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Encyclopedia > Orientalism
Anonymous Venetian orientalist painting, ‘The Reception of the Ambassadors in Damascus', 1511, the Louvre
Anonymous Venetian orientalist painting, ‘The Reception of the Ambassadors in Damascus', 1511, the Louvre
Eugène Delacroix, The Women of Algiers, 1834, the Louvre, Paris
Eugène Delacroix, The Women of Algiers, 1834, the Louvre, Paris

Orientalism refers to the imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures in the West by writers, designers and artists, and can also refer to a sympathetic stance towards the region by a writer or other person. An "Orientalist" may be a person engaged in these activities, but is also the traditional term for any scholar of Oriental studies.[1] Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Arc de Triomf, Barcelona, 1888. ... This article is about the museum. ... Image File history File links WomenofAlgiers. ... Image File history File links WomenofAlgiers. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... In the West, the term Eastern culture refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages and peoples by Western scholars. ...


These meanings were given a new twist by Edward Said in his controversial 1978 book Orientalism, where he uses the term to describe a tradition, both academic and artistic, of hostile and deprecatory views of the East by the West, shaped by the attitudes of the era of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. When used in this sense, it often implies essentializing and prejudiced outsider interpretations of Eastern cultures and peoples. Said was critical of this scholarly tradition and also of a few modern scholars, including Princeton University professor Bernard Lewis. In contrast, the term has also been used by some modern scholars to refer to writers of the Imperialist era who had pro-Eastern attitudes, as opposed to those who saw nothing of value in non-Western cultures.[2] Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ...

Contents

Meaning of the term

This article is part of the
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Like the term Orient, Orientalism derives from the Latin word oriens (rising) and, equally likely, from the Greek word ('he'oros', the direction of the rising sun). "Orient" is the opposite of Occident. In terms of The Old World, Europe was considered The Occident (The West), and its farthest-known extreme The Orient (The East). Dating from the Roman Empire until the Middle Ages, what is now, in the West, considered 'the Middle East' was then considered 'the Orient'. In that time, the flourishing cultures of the Far East were unknown, likewise Europe was unknown in the Far East. Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) also known simply as Chinese medicine (Chinese: 中醫學 or 中药学, zhōngyào xŭe) or traditional Oriental medicine, is the name commonly given to a range of traditional medical practices originating in China thousands of years ago. ... Asian cuisine is a term for the various cuisines of South, East and Southeast Asia and for fusion dishes based on combining them. ... Culture of Asia is the aggregate of cultural heritage of the people of several nationalities, social and ethnic groups. ... Greater China, Singapore, and countries culturally linked to Chinese culture. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Greater India. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Occident has a number of meanings. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Occident (1843-1869), was the first general Jewish periodical published in the United States. ... The Orient is a term traditionally used in Western culture to refer to the Middle East (Southwest Asia and Egypt), South Asia and East Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ...


In time, the common understanding of 'the Orient' has continually shifted eastwards, as Western explorers traveled farther in to Asia. In Biblical times, the Three Wise Men 'from the Orient' were actually Magi from "The East", (relative to Judea), probably meaning the Persian Empire or Arabia. After a period, as Europe learned of countries farther East, the defined limit of 'the Orient' shifted eastwards, until it reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call 'the Far East'. In the West, these shifts in time confuse the scope (historical and geographic) of Oriental Studies. Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ...


Yet, there remain contexts where 'the Orient' and 'Oriental' denote older definitions, e.g. 'Oriental spices' typically are from the Earth's regions extending from the Middle East to sub-continental India to Indo-China. Moreover, travel on the Orient Express train (ParisIstanbul), is eastward (to the sun), but does not reach what is currently understood to be the Orient. Poster advertising the Orient Express Orient Express is the name of a long-distance passenger train originally operated by the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


In contemporary English, Oriental is usually synonymous for the peoples, cultures, and goods from the parts of East Asia traditionally occupied by East Asians and Southeast Asians racially categorised as "Mongoloid". This excludes Indians, Arabs, and the other West Asian peoples. In some parts of the United States, the term is considered derogatory; for example, Washington state prohibits use of the word "Oriental" in legislation and government documentation, preferring the word "Asian" instead.[3] This article is about the geographical region. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ...


Orientalism in the arts

Imitations of Oriental styles

Edward Blore's Alupka Palace (1828–46) was an early architectural intimation of the Victorian taste for Moorish Revival architecture.
Edward Blore's Alupka Palace (1828–46) was an early architectural intimation of the Victorian taste for Moorish Revival architecture.

Orientalism has also come to mean the adoption of typical eastern motifs, styles and subject matter in art, architecture, and design. Turquerie was the oldest such fashion, which began as early as the late 15th century, and continued until at least the 18th. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1842 KB) Summary Description South view of the Vorontsov castle at Alupka (Ukraine) Source photographed by myself Photographer User:Podvalov Date 2002-09-04 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1842 KB) Summary Description South view of the Vorontsov castle at Alupka (Ukraine) Source photographed by myself Photographer User:Podvalov Date 2002-09-04 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Buckingham Palace as completed by Blore in 1850. ... Alupka (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine, situated 17 km to the west of Yalta. ... Arc de Triomf, Barcelona, 1888. ...


