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Encyclopedia > Orhan I
Image:20pxOttomanicon.png Orhan I
Ottoman Period
Preceded by:
Osman I
Ottoman Sultan
13261359
Succeeded by:
Murad I

Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (12841359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. Orhan conquered most of western Anatolia and took part in the political upheaval of the decaying Byzantine Empire by marrying Theodora, the daughter of John VI Cantacuzenus the alienated guardian of Emperor John V Palaeologus. As the price of this still prestigious marriage, Orhan helped Cantacuzenus to overthrow John V and his regents. In 1354 Orhan's son, Suleyman Pasha (Süleyman Paşa), occupied Gallipoli (evacuated by its Greek population in the wake of an earthquake) and gave the Ottoman state a bridgehead into mainland Europe. Image File history File links 20pxOttomanicon. ... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... Orhan I of the Ottoman Empire This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Sultan Osman I Osman I (1258–1326) (Ottoman: عثمان بن أرطغل) was born in 1258 and inherited the title bey (chief) from his father, ErtuÄŸrul, as the ruler of the village of Söğüt in 1281. ... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ... John V Palaeologus (1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Andronicus III, whom he succeeded as Byzantine emperor in 1341, at age nine. ... Events End of reign of John VI Cantacuzenus, as Byzantine emperor. ... Suleyman Pasha was the eldest son of Orhan I. Assault on Byzantia Suleyman Pasha struck a bold blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire on behalf of his race, which gave the Turks a permanent establishment on the European side of the Hellespont. ... Satellite image of the Gallipoli peninsula and surrounding area Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, (Greek: Καλλίπολις), is a town in northwestern Turkey. ...

Contents


Passage of power

When Orhan succeeded his father, he proposed his brother, Alaeddin, to share the emerging empire, the latter refused on the grounds that their father had designated Orhan as sole successor, and that the empire should not be divided. He only accepted as his share the revenues of a single village, near Bursa. Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ...


Orhan then said to him, "Since, my brother, thou will not take the flocks and the herds that I offer thee, be thou the shepherd of my people; be my Vizier." The word Vizier, in the Ottoman language, meant the bearer of a burden. Alaeddin, in accepting the office, accepted his brother's burden of power, according to the oriental historians. Alaeddin, like many of his successors in that office, did not often command the armies of his race in person, but he occupied himself with the foundation and management of the civil and military institutions of his country. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Vizir, Wasir, Wazir, Wesir, Wezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages) is an oriental, originally Persian, term for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan. ...


Government

According to some authorities, it was in his time, and by his advice, that the practices of assemblance of vassalage to the ruler of Konya, stamping money with his effigy, and using his name in public prayers, was discontinued by the Ottomans. Tomb of Mevlana Rumi is a popular attraction of Konya. ...


These changes are more correctly referred by others to Osman himself, but the vast majority of the oriental writers concur in attributing to Alaeddin the introduction of laws, which endured for centuries, respecting the costume of the various subjects of the empire, and of laws which created a standing army of regular troops, and provided funds for its support. It was by his advice and that of a contemporary Turkish statesman, that the celebrated corps of Janissaries was formed, an institution which European writers erroneously fix at a later date, and ascribe to Murad I. Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ...


Janissaries

Main article: Janissary

Alaeddin, by his military legislation, may be truly said to have organized victory for the Ottoman race. He organised for the Ottoman Empire a standing army of regularly paid and disciplined infantry and horse, a full century before Charles VII. of France established his fifteen permanent companies of men-at-arms, which are generally regarded as the first standing army known in modern military. Young Greeks at the Mosque (Jean Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek youths who were converted to Islam to become the elite of the army (Turkish yeniceri, recruit) The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri (yeni çeri, meaning new soldier); in...


