See text. ...


Iroquois

The Iroquois account of demiurge is that in the beginning there was no earth to live on, only a watery abyss, but up above, in the Great Blue, there was a community called the Sky World including a woman who dreamed dreams. The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ...


One night she dreamed about the tree that was the source of light. The dream frightened her, so she went and asked the men in the Sky World to pull up the tree. They dug around the trees roots to make space for more light, and the tree fell through the hole and disappeared. After that there was only darkness. Distraught, they pushed the woman through the hole as well. The woman would have been lost in the abyss had not a fish hawk come to her aid using his feathers to pillow her. Binomial name Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. ...


The fish hawk could not keep her up all on his own, so he asked for help to create some firm ground for the woman to rest upon. A helldiver went down to the bottom of the sea and brought back mud in his beak. He found a turtle, smeared the mud onto its back, and dove down again for more. Ducks also brought beaksful of the ocean floor and to spread over the turtle's shell. The beavers helped build terrain, making the shell bigger. The birds and the animals built the continents until they had made the whole round earth, while the woman was safely sitting on the turtle's back. The turtle continues to hold the earth on its back. Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... // Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Merginae For other meanings, see Duck (disambiguation). ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ...


After this, one of the Spirits of the Sky World came down and looked at the earth. As he traveled over it, he found it beautiful, and so he created people to live on it and gave them special skills; each tribe of the Iroquois nation was given special gifts to share with the rest of humanity.


Islam

The calligraphic representation of the name of Allah, identified as the one true creator God in Islam and the other Abrahamic faiths.
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The calligraphic representation of the name of Allah, identified as the one true creator God in Islam and the other Abrahamic faiths.

In Islam all creation is attributed to Allah (the name for God in Arabic), the one and only God for Muslims. He is clearly identified as the "first cause" at numerous places in the Qur'an. Three instances follow: Image File history File links Allah-green. ... Image File history File links Allah-green. ... Allah is the Arabic language word referring to God, the Lord and, literally according to the Quran, to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the Abrahamic religions. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... Allah is the Arabic language word referring to God, the Lord and, literally according to the Quran, to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the Abrahamic religions. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran (the traditional term in English), and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ...


(13:16) … Say: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Supreme


(57:3) … He is the First and the Last and the Manifest and the Hidden, and He is Knower of all things


(112:1) … Say: He, Allah, is One


(112:2) … Allah is He on Whom all depend


Referring to the first cause argument the Qur'an addresses the non-believers: The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran (the traditional term in English), and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ...


(52:35) … Or were they created without a (creative) agency? Or are they the creators?


(52:36) … Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, they are sure of nothing.


Also, the Qur'an has been interpreted to explain the creation of the universe similar to the Big Bang. It also describes the essential role that water plays in life:


(21:30) … Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the earth were closed up, but We have opened them; and We have made of water everything living, will they not then believe?


Imam Ali explained the creation of Earth as:


"He initiated creation most initially and commenced it originally, without undergoing reflection, without making use of any experiment, without innovating any movement, and without experiencing any aspiration of mind. He allotted all things their times, put together their variations gave them their properties, and determined their features knowing them before creating them, realising fully their limits and confines and appreciating their propensities and intricacies.


When Almighty created the openings of atmosphere, expanse of firmament and strata of winds, He flowed into it water whose waves were stormy and whose surges leapt one over the other. He loaded it on dashing wind and breaking typhoons, ordered them to shed it back (as rain), gave the wind control over the vigour of the rain, and acquainted it with its limitations. The wind blew under it while water flowed furiously over it.


Then Almighty created forth wind and made its movement sterile, perpetuated its position, intensified its motion and spread it far and wide. Then He ordered the wind to raise up deep waters and to intensify the waves of the oceans. So the wind churned it like the churning of curd and pushed it fiercely into the firmament throwing its front position on the rear and the stationary on the flowing till its level was raised and the surface was full of foam. Then Almighty raised the foam on to the open wind and vast firmament and made therefrom the seven skies and made the lower one as a stationary surge and the upper one as protective ceiling and a high edifice without any pole to support it or nail to hold it together. Then He decorated them with stars and the light of meteors and hung in it the shining sun and effulgent moon under the revolving sky, moving ceiling and rotating firmament."


Japan

The god Izanagi and goddess Izanami churned the ocean with a spear to make a small island of curdled salt. Two deities went down to the island, mixed there, and bore main islands, deities, and forefathers of Japan. See the creation myth section of the article on Japanese mythology. Izanagi (Katakana: イザナギノミコト, Kanji: Recorded in the Kojiki as 伊邪那岐命, and in the Nihonshoki as 伊弉諾神; also spelt as 伊弉諾尊) is a deity born of the seven divine generations in Japanese mythology and Shintoism, and is also referred to in the roughly translated Kojiki as Male Who invites, or Izanagi-no-Mikoto. ... In Japanese mythology, Izanami (Katakana: イザナミ; Kanji: 伊弉冉尊 or 伊邪那美命, meaning She who invites) is a goddess of both creation and death, as well as the former wife of the god Izanagi. ... Japanese mythology is a complex system of beliefs. ... Japanese mythology is a complex system of beliefs. ...


Jainism

According to Jain beliefs, the universe was never created, nor will it ever cease to exist. It is eternal but not unchangeable, because it passes through an endless series of cycles. Each of these upward or downward cycles is divided into six world ages (yugas). The present world age is the fifth age of one of these "cycles", which is in a downward movement. These ages are known as "Aaro" as in "Pehela Aara" or First Age, "Doosra Aara" or Second Age and so on. The last one is the "Chhatha Aara" or Sixth Age. All these ages have fixed time durations of thousands of years. The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... In Hindu philosophy, the existence of the world is divided into four Yugas (ages): Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga Treta Yuga Dwapara Yuga Kali Yuga According to the rishis of ancient India, the world goes through a continuous cycle of these ages. ...