Early use in architecture of motifs lifted from the Indian subcontinent have sometimes been called "Hindoo style." One of the earliest examples can be seen in the façade of Guildhall, London (1788–1789) and the style gained momentum in the west with the publication of the various views of India by William Hodges and the Daniells from about 1795. One of the finest examples of "Hindoo" architecture is Sezincote House (c. 1805) in Gloucestershire. Other notable buildings using the Hindoo style of Orientalism are Casa Loma in Toronto, Sanssouci in Potsdam, and Wilhelma in Stuttgart. Hindoo, an archaic spelling of Hindu, is a term used in architectural history to refer to Western imitations of Indian architecture in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... The Guildhall The Guildhall complex in c. ... Hodges painting of HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure in Matavai Bay, Tahiti William Hodges (October 28, 1744 - March 6, 1797) was a British painter. ... William Daniell (1769-1837) was a British draughtsman. ... Thomas Daniell (1749-March 19, 1840) was an English landscape painter. ... Sezincote is a British estate, located in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... Casa Loma Casa Loma (Spanish for House on the Hill) is the former home of financier Sir Henry Mill Pellatt and a major tourist attraction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the German palace. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Wilhelma in 1900 The Zoo Wilhelma in Stuttgart, Germany is Europes only large combined zoological and botanical garden. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ...

Chinesischer Turm (Chinese Tower) in the Englischer Garten, Munich, Germany. The initial structure was built 1789–1790.
Chinesischer Turm (Chinese Tower) in the Englischer Garten, Munich, Germany. The initial structure was built 1789–1790.

Chinoiserie is the catch-all term for the fashion for Chinese themes in decoration in Western Europe, beginning in the late 17th century and peaking in waves, especially Rococo Chinoiserie, ca 1740–1770. From the Renaissance to the 18th century Western designers attempted to imitate the technical sophistication of Chinese ceramics with only partial success. Early hints of Chinoiserie appear, in the 17th century, in the nations with active East India companies: England (the British East India Company), Denmark (the Danish East India Company), Holland (the Dutch East India Company) and France (the French East India Company). Tin-glazed pottery made at Delft and other Dutch towns adopted genuine blue-and-white Ming decoration from the early 17th century, and early ceramic wares at Meissen and other centers of true porcelain imitated Chinese shapes for dishes, vases and teawares (see Chinese export porcelain). Image File history File links Chinesischer_Turm. ... Image File history File links Chinesischer_Turm. ... The Monopteros at dusk The Englischer Garten or English Garden is a large urban public park that stretches from the city center to the northeastern city limits of Munich, Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Chinese House (Potsdam) Chinoiserie[1] refers to a recurring theme in European artistic styles since the seventeenth century, which reflects Chinese art and is characterized by the use of fanciful imagery of an imaginary China, by asymmetry in format and whimsical contrasts of scale, and by the attempts to imitate... A style of 18th century French art and interior design, Rococo style rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Danish East India Company (in Danish Dansk Ostindisk Kompagni) was founded in 1616, following a privilege of the Danish king Christian IV. It was focused on trade with India and had its base in Tranquebar. ... This article is about the trading company. ... French and other European settlements in India. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ... Blue and white is a term that denotes decoration in underglaze blue on the white body of both pottery and porcelain, whether Oriental, European or American, hand-painted or printed. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Meißen, internationally most known for porcelain, is a town of approximately 35,000 near Dresden on the river Elbe in the State of Saxony in the southern part of eastern Germany. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... Teaware is the entire spectrum of equipment used in the production of tea. ... Chinese export porcelain refers to a wide range of porcelain that was made and decorated in China exclusively for export to Europe between the 16th and the 20th century. ...


Pleasure pavilions in "Chinese taste" appeared in the formal parterres of late Baroque and Rococo German palaces, and in tile panels at Aranjuez near Madrid. Thomas Chippendale's mahogany tea tables and china cabinets, especially, were embellished with fretwork glazing and railings, ca 1753–70, but sober homages to early Xing scholars' furnishings were also naturalized, as the tang evolved into a mid-Georgian side table and squared slat-back armchairs suited English gentlemen as well as Chinese scholars. Not every adaptation of Chinese design principles falls within mainstream "chinoiserie." Chinoiserie media included imitations of lacquer and painted tin (tôle) ware that imitated japanning, early painted wallpapers in sheets, and ceramic figurines and table ornaments. Small pagodas appeared on chimneypieces and full-sized ones in gardens. Kew has a magnificent garden pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers. Aranjuez is a town in the southern part of Autonomous Community of Madrid in central Spain and is the southernmost, and 48 km south of the city of Madrid. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... A provincial Chippendale-style chair with elaborate Gothick tracery back Thomas Chippendale (June 5, 1718 – November 13, 1779), born at Farnley near Otley, West Yorkshire, was a London cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, and Neoclassical styles. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia This article is about the building style. ... Kew is a place in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in South West London. ... The central courtyard of Chambers Somerset House in London. ...


After 1860, Japonisme, sparked by the arrival of Japanese woodblock prints, became an important influence in the western arts in particular on many modern French artists such as Monet. The paintings of James McNeill Whistler and his "Peacock Room" are some of the finest works of the genre; other examples include the Gamble House and other buildings by California architects Greene and Greene. Van Gogh - Portrait of Pere Tanguy Example of ukiyo-e influence in Western art Japonism (also in French Japonisme and Japonaiserie) is called the influence of Japanese art on Western, primarily French, artists. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... Oscar-Claude Monet (November 14, 1840 - December 5, 1926), French impressionist painter. ... Self portrait (1872) James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 11, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based painter and etcher. ... Self portrait (1872) James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 11, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based painter and etcher. ... The Gamble House (constructed 1908 - 1909) is a National Historic Landmark and tourist attraction in Pasadena, California designed by the architect brothers Greene and Greene, Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, for David B. Gamble of the Procter & Gamble company. ... Brothers Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, who established the architectural firm of Greene and Greene, were born in Brighton, Ohio, a suburb of Cincinnati, in 1868 and 1870, respectively. ...


Depictions of the Orient in art and literature

"Le Bain turc," (Turkish Bath) by J.A.D. Ingres, 1862
"Le Bain turc," (Turkish Bath) by J.A.D. Ingres, 1862

Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and "Turks" (imprecisely named Muslim groups of North Africa and West Asia) can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. The first stirrings of Orientalism in Western art are found in Biblical scenes in Early Netherlandish painting, where secondary figures, especially Roman and Jewish ones, are given exotic costumes that distantly reflect the turbans and other clothes of the contemporary Near East. The Three Magi in Nativity scenes were an especial focus for this. Renaissance Venice had a phase of particular interest in depictions of the Ottoman Empire in painting; Gentile Bellini, who travelled to Constantinople and painted the Sultan, and Vittore Carpaccio were the leading exponents. By then the depictions were rather more accurate, with men typically dressed all in white. This article discusses the various stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims present in Western societies. ... This article deals primarily with stereotypes of East Asians and Southeast Asians. ... J.A.D. Ingres Bain turc 1862 Source: http://www. ... J.A.D. Ingres Bain turc 1862 Source: http://www. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, National Gallery, London. ... This article is about headwear. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Portrait of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus by Gentile Bellini, at the Magyar Szépmüvészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Dream of St Ursula (1495) Tempera on canvas, 274 x 267 cm Gallerie dellAccademia, Venice Vittore Carpaccio (c. ...


In the nineteenth century the numbers of Oriental scenes greatly increased. In many of these works the myth of the Orient as exotic and decadently corrupt is most fully articulated. Such works typically concentrated on Near-Eastern Islamic cultures. Artists such as Eugène Delacroix, Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexander Roubtzoff painted many depictions of Islamic culture, often including lounging odalisques, and stressing lassitude and visual spectacle. When Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, director of the French Académie de peinture painted a highly-colored vision of a turkish bath (illustration, right), he made his eroticized Orient publicly acceptable by his diffuse generalizing of the female forms, who might all have been of the same model. If his painting had simply been retitled "In a Paris Brothel," it would have been far less acceptable.[citation needed] Sensuality was seen as acceptable in the exotic Orient. This orientalizing imagery persisted in art into the early 20th century, as evidenced in Matisse's orientalist nudes. In these works the "Orient" often functions as a mirror to Western culture itself, or as a way of expressing its hidden or illicit aspects. In Gustave Flaubert's novel Salammbô ancient Carthage in North Africa is used as a foil to ancient Rome. Its culture is portrayed as morally corrupting and suffused with dangerously alluring eroticism. This novel proved hugely influential on later portrayals of ancient Semitic cultures. Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... Odalisque with a slave by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, painted in 1842 An odalisque was a virgin female slave, who could rise in status to being a concubine or a wife in Ottoman Seraglios, but most of whom tended to the harem of the Turkish sultan. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... This article is about the Turkish bath establishment. ... Self-Portrait in a Striped T-shirt (1906). ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Salammbô by Alfons Mucha (1896) Salammbô (1862) is an historical novel by Gustave Flaubert, which interweaves historical and fictional characters. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see foil. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ...


The use of the orient as an exotic backdrop continued in the movies for instance in many movies with Rudolph Valentino. Later the rich Arab in robes became a more popular theme, especially during the oil crisis of the 1970s. In the 1990s the Arab terrorist became a common villain figure in Western movies. Rudolph Valentino (May 6, 1895 – August 23, 1926) was an Italian actor, sex symbol, and early pop icon. ...


Examples of Orientalism in the arts

Cover of the French magazine le Japon artistique (May 1888) showing one of Hokusai's views on Mount Fuji.
Cover of the French magazine le Japon artistique (May 1888) showing one of Hokusai's views on Mount Fuji.

This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Katsushika Hokusai, (葛飾北斎), (1760—1849[1]), was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period . ... Mount Fuji Mount Fuji , IPA: )  , is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776 m (12,388 ft). ...

Literature

Montesquieu redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Persian Letters Persian Letters is a satirical story of two Persian brothers, Usbek and Rica, traveling through France by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu. ... William Beckford William Thomas Beckford (October 1, 1760 – May 2, 1844) was an English novelist, art critic, travel writer and politician. ... Vathek (alternatively titled Vathek, an Arabian Tale or The History of the Caliph Vathek) is a Gothic novel written by William Thomas Beckford. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... This article is about Shelleys poem. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Thomas de Quincey from the frontispiece of Revolt of the Tartars, Thomas de Quincey (August 15, 1785 – December 8, 1859) was an English author and intellectual. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1821). ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Al Aaraaf was written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1829. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Les Orientales is a series of poems by Victor Hugo. ... José Maria Eça de Queirós November 25, 1845 - August 16, 1900) was a Portuguese novelist. ... Anatole France (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) was the pen name of French author Jacques Anatole François Thibault. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Victor Segalen (January 14, 1878 - May 21, 1919) was a French naval doctor, ethnographer, archeologist, writer, poet, explorer, art-theorist, linguist, literary critic. ... André Malraux, French author, adventurer, and statesman André Malraux (November 3, 1901 – November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman, and a dominant figure in French politics and culture. ... Mans Fate cover Written by Andre Malraux in 1933, La Condition Humaine, or Mans Fate is novel about the failed communist revolution that took place in Shanghai in 1927, and the existential quandaries facing a diverse group of people associated with the revolution. ... Marguerite Yourcenar was the pseudonym of French novelist Marguerite Cleenewerck de Crayencour (June 8, 1903 - December 17, 1987). ... Marguerite Donnadieu, better known as Marguerite Duras, (April 4, 1914 – March 3, 1996) was a French writer and film director. ... The Lover (French title: LAmant) is an autobiographical novel by Marguerite Duras, published in 1984 by Les Éditions de Minuit. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Westöstlicher Diwan or West-Eastern Divan is a collection of lyrical poems by the German poet Goethe. ...