When this reaches its lowest level, even Jainism itself will be lost in its entirety. Then, in the course of the next upswing, the Jain religion will be rediscovered and reintroduced by new leaders called Tirthankaras (literally "Crossing Makers" or "Ford Finders"), only to be lost again at the end of the next downswing, and so on.


(see: universe history section in the Jainism article.) Jaina redirects here. ... Jaina redirects here. ...


Judaism

While the scriptural narrative for the creation account in Judaism is contained in the first chapters of Genesis, the notion of "Tzimtzum", or God's retraction to make way for space and time, is a core element to the Jewish approach to the First Cause notion, as explored by Rabbi Moses Maimonides. Creation according to Genesis refers to the description of the creation of the heavens and the earth by God, as described in Genesis, the first book of the Bible. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... In Jewish Mysticism, Tzimtzum (צמצום Hebrew: contraction or constriction) refers to the notion in the Kabbalistic theory of creation that God contracted his infinite essence in order to allow for a conceptual space in which a finite, independent world could exist. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ...


Korea

There were heavenly ones in the sky domain. JoMulJu created everything in the universe. The heavenly ones had their own kingdom. The son of the supreme being (Jomulju) came to the Earth with ministers who control wind, water, fire, etc, to govern the Earth. There were human beings and animals. As the son of the supreme being is in fact a human being as well as some kind of deity. A bear and a tiger wished to be human beings. They prayed the supreme being. The bear was patient enough to withstand the hard cave living with garlic and onion only for 100 days. Tiger failed at the last minute. The bear became a girl and wanted to have a child, so the son of the supreme married her. The son was Dangun who establihed the kingdom of Korea.


Lakota

The Lakota recount in their version of demiurge that the gods lived in the heavens and humans lived in an underworld without culture. Creation was initiated by Inktomi ("spider"), the trickster, who conspired to cause a rift in the heavens between the The Sun God Takushkanshkan ("something that moves") and his wife, the Moon. Their separation marked the creation of time. Some of Inktomi's co-conspirators were exiled to the Earth where the gods of the four winds were scattered and created space. Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... // In the study of mythology and religion, the underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly dead souls go. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Inktomi was a Californian company that provided software for Internet Service Providers, which was founded in 1996 by UC Berkeley professor Eric Brewer and graduate student Paul Gauthier. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... WI can stand for: Wisconsin, a US state The Womens Institute, a group for British women See also Wi (mythology), a Lakota deity. ... Two distinct views exist on the meaning of time. ... Space has been an interest for philosophers and scientists for much of human history. ...


To populate the Earth, Inktomi traveled to the underworld in the form of a wolf and met with humanity, telling them about a paradisical world aboveground. Inktomi convinced a man named Tokahe ("the first") to travel to the surface for a brief visit. When Tokahe emerged through a cave (Wind Cave in the Black Hills), he found the world to be strikingly beautiful. Returning to the underworld, Tokahe persuaded other families to accompany him to the surface, but upon arrival they discovered that the Earth was full of hardship. Inktomi had by this time prevented humanity from returning below ground, so the families had no choice but to scatter and eke out their livelihoods. Wind Cave National Park is a United States national park 10 miles (18 km) north of the town of Hot Springs in western South Dakota. ... This article is about the place in South Dakota. ...


Maasai

The Maasai of Kenya in their creation narrative recount the origin of humanity to be fashioned by the Creator deity from a single tree or leg which split into three pieces. To the first father of the Maasai, he gave a stick. To the first father of the Kikuyu, he gave a hoe. To the first father of the Kamba, he gave a bow and arrow. Each son survived in the wild. The first father of the Maasai used his stick to herd animals. The first father of the Kikuyu used his hoe to cultivate the ground. The first father of the Kamba used his bow and arrow to hunt. A Maasai tribesman The Maasai are an indigenous African tribe of semi-nomadic people located in Kenya and northern Tanzania, are probably one of the most familiar tribes of East Africa. ... The Kĩkũyũ (otherwise spelled Gĩkũyũ) ethnic group is Kenyas most populous ethnic group. ... There is also Kemba in Gabon, see Kemba, Gabon The Kamba people (Wakamba) are a Bantu people who live in the semi-arid Eastern Province of Kenya stretching east from Nairobi to Tsavo and north up to Embu, Kenya. ...


Mandaeism

According to the traditions of Mandaeism creation proceeds from a supreme formless Entity, the expression of which in time and space is creation of spiritual, etheric, and material worlds and beings. Production of these is delegated by It to a creator or creators who originated in It. The cosmos is created by Archetypal Man, who produces it in similitude to his own shape. Inherent to this creation is Dualism, taking the forms of a cosmic Father and Mother, Light and Darkness, Right and Left, syzygy in cosmic and microcosmic form. Instead of a large pleroma, the Mandaeans believe in a discrete division between light and darkness. The ruler of darkness is called Ptahil (similar to the Gnostic Demiurge), and the originator of the light (i.e. God) is only known as "the great first Life from the worlds of light, the sublime one that stands above all works". When this being emanated, other spiritual beings became increasingly corrupted, and they and their ruler Ptahil created our world. Mandaeism or Mandaeanism (Mandaic: mandaiuta) is a blanket term for the religion of the Mandaeans (Classical Mandaic mandaiia, Neo-Mandaic Mandeyānā) who are the followers of Mendā d-Heyyi (Mandaic manda Knowledge of Life). Mandaeism is a monotheistic religion practiced primarily in southern Iraq and the Iranian province of... An archetype is a generic, idealized model of a person, object or concept from which similar instances are derived, copied, patterned or emulated. ... It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Syzygy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pleroma (Greek πληρωμα) generally refers to the totality of Gods powers. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems that argue a sentient, self-aware Supreme Being did not create the physical universe, but instead an insentient The Absolute emanated lower and lower spiritual modalities and lastly matter as the resultant efflux of the...