Opera, ballets, musicals

Theatre poster for The Mikado
Theatre poster for The Mikado

The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... Les Indes galantes is an opéra-ballet consisting of a prologue and four entrées (acts) by Jean-Philippe Rameau with libretto by Louis Fuzelier. ... Jacques Offenbach Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819, in Cologne – 5 October 1880, in Paris) was a French composer and cellist of the Romantic era and one of the originators of the operetta form. ... Ba-ta-clan is an operetta in one act by Jacques Offenbach to an original French libretto by Ludovic Halévy. ... Georges Bizet Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875) was a French composer and pianist of the romantic era. ... Les Pêcheurs de Perles (The Pearlfishers) is a three-act opera by Georges Bizet, to a libretto by Eugène Cormon and Michael Carré. While not nearly as popular as his far more famous Carmen, it contains a wealth of attractive music and has found some popularity despite its... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ... For the historical figure, see Igor Svyatoslavich. ... César Antonovich Cui (Russian: , Tsezar Antonovič Kjui) (January 6, 1835 (Old Style)-March 13, 1918) was a Russian of French and Lithuanian descent. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations. ... Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... Iris is an opera in three acts by Pietro Mascagni to an original Italian libretto by Luigi Illica. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two acts) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. ... For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ... This article is about the American composer. ... For work done with Richard Rodgers, see Rodgers and Hammerstein Oscar Hammerstein II (July 12, 1895 – August 23, 1960) was a New-York born writer, producer, and (usually uncredited) director of musicals for almost forty years. ... The King and I is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. Its script is based on the book Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Die Entführung aus dem Serail (K. 384; in English The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is a opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... George Frideric Handel (German Georg Friedrich Händel), (February 23, 1685 – April 14, 1759) was a German Baroque music composer who lived much of his life in England. ... One of Handels greatest operas composed in a year in which two more great operas were composed by him. ... Serse (also known as Xerxes) is an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Gioachino Rossini. ... Semiramide is an opera in two acts by Gioacchino Rossini. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Nabucco is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on the biblical story and the play by Anicet-Bourgeois and Francis Cornu. ... This article is about the opera. ...

Orchestral works

Portrait of Balakirev Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Russian: , Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) (January 2, 1837 – May 29, 1910) was a Russian composer. ... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ... In the Steppes of Central Asia is the common English title for a musical tableau (or symphonic poem) by Alexander Borodin. ... The Polovetsian Dances are perhaps the best known selections from Alexander Borodins opera Prince Igor. ... For the historical figure, see Igor Svyatoslavich. ... Mikhail Mikhailovich Ippolitov-Ivanov (November 19, 1859 – January 28, 1935) was a Russian composer, conductor and teacher. ... Caucasian Sketches is an orchestral suite written in 1894 by Russian composer Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Khovanshchina (Russian: , Hovánščina, sometimes rendered The Khovansky Affair) is an opera (subtitled a national music drama) in five acts by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Scheherazade (Шехерезада in Cyrillic, Å ekherezada in transliteration), Op. ...

Shorter musical pieces

Portrait of Balakirev Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Russian: , Milij Alekseevič Balakirev) (January 2, 1837 – May 29, 1910) was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer. ... Islamey: an Oriental Fantasy is a piece of music written by the Russian composer, Mily Balakirev. ... // Albert William Ketèlbey (9 August 1875 - 26 November 1959) was an English composer, conductor and pianist. ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ...

Theatre

Okito performing the floating ball. ... “Illusionist” redirects here. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Salomé, originally written in French in 1891 and translated into English, is a tragedy by the Irish-born playwright Oscar Wilde. ... Claude Alexander Conlin (1880 - 1954), also known as Alexander, C. Alexander, Alexander the Crystal Seer, and Alexander the Man Who Knows, was a stage magician who specialized in mentalism and psychic reading acts, often using a crystal ball as a prop. ... This article is about the performing art. ... Chung Ling Soo Chung Ling Soo was the stage name of U.S. stage magician William Robinson (1861-1918). ... “Illusionist” redirects here. ...

Painting

Théodore Chassériau (1819-1856), French painter, was born in Santo Domingo. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Illustration to The Garden of Paradise Edmund Dulac (born Edmond Dulac 1882-1953), was a book illustrator prominent during the so called Golden Age of Illustration (the first quarter or so of the twentieth century). ... Arabs, 1871 Un Souvenir dEsneh, 1876 Eugène Fromentin (December, 1820 - August 27, 1876) was a French painter and writer. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... William Holman Hunt - Self-Portrait. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... Court of the painters house in Cairo, 1871. ... David Roberts (October 24, 1796 - November 25, 1864), Scottish painter, was born at Stockbridge, Edinburgh. ... James Joseph Jacques Tissot (October 15, 1836 – August 8, 1902) was a French painter. ... Self-portrait Judas and Tamar, 1840. ...

Photography

Roger Fenton, self-portrait Roger Fenton (March 20, 1819 - August 8, 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers. ... Francis Frith. ...

Films

The Sheik was a 1921 silent movie produced by Paramount, directed by George Melford and starring Rudolph Valentino, Agnes Ayres and Adolphe Menjou. ... The Lives of a Bengal Lancer is a 1935 movie. ...

Edward Said and "Orientalism"

Main article: Orientalism (book)
Léon Cogniet's 1835 depiction of Bonaparte's Egyptian Expedition expresses Western perception of "The Exotic Orient"
Léon Cogniet's 1835 depiction of Bonaparte's Egyptian Expedition expresses Western perception of "The Exotic Orient"

One of Edward Said’s central ideas is that knowledge about the East is generated not through actual facts, but through imagined constructs that see "Eastern" societies as being all fundamentally similar, all sharing crucial characteristics that are not possessed by "Western" societies. Thus, this ‘a priori’ knowledge set up the East as the antithesis of the West. Such knowledge is constructed through literary texts and historical records which are often limited in terms of their understanding of the actualities of life in the Middle East.[4] Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1018 × 672 pixel, file size: 203 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1833-35, The Egyptian Expedition Under the Command of Bonaparte, Léon Cogniet, Louvre Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1018 × 672 pixel, file size: 203 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1833-35, The Egyptian Expedition Under the Command of Bonaparte, Léon Cogniet, Louvre Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the... Léon Cogniet, Scenes of July 1830, a painting alluding to the July revolution of 1830. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Before Said's work, "Oriental" was widely used to mean the opposite of "occidental" ('western'). The comparisons made between the two were generally unfavorable to the former, however, respected institutions like the Oriental Institute of Chicago, the London School of Oriental and African Studies or Università degli studi di Napoli L'Orientale, carried the term with no explicit reproach. The word "Orient" fell into disrepute after the word "Orientalism" was coined with the publication of the groundbreaking work Orientalism by the American-Palestinian scholar Edward Said. Following the ideas of Michel Foucault, Said emphasized the relationship between power and knowledge in scholarly and popular thinking, in particular regarding European views of the Islamic Arab world. Said argued that Orient and Occident worked as oppositional terms, so that the "Orient" was constructed as a negative inversion of Western culture. The work of another thinker, Antonio Gramsci, was also important in shaping Edward Said's analysis in this area. In particular, Said can be seen to have been influenced by Gramsci's notion of hegemony in understanding the pervasiveness of Orientalist constructs and representations in Western scholarship and reporting, and their relation to the exercise of power over the 'Orient'.[5] Occident has a number of meanings. ... The Oriental Institute (OI) is the University of Chicagos archeology museum and research center for ancient Near Eastern studies. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is a specialist constituent of the University of London committed to the arts and humanities, languages and cultures and the law and social sciences concerning Asia, Africa, and the Near and Middle East. ... The Naples Eastern University (Italian: Università degli Studi di Napoli LOrientale) is a university located in Naples, Italy. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Although Edward Said limited his discussion to academic study of Middle Eastern, African and Asian history and culture, he asserted that "Orientalism is, and does not merely represent, a significant dimension of modern political and intellectual culture." (p. 53) Said's discussion of academic Orientalism is almost entirely limited to late 19th and early 20th century scholarship. Most academic Area Studies departments had already abandoned an imperialist or colonialist paradigm of scholarship. He names the work of Bernard Lewis as an example of the continued existence of this paradigm, but acknowledges that it was already somewhat of an exception by the time of his writing (1977). This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...

Licia Albanese as Cio-Cio San in Madam Butterfly; she sang the role over 300 times at the Metropolitan Opera and elsewhere in the 1940s to 1960s.
Licia Albanese as Cio-Cio San in Madam Butterfly; she sang the role over 300 times at the Metropolitan Opera and elsewhere in the 1940s to 1960s.

The idea of an "Orient" is a crucial aspect of attempts to define "the West." Thus, histories of the Greco-Persian Wars may contrast the monarchical government of the Persian Empire with the democratic tradition of Athens, as a way to make a more general comparison between the Greeks and the Persians, and between "the West" and "the East", or "Europe" and "Asia", but make no mention of the other Greek city states, most of which were not ruled democratically. Licia Albanese, born July 22, 1913, in Bari, Italy, is a distinguished Italian soprano and chairman of The Licia Albanese-Puccini Foundation, founded in 1974 and dedicated to assisting young artists and singers. ... Madama Butterfly (or sometimes Madame Butterfly in English) is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, set in Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... The West is a generic term for western regions for many countries and regions: The Western United States Western Australia Western Canada Canada West The term can also mean: The West Australian, a newspaper The Western world, or Western culture or civilization The West: the phenomenon of westernism, the book... Persian Wars redirects here. ... Occident redirects here. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Taking a comparative and historical literary review of European, mainly British and French, scholars and writers looking at, thinking about, talking about, and writing about the peoples of the Middle East, Said sought to lay bare the relations of power between the colonizer and the colonized in those texts. Said's writings have had far-reaching implications beyond area studies in Middle East, to studies of imperialist Western attitudes to India, China and elsewhere. It was one of the foundational texts of postcolonial studies. Said later developed and modified his ideas in his book Culture and Imperialism (1993). A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Many scholars now use Said's work to attempt to overturn long-held, often taken-for-granted Western ideological biases regarding non-Westerners in scholarly thought. Some post-colonial scholars would even say that the West's idea of itself was constructed largely by saying what others were not. If "Europe" evolved out of "Christendom" as the "not-Byzantium," early modern Europe in the late 16th century (see Battle of Lepanto) certainly defined itself as the "not-Turkey." This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429...


Said puts forward several definitions of 'Orientalism' in the introduction to Orientalism. Some of these have been more widely quoted and influential than others:

  • "A way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient's special place in European Western experience." (p. 1)
  • "a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between 'the Orient' and (most of the time) 'the Occident'." (p. 2)
  • "A Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient." (p. 3)
  • "...particularly valuable as a sign of European-Atlantic power over the Orient than it is as a veridic discourse about the Orient." (p. 6)
  • "A distribution of geopolitical awareness into aesthetic, scholarly, economic, sociological, historical, and philological texts." (p. 12)

In his Preface to the 2003 edition of Orientalism, Said also warned against the "falsely unifying rubrics that invent collective identities," citing such terms as "America," "The West," and "Islam," which were leading to what he felt was a manufactured "clash of civilisations." This article is about the philosophical meaning of ontology. ... This article or section should include material from Episteme Epistemology (from the Greek words episteme=science and logos=word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ...