Mandinka

The traditional creation narrative of the Mandinka people of southern Mali begins with Mangala, a singular, powerful being who is perceived to be a round, energetic presence. Within Mangala existed four divisions, which were symbolic of, among many things, the four days of the week (time), the four elements (matter), and the four directions (space). Mangala also contained two sets of dual gendered twins. Mangala was tired of keeping all of this matter inside, so the god removed it and compiled it into a seed. The seed was his creation of the world. The seed however did not hold together well and blew up. Mangala was disappointed with this and destroyed the world he created. The Mandinka are a Mande people of West Africa, all descendent physically or culturally from the ancient Mali Empire which controlled the trans-Saharic trade from the Middle East to West Africa. ... In Jyotish astrology, Mangala is the name for Mars, the red planet. ... Several ancient Classical Element ideas exist. ...


Mangala did not lose hope; the creator began again, this time with two sets of twin seeds. Mangala planted the seeds in an egg shaped womb where they gestated. Mangala continued to put more sets of twin seeds in the womb until he had 8 sets of seeds. In the womb, the gestating seeds transformed themselves into fish. The fish is considered a symbol of fertility in the Mande world. This time, Mangala's creation was successful. This is important, because it illustrates the idea of dual gendered twinship, an idea that permeates Mande culture. Mythology A world egg or cosmic egg is a mythological motif used in the creation myths of many cultures and civilizations. ...


Mangala tried to maintain this perfect creation, but chaos crept in; one of the male twins became ambitious and tried to escape from the egg. This chaotic character is called Pemba. He is a trickster figure whose first trick was to steal a piece of the womb's placenta and throw it down. This action made the earth. Pemba then tried to refertilize what was left of the womb, committing incest against his mother, the womb. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Map of Pemba Island Pemba is an island about 50 kilometres to the north of the island of Zanzibar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental mammals during gestation (pregnancy). ...


Mangala decided to sacrifice Pemba's brother Farro to save what was left of his creation. He castrated him and then killed him in order to raise him from the dead. Mangala took what was left of the placenta and transformed it into the sun, thus associating Pemba with darkness and the night. Farro was transformed into a human being and was taught the language of creation by Mangala. Farro's knowledge of words is very powerful and the tool he used to defeat Pemba's mischief. Farro and his newly created twins came to Earth and got married (not to each other). This is the basis for the foundation of exogamy in Mande. Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Next, a being named Sourakata arrived from the sky with the first sacred drum, hammer, and the sacrificed skull of Farro. Sourakata began to play on the drum and sang for the first rain to come. Sourakata is a magical being who can control nature, and he taught Farro and his followers.


Mansi

The traditional account of creation by the Mansi people of Siberia involved two loons which dove to the bottom of primeval waters to retrieve a piece of the bottom and placed it on top of the water. From there the Earth grew. After a time, at the behest of his daughter, the spirit of the sky ordered his brother, the spirit of the lower world to create humanity. His brother made seven earthy, clay figures and which were quickened by the gods' sister, Mother Earth. Mansi (obsolete: Voguls) are an endangered ethnic group living in Khantia-Mansia, an autonomous region within the Russian Federation, together with Khants. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mother Earth is a common metaphorical expression for the Earth and its biosphere as the giver and sustainer of life. ...


Mayan

The Maya of Mesoamerica creation story is recounted in the book "Popol Vuh". Tepeu and Gucamatz came together to create the world. Whatever was thought of by Tepeu and Gucamatz came into being. Next for creation are the creatures of the forest: birds, deer, jaguars and snakes. They are told to multiply and scatter, and then to speak and "pray to us". But the animals just squawk and howl. So Tepeu and Gucumatz try to make some respectful creatures from mud. But the results are not great, and they allow the new race to be washed away. They call upon their grandparents, who suggest wood as an appropriate medium. But the wooden people are just mindless robots, so Tepeu and Gucumatz set about the destruction of this new race by means of a rain-storm. This causes the animals to turn against the wooden people; even their pots and querns rebel, and crush the peoples' faces. The wooden people escape to the forests and are turned into monkeys. Heart-of-Sky then make yet another attempt at creating a suitably respectful race, and finally succeed by fashioning humans out of maize-corn dough. The Maya civilization is a culture Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, its spectacular art and monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... The cultural areas of Mesoamerica The term Mesoamérica is used to refer to a geographical region that extends roughly from the Tropic of Cancer in central Mexico down through Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua to northwestern Costa Rica, and which is characterized by the particular cultural homogeneity... The Popol Vuh (Quiché for Council Book or Book of the Community; Popol Wuj in modern spelling) is the book of scripture of the Quiché, a Kingdom of the Maya civilization in Guatemala. ...


Māori

The Māori creation myth tells how heaven and earth were once joined as Ranginui, the Sky Father, and Papatuanuku, the Earth Mother, lay together in a tight embrace. They had many children who lived in the darkness between them. The children wished to live in the light and so separated their unwilling parents. Ranginui and Papatuanuku continue to grieve for each other to this day. Rangi's tears fall as rain towards Papatuanuku to show how much he loves her. When mist rises from the forests, these are Papa's sighs as the warmth of her body yearns for him and continues to nurture mankind. The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and to their language. ...


Mongol

There is no singular Mongol account of the creation and the beginning of the world, but from a variety of accounts from Mongol tribes of Central Asia, a general outline can be made. The creation of the world is attributed to a lama named Udan who is sometimes also conflated with God or Buddha Sakyamuni by the tribes influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. The primordial world is usually described as being covered in darkness with no separation between earth and sky. The construction of the cosmos proceeds in a variety of fashions. One account describes ninety-nine golden columns holding apart the sky and earth. In this description the world has three stories, the upper one being heaven where gods and goddesses live, the middle one being earth where man dwells, and the lower one being the place where man goes after death; heaven (sky) is the father and earth is the mother of man, animals, etc. Another narrative recounts that when the creator divided the heaven and earth he created a nine-story heaven, a nine-story earth, and nine rivers. In some accounts, the world first was a vast ocean, but dust and sand rose to cover the ocean surface and become earth. In another account, the land is placed on the back of a golden frog who was pierced with arrows causing fire and water to spew from him at various places Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Lamas debating in Tashilhunpo Monastery. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frog is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail). ...