Criticisms of Said

Lightly clad North African girls on a French postcard, around the turn of the last century.
Lightly clad North African girls on a French postcard, around the turn of the last century.

Critics of Said's theory, such as the historian Bernard Lewis, argue that Said's account contains many factual, methodological and conceptual errors. Said ignores many genuine contributions to the study of Eastern cultures made by Westerners during the Enlightenment and Victorian eras. Said's theory does not explain why the French and English pursued the study of Islam in the 16th and 17th centuries, long before they had any control or hope of control in the Middle East. He has been criticised for ignoring the contributions of Italian, Dutch, and particularly the massive contribution of German scholars. Lewis claims that the scholarship of these nations was more important to European Orientalism than the French or British, but the countries in question either had no colonial projects in the Mideast (Dutch and Germans), or no connection between their Orientalist research and their colonialism (Italians). Said's theory also does not explain why much of Orientalist study did nothing to advance the cause of imperialism. As Lewis asks, Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... For the computer diagnostic tool, see POST card. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...

"What imperial purpose was served by deciphering the ancient Egyptian language, for example, and then restoring to the Egyptians knowledge of and pride in their forgotten, ancient past?" [6]

Lewis argued that Orientalism arose from humanism, which was distinct from Imperialist ideology, and sometimes in opposition to it. Orientalist study of Islam arose from the rejection of religious dogma, and was an important spur to discovery of alternative cultures. Lewis criticised as "intellectual protectionism" the argument that only those within a culture could usefully discuss it.[7] Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ...


In his rebuttal to Lewis, Said stated that Lewis' negative rejoinder must be placed into its proper context. Since one of Said's principal arguments is that Orientalism was used (wittingly or unwittingly) as an instrument of empire, he contends that Lewis' critique of this thesis could hardly be judged in the disinterested, scholarly light that Lewis would like to present himself, but must be understood in the proper knowledge of what Said claimed was Lewis' own (often masked) neo-imperialist proclivities, as displayed by the latter's political or quasi-political appointments and pronouncements.


Specifically, Lewis is aligned with prominent think tanks that promote neoconservative views on U.S. Middle East Policy. Most scholars in Middle Eastern Studies departments at American and European universities take a position much closer to Said's than to Lewis', and scholars at certain privately-funded think tanks, such as Martin Kramer at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Daniel Pipes at the Middle East Forum, who are aligned with Lewis, have alleged that this constitutes bias, and is a reason to cut federal funding from these Middle Eastern Studies departments, and subject all such academic departments to federal government oversight in order to prevent scholarly bias.[8] Pipes is the author of a website, campuswatch.org, which encourages students to report bias on the part of their professors. This article is about the institution. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... // The United States’ relationship with the Middle East prior to the Second World War was limited. ... Middle Eastern Studies is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the culture, politics, economy, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations extending from North Africa in the west to the Chinese... This article is about the institution. ... Martin Kramer (b. ... Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is a Jewish organization founded in 1985 by Martin Indyk, previously research director of the leading pro-Israel lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Aipac). ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... The Middle East Forum (MEF) is an American pro-Israel neoconservative think tank founded in 1990 by historian and columnist Daniel Pipes, who also serves as its director. ... Middle Eastern Studies is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the culture, politics, economy, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations extending from North Africa in the west to the Chinese... Campus Watch is a project of the Middle East Forum, an American pro-Israel think tank. ...


Bryan Turner critiques Said’s work saying there were a multiplicity of forms and traditions of Orientalism. He is therefore critical of Said’s attempt to try to place them all under the framework of the orientalist tradition.[9] Other critics of Said have argued that while many distortions and fantasies certainly existed, the notion of "the Orient" as a negative mirror image of the West cannot be wholly true because attitudes to distinct cultures diverged significantly.[10] In any case it is a logical necessity that other cultures will be identified as "different", since otherwise their distinctive characteristics would be invisible, and that the most striking differences will hold up the mirror to the observing culture. [11] John MacKenzie notes that Said’s Orientalism is critiqued for implying that western dominance is and has been unchallenged, ignoring for example the ‘Subaltern Studies’ group of scholars work of resistance and giving voice to the unvoiced.[12] Further criticism includes the observation that the criticisms levied by Said at Orientalist scholars of being essentialist can in turn be levied at him for the way in which he writes of the west as a hegemonic mass, stereotyping its characteristics.[13] The Subaltern Studies Group (SSG) or Subaltern Studies Collective are a group of South Asian scholars interested in the postcolonial and post-imperial societies of South Asia in particular and the developing world in general. ...


A mirror image: Eastern views of the West

In an enlightening contrast, many of the essentially dismissive and patronizing concepts associated with Western "Orientalism" as expressed above are summed up — but in reverse orientation — in the epilogue to the "Chapter on the Western Regions" according to the Hou Hanshu. This is the official history of the Later (or "Eastern") Han Dynasty (25-221 CE). The book was compiled by Fan Ye, (died 445 CE), and it succinctly expresses the Han opinion of the Western Hu culture (in what is now western China): The Book of Later Han (Chinese:后汉书) is one of the official Chinese historical works which was compiled by Fan Ye in the 5th century, using a number of earlier histories and documents as sources. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Hu or hu may refer to: Hu (mythology), the deification of the first word, in the Egyptian mythology of the Ennead Huh (god), the deification of eternity in the Egyptian mythology of the Ogdoad Hu (surname), a Chinese family name represented by the character 胡. Hù is also an abbreviation for...

The Western Hu are far away.
They live in an outer zone.
Their countries' products are beautiful and precious,
But their character is debauched and frivolous.
They do not follow the rites of China.
Han has the canonical books.
They do not obey the Way of the Gods.
How pitiful!
How obstinate!

Derogatory or stereotyped portrayals of Westerners appear in many works of Indian, Chinese and Japanese artists.