After the creation of the Earth itself, the first male and female couple were created out of clay. They would become the progenitors of all humanity. The various tribes and peoples were placed there with different characteristics. In the north, the men were paired with ewes as sexual mates and this was the spawn of the Mongol ethnicity while the Han Chinese were the spawn of hens while the Dorbed and the Buryat recount that they are the descendants of a coupling between hunters and Swan Maidens. Humanity refers to the human race or mankind as a whole, to that which is characteristically human, or to that which distinguishes [[1]] human beings from animals or from their animal nature. ... Species See text. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Trinomial name Gallus gallus domesticus A chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated bird which is often raised as a type of poultry. ... The Buryats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic. ... The Swan May or Swan Maiden is a legend in which a young, unmarried man steals a magic robe made of swan feathers from a swan maiden so that she will not fly away and winds up marrying her. ...


Another account tells that in the beginning, seven suns rose in the sky so that the rivers and vegetation on earth dried up, so the people asked the archer Erkei-Mergen to shoot the suns out of the sky. The archer shot down six, but while he was taking aim at the seventh a martin flew in front of the sun and was shot in the tail. From then on, the martin had a forked tail and there was a single sun remaining in the sky. The archer was so distressed that he fled to the steppe, cut off his thumbs in shame, and became the ancestor of the marmot. Genera Many, see text. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being... Species See text. ...


Navajo

Holy Supreme Wind being created by the mists of lights arose through the darkness to animate and bring purpose to the myriad Holy People, supernatural and sacred in the different three lower worlds. All these things were spiritually created in the time before the earth existed and the physical aspect of man did not exist yet, but the spiritual did. In the first world the insect people started fighting with one another and were instructed by the Holy People to depart. They journeyed to the second world and lived for a time in peace. Eventually they fought with each other and were instructed to depart. In the third world the same thing happens again and they are forced to journey to the fourth world. In the fourth world, they found the Hopi living there and succeeded in not fighting with one another or their neighbors, and their bodies were transformed from the insect forms to human forms. First man and First woman physically appear in the narrative here by being formed from ears of white and yellow corn, but they were also created back in the beginning. There is a separation of male and female humans because each did not appreciate the contributions of the other, and this laid the ground work for the appearance of the Monsters that would start to kill off the people in the next world. Coyote, the trickster, also appears and steals the baby of water monster, who brings a great flood in the third world which primarily forces the humans as well as Holy People to journey to the surface of the fifth world through a hollow reed. Some things are left behind and some things are brought to help the people re-create the world each time they entered a new one. Death and the Monsters are born into this world as is Changing Woman who gives birth to the Hero Twins, called "Monster Slayer" and "Child of the Waters" who had many adventures in which they helped to rid the world of much evil. Earth Surface People, mortals, were created in the fourth world, and the gods gave them ceremonies, which are still practiced today. Hopi woman dressing hair of unmarried girl. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 The coyote (Canis latrans, meaning barking dog) also prairie wolf [2]) is a of the ghostCanidae (dog) family and a relative of the domestic dog. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ...


Norse

The Voluspa opens with the Norse account of the creation of the present universe : Voluspa or Völuspá means The Prophecy of the Seeress and tells the story of the creation and coming destruction of the world related by a völva or seeress in what could be described as a shamanic trance to Odin. ...


Old tales I remember | of men long ago. I remember yet | the giants of yore [...] Of old was the age | when Ymir lived; No Sea nor cool waves | nor sand there were; Earth had not been, | nor heaven above, Only a yawning gap, | and grass nowhere.


In the beginning there was nothing except for the ice of Niflheim, to the north, and the fire of Muspelheim, to the south. Between them was a yawning gap (the phrase is sometimes left untranslated as a proper name: Ginnungagap), and in this gap a few pieces of ice met a few sparks of fire. The ice melted to form Eiter, which formed the bodies of the hermaphrodite giant Ymir and the cow Auðumbla, whose milk fed Ymir. Auðumbla fed by licking the rime ice, and slowly she uncovered a man's hair. After a day, she had uncovered his face. After another day, she had uncovered him completely: Búri. Niflheim (Land of Mists) is the realm of ice and cold in Norse Mythology. ... Muspelheim (Flameland), also called Muspel (Old Norse Múspellsheimr and Múspell, respectively), is the realm of fire in Norse Mythology. ... Ginnungagap (seeming emptiness) was the vast chasm that existed between Niflheim and Muspelheim before creation in Norse mythology. ... Eitr is a fictional substance in Norse mythology. ... For the moon of Saturn, see Ymir (moon). ... Auðumbla licks Búri out of a stone while four rivers of milk flow from her udders in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Búri is licked out of a salty ice-block by the cow Auðumbla in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ...


Ymir fathered Thrudgelmir, as well as two humans, one man and one woman. Búri fathered Borr. Borr had three sons, Vili, Ve, and Odin, who killed the giant Ymir. In the vast flood of Ymir's blood, both the primordial man and woman died. Thrudgelmir was also drowned, although not before he had fathered Bergelmir. Bergelmir hid in a hollow tree trunk and survived. Odin and his brothers used Ymir's body to create the universe : they ground his flesh into dirt, and the maggots that appeared in his flesh became the dwarves that live under the earth. His bones became the mountains, and Odin strew his brains into the sky to create the clouds. The universe comprises of nine worlds, of which this earth (Mannheim) is central. Þrúðgelmir (anglicized Thrudgelmir or Thrúdgelmir) is a giant in Norse mythology. ... Borr or Burr (sometimes anglicized Bor) in Norse mythology was the son of Búri and the father of Odin. ... Vili was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Ve was one of the Æsir and a son of Bestla and Borr in Norse mythology. ... Odin (Old Norse Óðinn) is considered the chief god in Norse mythology and Norse paganism, like the Anglo-Saxon Woden continuing Proto-Germanic *Wōdinaz or *Wōđanaz. ... For the moon of Saturn, see Ymir (moon). ...


They placed the four dwarves Nordri (North), Sudri (South), Austri (East), and Vestri (West) to hold up Ymir's skull and create the heavens. Then using sparks from Muspelheim, the gods created the sun, moon and stars. As Odin and two others (the Eddas say Hœnir and Lóðurr, these are thought to be kennings for Vili and Ve) walked along the beach, they found two pieces of driftwood. From these, they created the 'first' human beings (the previous two having drowned in the flood of Ymir's blood), Ask and Embla. Ymir's eyebrows were used to create a place where the human race could live in; a place called Midgard.[4] This page is about a mythological race. ... Muspelheim (Flameland), also called Muspel (Old Norse Múspellsheimr and Múspell, respectively), is the realm of fire in Norse Mythology. ... For the moon of Saturn, see Ymir (moon). ... Midgard (the common English transliteration of Old Norse Miðgarðr), Midjungards (Gothic), Middangeard (Old English), Middellærd (Middle English), MidgÃ¥rd (common Danish and Swedish), Midgard or MidgÃ¥rd (Norwegian) and Mittilagart (Old High German), from Proto-Germanic *medja-gardaz (*meddila-, *medjan-, projected PIE *medhyo-ghartos), is an old...


The gods regulated the passage of the days and nights, as well as the seasons. Sol is the goddess of the sun, a daughter of Mundilfari, and wife of Glen. Every day, she rides through the sky on her chariot, pulled by two horses named Alsvid and Arvak. This passage is known as Alfrodull, meaning "glory of elves," which in turn was a common kenning for the sun. Sol is chased during the day by Skoll, a wolf that wants to devour her. Solar eclipses signify that Skoll has almost caught up to her. (It is fated that Skoll will eventually catch Sol and eat her at the end of the world; however, she will be replaced by her daughter.) Sol's brother, the moon Mani, is chased by Hati, another wolf. The earth is protected from the full heat of the sun by the dwarf Svalin, who stands between the earth and Sol. The flaming manes of Arvak and Alsvid provide the light for the earth. In Norse mythology, Svalin was the goddess who stood between the sun (Sol) and the earth, shielding the planet from the full intensity of the sun. ...


Ojibwe

When the Earth was young it had a family. The moon, or Grandmother and the sun, called Grandfather. The Earth was a woman - Mother Earth - because from her came all living things. Mother Earth was given four directions - East, South, West, and North, each with physical and spiritual powers. // Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Bulk composition of the Moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Mother Earth is a common metaphorical expression for the Earth and its biosphere as the giver and sustainer of life. ... The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST, internally called HT-7U) is a project being undertaken to construct an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor in Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, in eastern China. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top North is one of the four cardinal directions, specifically the direction that, in Western culture, is treated as the primary direction: north is used (explicitly or implicitly) to define all other directions; the (visual) top edges of maps usually correspond to the...


When Mother Earth was young Creator, or Gichi-Manidoo as Ojibwe people call him, filled her with beauty. He sent singers in the form of birds and swimmers in the water. He placed plants, trees, insects, crawlers and four-legged animals on the land. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gitchi Manitou. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ...


Gichi-Manidoo then blew into four parts of Mother Earth using the sacred megis shell. From the union of these four and his breath, two-leggeds or man, was born. Thus, man was the last form of life to be put on Earth. From this original man came the Anishinaabe - or The Original People. Whiteshells (also known as Cowrie shells or Sacred Megis Shells) were used by aboriginal peoples around the world, but the words whiteshell and Megis Shell specifically refers to shells used by Ojibway peoples in their Midewiwin ceremonies. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... Various creation stories have a first man, the first human being. ... Anishinaabe is a self-description often used by people belonging to the indigenous Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonkin peoples of North America, who share closely related Algonkian languages. ...


Orok

The Oroks traditionally interpret the presence of sundogs such as this to be evidence that three distinct suns used to reside in the sky. The remaining present-day sun is located outside of the picture to the right.
Enlarge
The Oroks traditionally interpret the presence of sundogs such as this to be evidence that three distinct suns used to reside in the sky. The remaining present-day sun is located outside of the picture to the right.

The traditional creation narrative of the Orok people of Sakhalin begins with three suns shining in the sky. The earth was completely liquid, but the liquid was slowly diminishing and the earth was hardening. Under the heat cliffs and stones boiled. At that time, on earth there were no living creatures except the family of a man named Hadau. When the earth hardened, Hadau shot arrows at two suns first killing the older sister sun with one arrow, and then the younger sister sun with another leaving only the middle sun. Sundogs are said to be the visible shadows of the two earlier suns, as if imprints of one or each side. After this, Hadau created a family of eagles and a family of ravens. Therefore upon seeing an eagle on a hunt, the Oroks call him their elder (grandfather). The flight of these birds allowed people to be dispersed across the Earth. Retreived from http://www. ... Retreived from http://www. ... Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self designation: ульта, or ulta) are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly, eastern part of the island) in Russia. ... A sun dog is shown reflecting in the thin clouds. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Oroks (Ороки in Russian; self designation: ульта, or ulta) are a people in the Sakhalin Oblast (mainly, eastern part of the island) in Russia. ... Location of Sakhalin in the Western Pacific Sakhalin, GOST transliteration Sahalin, (Russian: , Korean: Traditional Chinese: 庫頁島; Simplified Chinese: 库页岛; pinyin: kùyèdǎo Japanese: 樺太 romaji: karafuto), also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N. It is part of the Russian... A sun dog is shown reflecting in the thin clouds. ... // This article is about the bird. ... Species See text. ...


Polynesian

Main article: Polynesian mythology

Polynesia is a triangle of islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...