In contrast, some Eastern artists adopted and adapted Western styles. The Indian painter Ravi Varma painted several works that are virtually indistinguishable from some Western orientalist images. In the late 20th century many Western cultural themes and images began appearing in Asian art and culture, especially in Japan. English words and phrases are prominent in Japanese advertising and popular culture, and many Japanese anime are written around characters, settings, themes, and mythological figures derived from various Western cultural traditions. Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906) Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906) was an Indian painter who achieved recognition for his depiction of scenes from the epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Animé redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


Recently, the term Occidentalism has been coined to refer to negative views of the Western world sometimes found in Eastern societies today. In a similar ideological vein to Occidentalism, Eurocentrism can refer to both negative views and excessively positive views of the Western World found in discussions about 'Eastern culture'. Occidentalism is a term for stereotyped and sometimes dehumanizing views of the so-called Western world, including Europe, the United States, Australia and so on. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Black orientalism is a terminology that is used for an intellectual and cultural movement within primarily African American circles which, while similar to the general movement of Orientalism in its negative outlook upon Western Asian - especially Arab - culture and religion, is different from the same in its emphasis upon the... Byzantine redirects here. ... As a sideshow attraction, Circassian beauties were women with big hair. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Exoticism (from exotic) is a trend in art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations since the late 19th-century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hydraulic empire (also known as a hydraulic despotism or a water monopoly empire) arises through the need for flood control and irrigation, which requires central coordination and gives rise to a specialized bureaucracy. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Iranistics or Iranian studies is an area of study found in most of the important universities around the world. ... Van Gogh - Portrait of Pere Tanguy Example of ukiyo-e influence in Western art Japonism (also in French Japonisme and Japonaiserie) is the influence of Japanese art on Western, primarily French, artists. ... Robert Irwin may be Robert Irwin (artist) Robert Graham Irwin, writer Robert Irwin (real estate author) This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Islamic studies scholars or simply Islamic scholars are both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Middle Eastern Studies is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the culture, politics, economy, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations extending from North Africa in the west to the Chinese... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Occidentalism is a term for stereotyped and sometimes dehumanizing views of the so-called Western world, including Europe, the United States, Australia and so on. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Oriental Institute (OI) is the University of Chicagos archeology museum and research center for ancient Near Eastern studies. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Sinology is the study of China, and things related to China, using a combination of Western and traditional Chinese methodologies, concepts, and theories. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is a specialist constituent of the University of London committed to the arts and humanities, languages and cultures and the law and social sciences concerning Asia, Africa, and the Near and Middle East. ... The existence of a Sotadic zone was a hypothesis of Richard Francis Burton; it asserted that there existed a geographic zone in which homosexuality was particularly prevalent and tolerated, and claimed that within this zone, a homosexual orientation was much more common than outside it. ... It has been suggested that Arab Unification be merged into this article or section. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... A hydraulic empire (also known as a hydraulic despotism or a water monopoly empire) arises through the need for flood control and irrigation, which requires central coordination and gives rise to a specialized bureaucracy. ... Sir John Woodroffe (1865–1936), also known by his pseudonym Arthur Avalon, received his B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) from University College, Oxford. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

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Adel Iskandar (aka Adel Iskandar Farag) (born March 15, 1977) is a Middle East media scholar, postcolonial theorist and media reform activist. ... Martin Kramer (b. ...