Hawaiian

See Māui (mythology) and Kumulipo. Māui (Maui) is the great hero of Polynesian mythology. ... In Huna, the ancient Hawaiian religion, the Kumulipo is an epic poem, over two thousand lines long, that was recited from memory by kahunas at important ceremonies and festivals. ...


Prussian

Randomness

Some philosophers like Hakim Bey and occultists like Peter Carroll think randomness, chaos or the Uncertainty principle is the prime mover according to science, and should accordingly be treated as divine. Peter Lamborn Wilson is a political writer, poet, and self-described anarchist ontologist. He sometimes writes under the name Hakim Bey (which may mean Mr Judge in Turkish, and which may or may not have been a name-of-convenience used by other radical writers since the 1970s). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Peter J. Carroll (born 8th January 1953, 1:30am; 50 degrees 50 minutes N, 0 degrees 25 minutes W) is a modern occultist, author and co-founder of the Illuminates of Thanateros. ... The word random is used to express lack of purpose, cause, order, or predictability in non-scientific parlance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle or the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle — the latter name given to it by Niels Bohr — states that when measuring conjugate quantities, which are pairs of observables of a single elementary particle, increasing the accuracy of the measurement of one quantity increases the uncertainty of...


Seminole

The Seminole recount that when the Creator, the Grandfather of all things, created the earth, he made all animals and birds and put them in a large shell. When the earth was ready, he set the shell along the backbone (mountains) of the earth. "When the timing is right," he told the animals, "the shell will open and you will all crawl out. Someone or something will crack the shell and you must all take your respective places on the face the earth." The Creator then sealed up the shell and left, hoping the Panther (his favorite animal) would be first to emerge. The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida, and now residing in that state and in Oklahoma. ... Mythology A world egg or cosmic egg is a mythological motif used in the creation myths of many cultures and civilizations. ...


Time went along, and nothing happened. Alongside the shell stood a great tree. As time passed, the tree grew so large that its roots started encircling the shell. Eventually a root cracked the shell. The Wind started enlarged the crack and reached down to help the Panther take its place on earth. Next to crawl out was the Bird. The Bird had picked and picked around the hole, and, when the time was right, stepped outside the shell. Bird took flight immediately. After that, other animals emerged in different sequences: Bear, Deer, Snake, Frog, Otter. There were thousands of others, so many that no one besides the Creator could even begin to count them all. All went out to seek their proper places on earth.


Sikh

The following is an excerpt from the Sikh holy text (Guru Granth Sahib): A Sikh (IPA: [siːk] or [sɪk]; Punjabi: , , IPA: [sɪk. ... Illuminated Guru Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ...

For millions upon millions, countless years was spread darkness,
When existed neither earth nor heaven, but only the limitless Divine Ordinance.
Then existed neither day or night, nor sun or moon;
As the Creator was absorbed in an unbroken trance.
Existed then neither forms of creation, nor of speech; neither wind nor water.
Neither was creation or disappearance or transmigration.
Then were not continents, neither regions, the seven seas, nor rivers with water flowing.
Existed then neither heaven or the mortal world or the nether world;
Neither hell or heaven or time that destroys.
Hell and heaven, birth and death were then not--none arrived or departed.
Then were not Brahma, Vishnu or Shiva:
None other than the Sole Lord was visible.
Neither existed then female or male, or caste and birth--
None suffering and joy received.
Unknowable Himself, was He the source of all utterance; Himself the unknowable unmanifested.
As it pleased Him, the world He created;
Without a supporting power the expanse He sustained.
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva He created and to maya-attachment gave increase.
(To a rare one was the Master's Word imparted.)
Himself He made His Ordinance operative and watched over it:
Creating continents, spheres and nether worlds, the hidden He made manifest.
Creating the universe Himself, He has remained unattached.
The compassionate Lord too has made the holy center [the human being].
Combining air, water, and fire, He created the citadel of the body.
The Creator fashioned the Nine Abodes [of sensation];
In the Tenth [the superconscious mind] is lodged the Lord, unknowable, limitless.
The illimitable Lord in His unattributed state of void assumed might;
He, the infinite One, remaining detached:
Displaying his power, He himself from the void created inanimate things.
From the unattributed void were created air and water.
Raising creation, He dwells as monarch in the citadel of the body.
Lord! In the fire and water [of the body] exists Thy light;
In Thy [original] state of void was lodged [unmanifest] the power of creation.

Brahma (written Brahmā in IAST) (Devanagari ब्रह्मा, pronounced as ) is the Hindu God (deva) of creation, and one of the Hindu Trinity - Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari , with honorific Shri Vishnu; , ), (also frequently referred to as Narayana) is the most popularly worshipped form of God in Hinduism [1]. Within the Vaishnava tradition he is viewed as the Ultimate Reality or Supreme God (similarly to Shiva within Shaivism). ... Shiva (English IPA: Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव; Malayalam ശിവന്‍; Tamil: சிவன் (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Śiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (illusion). ...

Surat Shabda Yoga

Surat Shabda Yoga cosmology depicts the whole of creation (the macrocosm) as being emanated and arranged in a spiritually differentiated hierarchy, often referred to as eggs, regions, or planes. Typically, eight spiritual levels are described above the physical plane, although names and subdivisions within these levels will vary to some extent by mission and Master. (One version of the creation from a Surat Shabda Yoga perspective is depicted at the Sant Ajaib Singh Ji Memorial Site in “The Grand Scheme of All Creation”.) All planes below the purely spiritual regions are subject to cycles of creation and dissolution (pralya) or grand dissolution (maha pralya). // Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... Macrocosm and microcosm is an ancient Greek schema of seeing the same patterns reproduced in all levels of reality. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems that argue a sentient, self-aware Supreme Being did not create the physical universe, but instead an insentient The Absolute emanated lower and lower spiritual modalities and lastly matter as the resultant efflux of the... In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, supraphysical world, or egg) is conceived as a subtle region of space (and/or consciousness) beyond, but permeating, the known physical universe (or a portion of the physical...


The constitution of the individual (the microcosm) is an exact replica of the macrocosm. Consequently, the microcosm consists of a number of bodies, each one suited to interact with its corresponding plane or region in the macrocosm. These bodies developed over the yugas through involution (emanating from higher planes to lower planes) and evolution (returning from lower planes to higher planes), including by karma and reincarnation in various states of consciousness. For the definition of the word microcosm, see here. ... The Subtle body is a non-physical energy or psycho-spiritual body or bodies that all beings have, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings. ... yugas (Devnāgari: युग) In Hindu philosophy the cycle of evolution of life is divided into four yugs (epochs or eras): Satya Yuga or Krita Yuga Treta Yuga Dvapara Yuga Kali Yuga // The spiritual states of civilization in each yuga In Hindu tradition, the world goes through a continuous cycle of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Emanationism is a component in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems that argue a sentient, self-aware Supreme Being did not create the physical universe, but instead an insentient The Absolute emanated lower and lower spiritual modalities and lastly matter as the resultant efflux of the... ... Karma(Sanskrit: from the root , to do, [meaning deed] meaning action, effect, destiny) means (the result of) action, generally taken as a term that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... According to Hinduism, every living being is an eternally existing spirit (the soul or the self). ... An altered state of consciousness is any state which is significantly different from a normative waking beta wave state. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


Taoism

Tao is the nameless void, the mother of the Ten Thousand Things. Tao is considered by Laozi to be that which eternally gives without being depleted, and eternally receives without being filled. That which does not exist for its own sake is able to endure.[1] Taijitu This article is about the Chinese character. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Tlingit

According to Tlingit tradition, creation proceeded with help from the trickster figure of the raven. At the time there was no light or water. Raven had to steal light from where it was hoarded in the house of a rich man far up the Nass River, which was dry at the time. He accomplished this by making himself small and getting the daughter of the house to swallow him and become pregnant. When the child was born, it cried for the bundles of light hanging on the wall of the house. Finally, the family gave the raven a bundles of stars and the moon to soothe him each of which he let escape through the chimney and to scatter across the heavens. He left with a box of daylight which was the last bit of light the family owned. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... Species See text. ... The Nass River is a river in northern British Columbia, Canada. ... The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. ... Bulk composition of the Moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ...


Raven then proceeded to trick the man who owned the everlasting spring of water into giving him a drink, but before he could escape through the chimney, the man made a fire and blackened raven to his current color. First, he spit out water creating the Nass Stikine, Taku, Chilkat, the Alsek, and all the other large rivers. Smaller drops created the salmon creeks. The Stikine River (sti-KEEN) is a river, approximately 335 mi (539 km) long, in northwestern British Columbia in Canada and southeastern Alaska in the United States. ... The Taku River is a river in British Columbia and Alaska. ... The Chilkat River is a river in British Columbia and southeastern Alaska that flows southward from its head in the Coast Range to its outlet at the Lynn Canal. ... The Alsek River is a wilderness river flowing from the Yukon into Northern British Columbia and into Alaska. ...


Raven then proceeded to a town that had never seen daylight. The people of the town quarreled with him, so raven decided to scare them by opening his box of daylight. Upon seeing the Sun, the villagers scattered, some to the ocean where they became sea creatures and some to the forest where they became forest creatures.


Raven made the winds, the races, and dogs who were human beings that Raven cursed to walk on all fours. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog is a mammal in the order Carnivora. ...


Voodoo

Veve of Damballa
Veve of Damballa

Damballah (Sky-serpent loa and wise and loving Father archetype) created all the waters of the earth. In the form of a serpent, the movement of his 7,000 coils formed hills and valleys on earth and brought forth stars and planets in the heavens. He forged metals from heat and sent forth lightning bolts to form the sacred rocks and stones. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 25 KB) Contents: Veve for the Voodoo Loa named Damballah. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 25 KB) Contents: Veve for the Voodoo Loa named Damballah. ... A Veve is a religious symbol for a voodoo loa and serves as a representation during rituals. ... Veve of Damballa In Vodun, Damballa is one of the most important of all the loa. ...


When he shed his skin in the sun, releasing all the waters over the land, the sun shone in the water and created the rainbow. Damballah loved the rainbow's beauty and made her his wife, Aida-Wedo. (Aida-Wedo represents the sky powers and is symbolized by the rainbow; wife of Damballah, she shares his function as cosmic protector and giver of blessing.) Full featured rainbow in Wrangell-St. ... In Vodun, and especially in Benin and Haiti, Ayida-Weddo (aso Aida-Wedo, Aido Quedo) is a loa of fertility, rainbows and snakes, and a companion or wife to Damballa. ...


The revelations of the loa (deity) descended upon the first faithful in Ifé, a legendary city located in Nigeria. Therefore, everything in life and all spiritual strength comes from Ifé. The homeland of all voodoo devotees, where Ifé is located, is Ginen, from where they were forced to flee in the African Diaspora. In death, the higher soul will return to Ginen (the world of the dead, said to be under the water below the earth) to reside with the loa and the ancestral spirits. Because of this, all practitioners of voodoo refer to themselves as ti guinin, sons or daughters of Ginen. A loa is a powerful spirit or deity in the voodoo religion. ... Ifè (or Ilé-Ifẹ̀, as it is properly known) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The African diaspora or Afro diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and culture of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America) Europe and Asia . ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath. ...


Wicca

Modern Wicca arose relatively recently, and due to a lack of agreed doctrine creation myths are not shared universally. The following is one of the more common myths associated with the faith; some followers believe in a scientific explanation and combine it in various forms with creation myths. The pentagram within a circle, is a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, who often call it a pentacle. ...