Further reading

  • Balagangadhara, S. N. "The Future of the Present: Thinking Through Orientalism", Cultural Dynamics, Vol. 10, No. 2, (1998), pp. 101-23. ISSN 0921-3740.
  • Biddick, Kathleen. "Coming Out of Exile: Dante on the Orient(alism) Express", The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 4. (Oct., 2000), pp. 1234–1249.
  • Davies, Kristian. The Orientalists: Western artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia & India. New York: Laynfaroh, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-9759783-0-6).
  • Crawley, William. "Sir William Jones: A vision of Orientalism", Asian Affairs, Vol. 27, Issue 2. (Jun. 1996), pp. 163–176.
  • Fleming, K.E. "Orientalism, the Balkans, and Balkan Historiography", The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 4. (Oct., 2000), pp. 1218–1233.
  • Halliday, Fred. "'Orientalism' and Its Critics", British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1993), pp. 145–163.
  • Irwin, Robert. For lust of knowing: The Orientalists and their enemies. London: Penguin/Allen Lane, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7139-9415-0). As Dangerous Knowledge: Orientalism and Its Discontents. New York: Overlook Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-58567-835-X).
  • Jersild, Austin. Orientalism and Empire: North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier, 1845–1917. Montreal: McGill–Queen's University Press, 2002 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7735-2328-6); 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-7735-2329-4).
  • Kabbani, Rana. Imperial Fictions: Europe's Myths of Orient. London: Pandora Press, 1994 (paperback, ISBN 0-04-440911-7).
  • Kennedy, Dane. "'Captain Burton's Oriental Muck Heap': The Book of the Thousand Nights and the Uses of Orientalism", The Journal of British Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3. (Jul., 2000), pp. 317–339.
  • Kincheloe, Joe L. and Shirley R. Steinberg, The Miseducation of the West: How the Schools and Media Distort Our Understanding of Islam. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Press, 2004. (Arabic Edition, 2005).
  • Klein, Christina. Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945–1961. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003 (hardcover, ISBN 0-520-22469-8; paperback, ISBN 0-520-23230-5).
  • Knight, Nathaniel. "Grigor'ev in Orenburg, 1851–1862: Russian Orientalism in the Service of Empire?", Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 1. (Spring, 2000), pp. 74–100.
  • Kontje, Todd. German Orientalisms. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004 (ISBN 0-472-11392-5).
  • Little, Douglas. American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East Since 1945. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-8078-2737-1); 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-8078-5539-1); London: I.B. Tauris, 2002 (new ed., hardcover, ISBN 1-86064-889-4).
  • López-Calvo, Ignacio, ed. Alternative Orientalisms in Latin America and Beyond. Newcastle, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 1-84718-143-0; ISBN 13: 9781847181435
  • Lowe, Lisa. Critical Terrains: French and British Orientalisms. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992 (hardcover, ISBN 978-0801425790; paperback, ISBN 978-0801481956).
  • Macfie, Alexander Lyon. Orientalism. White Plains, NY: Longman, 2002 (ISBN 0-582-42386-4).
  • MacKenzie, John. Orientalism: History, theory and the arts. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7190-1861-7; paperback, ISBN 0-7190-4578-9).
  • Murti, Kamakshi P. India: The Seductive and Seduced "Other" of German Orientalism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-313-30857-8).
  • Noble dreams, wicked pleasures: Orientalism in America, 1870–1930 by Holly Edwards (Editor). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000 (hardcover, ISBN 0-691-05003-1; paperback, ISBN 0-691-05004-X).
  • Orientalism and the Jews, edited by Ivan Davidson Kalmar and Derek Penslar. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2004 (paperback, ISBN 1-58465-411-2).
  • The Orientalists: Delacroix to Matisse: The Allure of North Africa and the Near East, edited by Mary Anne Stevens. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1984 (paperback, ISBN 0-297-78435-8).
  • Paul, James. "Orientalism Revisited: An Interview with Edward W. Said", MERIP Middle East Report, No. 150. (Jan.–Feb., 1988), pp. 32–36.
  • Peltre, Christine. Orientalism in Art. New York: Abbeville Press, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7892-0459-2).
  • Prakash, Gyan. "Orientalism Now", History and Theory, Vol. 34, No. 3. (Oct., 1995), pp. 199–212.
  • Richardson, Michael. "Enough Said: Reflections on Orientalism", Anthropology Today, Vol. 6, No. 4. (Aug., 1990), pp. 16–19.
  • Rotter, Andrew J. "Saidism without Said: Orientalism and U.S. Diplomatic History", The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 4. (Oct., 2000), pp. 1205–1217.
  • Sahni, Kalpana. Crucifying the Orient: Russian Orientalism and the Colonization of Caucasus and Central Asia. Bangkok; Oslo: White Orchid Press, 1997 (hardcover, ISBN 974-8299-50-3).
  • Said, Edward W. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978 (ISBN 0-394-42814-5); New York: Vintage, 1979 (ISBN 0-394-74067-X).
  • Schneider, Jane. Italy's "Southern Question": Orientalism in One Country. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 1-85973-992-X; paperback, ISBN 1-85973-997-0).
  • Visions of the East: Orientalism in film by Matthew Bernstein (Editor), Gaylyn Studlar (Editor). Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997 (hardcover, ISBN 0-8135-2294-3; paperback, ISBN 0-8135-2295-1).

The Slavic Review is the leading international journal in Slavic studies with the coverage centered on Russia, Central Eurasia and Eastern and Central Europe. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ...

Notes & References

  1. ^ The use in English of "Orientalism" as a synonym for academic "Oriental studies" is rare; the Oxford English Dictionary cites only one such usage, by Lord Byron in 1812.
  2. ^ For example Thomas R. Trautmann in Aryans and British India, 1997, ISBN 0-520-20546-4
  3. ^ Senate bill (pdf file)
  4. ^ Edward Said and The Production of Knowledge, by Sethi,Arjun (University of Maryland) accessed April 20, 2007.
  5. ^ Zachary Lockman, 'Contending Visions of the Middle East: the History and Politics of Orientalism' (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004), p. 205.
  6. ^ Lewis, Bernard, Islam and the West, Oxford University Press, 1993, p.126
  7. ^ Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing Vol. 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–720. Retrieved on 2006-05-23. 
  8. ^ New Approach to International Education :: Inside Higher Ed :: Higher Education's Source for News, and Views and Jobs
  9. ^ Turner, B.S., 1994, Orientalism, Postmodernism and Globalism, London, Routledge
  10. ^ Edward Said’s “Orientalism revisited” by Keith Windschuttle.
  11. ^ Edward Said and the Saidists: or Third World Intellectual Terrorism, by Ibn Warraq
  12. ^ MacKenzie, J.M., 1995, Orientalism: history, theory and the arts, Manchester, Manchester University Press, page 11
  13. ^ MacKenzie, J.M., 1995, Orientalism: history, theory and the arts, Manchester, Manchester University Press
The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Arjun Charan Sethi (born 18 September 1941) is a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. ... Martin Kramer (b. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Orientalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3466 words)
Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages and peoples by Western scholars.
In the former meaning the term Orientalism has come to acquire negative connotations in some quarters and is interpreted to refer to the study of the East by Americans and Europeans shaped by the attitudes of the era of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Supporters of "Oriental Studies" counter that the term "Asian" is just as encompassing as "Oriental" and may well have originally had the same meaning, if it were derived from an Akkadian word for "East" (a more common derivation is from one or both of two Anatolian proper names.).
Orientalism (book) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (478 words)
Orientalism is a 1978 study by Edward Said that marks the beginning of post-colonial studies.
Through unmasking the superstructure behind scholarly, literary, and political texts for 18th and 19th century Britain and France and 20th century America, Said shows that the "Orient" has very little relationship to lives of Middle Eastern and Islamic culture but shows Western sense of superiority and its definition of the self and the Other.
Orientalism is often classed with postmodernist and post-colonial works sharing various degrees of skepticism about representation itself, but a few months before he died Said indicated he regarded the book as in the tradition of "humanistic critique" and the Enlightenment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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