Some followers of the Wicca religion believe the demiurge began from a nothingness out of which Spirit drew together and created the Goddess of Wicca. She gave birth to all of nature and set forth its rhythmic movements as a dance. Her breath formed the colors and beauty of nature, her tears formed water, and her laughter formed the sounds of water. The term Demiurge refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of the agriculture A goddess is a female deity, in contrast with a male deity known as a god. Many cultures have goddesses, sometimes alone, but more often as part of a larger pantheon that includes both the conventional genders and in some cases...


Spirit created for the Goddess a companion God (or the "Lord"), half-spirit and half-animal who is represented as wearing the antlers of a stag, as her lifemate and companion. Together, the Lord and Lady gave birth to all life. To protect and guide humanity, the Lord and Lady created the angels and power spirits as invisible energies. The Pashupati-like figure on the Gundestrup cauldron The Horned God is a modern syncretic term, invented to link together numerous male nature gods out of such widely-dispersed and historically unconnected mythologies as the Celtic Cernunnos, the Welsh Caerwiden, the English Herne the Hunter, the Hindu Pashupati, the Greek... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ...


The Lord and Lady then drew forth energy from the realm of the angels, the realm of the power animals, and the realm of the humans to create Witches who could tap the wisdom of the Lord and Lady, had the ability to heal, and knew the art of magick. This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ...


Yoruba

The Yoruba creator is called Olurun or Olodumare and is often assisted by the lesser god, Obatala. In the beginning, there was only water and chaos. The supreme being sent Obatala or Orishanla down from the sky to create some land out of the chaos. He descended on a long chain (umbilical cord) and brought with him a rooster, some iron, and a palm kernel. First, he put the metal on the earth and the rooster on top of that. The rooster scratched the metal and spread it out to create land. Then he planted the palm seed and from it grew the earth's vegetation. Olurun named earth "Ife" and the first city "Ile-Ife." Orshilana created humans out of the earth and got Olurun to blow life into them. The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa. ... In Yoruba mythology, Oloddumare is a creative force that drove the establishment of existence and the entire universe. ... In Yoruba mythology, Obàtálá (alternatively Obatala) was a creator god; he made human bodies, and his father, Olorun (husband of Olokun), breathed life into them. ...


Zen

Everything and nothing are all interconnected, inseparable, a whole. Zen denies that the person is the first cause. If it speaks of origins at all, it says that the ground of being is the real first cause. Look up everything in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zen is a form of Mahayana Buddhism that places great importance on moment-by-moment awareness and seeing deeply into the nature of things by direct experience. ... A person is defined by philosophers as a being who is in possession of a range of psychological capacities that are regarded as both necessary and sufficient to fulfill the requirements of personhood. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Philosophy of science | Religious Philosophy | Theology ... The Absolute is the totality of things, all that is, whether it has been discovered or not. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Philosophy of science | Religious Philosophy | Theology ...


Zoroastrianism

The Zoroastrian story of creation has Ahura Mazda creating 16 lands, one by one, such that each would be delightful to its people. As he finished each one, Angra Mainyu applied a counter-creation, introducing plague and sin of various kinds. The dualistic idea of two primordial spirits, called twins by Zoroaster, goes back to an Indo-European prototype. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all. ... Angra Mainyu (Avestan) or Ahriman (Middle Persian اهريمن) is the evil counterpart of the deity Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. ...


Zulu

The Ancient One, known as Unkulunkulu, is the Zulu creator. He came from the reeds and from them he brought forth the people and the cattle. He created everything that is: mountains, streams, snakes, etc. He taught the Zulu how to hunt, how to make fire, and how to grow food. Unkulunkulu was the creator god of the Zulu. ...


See also

map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... It has been suggested that Biblical astronomy be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... The creation-evolution controversy (also called the creation vs. ... The Creation of Light by Gustave Doré. In many religious traditions, creationism is ideological support of the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, or the universe as a whole was specially created by a supreme being (often referred to specifically as God[1]) or by other forms of supernatural intervention. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... God is the divine being that created the omniverse. ... Cultures throughout history have believed the world formed or was formed at some time in the past, so methods of dating Creation have involved analysing scriptures and physical data. ... Day-Age Creationism, a type of Old Earth Creationism, is an effort to reconcile the literal Genesis account of Creation with modern scientific theories on the age of the Universe, the Earth, life, and humans. ... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... Deism is a religious philosophy and movement that became prominent in England, France, and the United States in the 17th century. ... In 1832, while travelling on the Voyage of the Beagle, naturalist Charles Darwin collected giant fossils in South America. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Gap Creationism, also called Restitution creationism or Ruin-Reconstruction, are terms used to describe a particular set of Christian beliefs about the creation of the Universe and the origin of man. ... Intelligent design (ID) is the concept that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. ... Recent studies have suggested the birth of language may have taken place within the last 200,000 years of human history caused by a mutation in the gene FOXP2. ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more gods or deities. ... Theistic evolution, less commonly known as evolutionary creationism, is not a theory in the scientific sense, but a particular view about how the science of evolution relates to some religious interpretations. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Graphical timeline of the Big Bang This timeline of the Big Bang describes the events that have occurred and will occur according to the scientific theory of the Big Bang. ... The ultimate fate of our universe is a topic in physical cosmology. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis Young Earth creationism is a religious doctrine which teaches that the Earth and life on Earth were created by a direct action of God relatively recently (about 6,000 to 10,000 years ago). ...

References

  • Rouvière, Jean-Marc, Brèves méditations sur la création du monde L'Harmattan, Paris (2006), ISBN 2-7475-9922-1.
  • Leeming, David Adams, and Margaret Adams Leeming, A Dictionary of Creation Myths. Oxford University Press (1995), ISBN 0-19-510275-4.

Notes

  1. ^ Tao Te Ching Ch 25: 有物混成,先天地生。寂兮寥兮,獨立而不改,周行而不殆,可以為天地母 。吾不知其名,強字之曰道。(rendition: There is something that contains everything. Before heaven and earth it is. Oh, it is still, unbodied, all on its own, unchanging, all-pervading, ever-moving. So it can act as the mother of all things. Not knowing its real name, we only call it the Way)

The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ...

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