Orhan's predecessors, Ertoghrul and Osman, had made war at the head of the armed vassals and volunteers. This army rode on horseback to their prince's banner when summoned for each expedition, and were disbanded as soon as the campaign was over. Alaeddin determined to ensure and improve future success, by forming a corps of paid infantry, which was to be kept in constant readiness for service. These troops were called Yaya, or piyade. They were divided into tens, hundreds, and thousands, under their respective decurions, centurions, and colonels. Their pay was high, and their pride soon caused their sovereign some anxiety. Orhan wished to provide a check to them, and he took counsel for this purpose with his brother Alaedelain and Kara Khalil Tschendereli, who was connected with the royal house by marriage. Tschendereli laid before his master and the vizier a project. Out of this, arose the renowned corps in the Janissaries, which was considered the scourge of Christendom for a long time, as well as the terror of their own sovereigns—until it was abolished by sultan Mahmud II in 1826. Sultan Mahmud II Animation showing the structure of the Tughra of Mahmud II Mahmud II (in Arabic محمودالثانى ) (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Tschendereli proposed to Orhan to create an army entirely composed of the children of conquered places. Tschendereli argued that:

"The conquered are the responsibility of the conqueror, who is the lawful ruler of them, of their lands, of their goods, of their wives, and of their children. We have a right to do, same as what we do with our own; and the treatment which I propose is not only lawful, but benevolent. By enforcing the enrolling them in the ranks of the army, we consult both their temporal and eternal interests, as they will be educated and given better life conditions."

He also alleged that the formation of Janissary out of conquered children would induce other people to adopt, not only out of the children of the conquered nations, but out of a crowd of their friends and relations, who would come as volunteers to join the Ottoman ranks. Acting on this advice, Orhan selected out of the families of the Christians whom he had conquered, a thousand of the finest boys. In the next year a thousand more were taken, and this enrolment of a thousand Christian children was continued for centuries, until the reign of Sultan Mehmet IV., in 1648. Young Greeks at the Mosque (Jean Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek youths who were converted to Islam to become the elite of the army (Turkish yeniceri, recruit) The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri (yeni çeri, meaning new soldier); in... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (January 2, 1642—1693), also known as Dördüncü(fourth) and Avci(hunter), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ...


Some Ottoman historians eulogise with one accord the wisdom and piety of the founders of this institution. They boast that three hundred thousand children were delivered from the torments of hell by being made Janissaries. They reckon on the number of conquerors whom it gave to earth, and of heirs of paradise whom it gave to heaven, on the hypothesis that, during three centuries the stated number of a thousand children, enlisted.


Politics

Initial expansion

Orhan had captured the city of Nicemedia in the first year of his reign (1326); and with the new resources for warfare which the administrative genius of his brother placed at his command, he speedily signalized his reign by conquests still mere important. The city of Nicaea (second only to Constantinople in the Greek Empire) surrendered to him in 1330. Orhan gave the command of it to his eldest son, Suleyman Pacha, who had directed the operations of the siege. Numerous other advantages were gained over the Greeks and the Turkish prince of Karasu (the ancient Mysia), who had taken up arms against the Ottomans, was defeated. His capital city, Berghama (the ancient Pergamus) and his territory, annexed to Orhan's domains. On the conquest of Karasu, in the year 1336, nearly the whole of the North-West of Anatolia was included in the Ottoman Empire, and the four cities of Bursa, Nicemetha, Nice, and Pergamus had become strongholds of its power. Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Constantinople[1] was the name of the modern-day city of İstanbul, Turkey over the centuries that it served as the second capital of the unified Roman Empire, and after its division into East and West, of the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire (from the city... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Mysia. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ...


Consolidation period

A period of twenty peaceful years followed the acquisition of Karasi. During this time the Ottoman sovereign was actively occupied in perfecting the civil and military institutions which his brother had introduced, in securing internal order, in founding and endowing mosques and schools, and in the construction of vast public edifices, which still stand. The first princes of the Ottoman dynasty, unlike the generality of conquerors, especially of Asiatic conquerors, did not hurry on from one war to another in ceaseless fervour for fresh victories and new dominions. Rather, they were mindful of the need to balance seizure of territory with cautiousness and consolidation of existing territory.


They paused over each subdued province, until, by assimilation of civil and military institutions, it was fully blended into the general nationality of their empire. They thus gradually moulded, in Anatolia, a homogeneous and stable power. This policy is credited with securing the relatively long endurance of the Ottoman Empire, compared to other Oriental empires, both ancient and modern.


This policy was less carefully followed subsequently in European Turkey, Syria, and Egypt. The Ottomans never achieved the strength in their territories West of the Hellespoint and South of Mount Taurus that they enjoyed in Anatolia.


Anatolia is regarded by the Turks as their stronghold in the event of further national disasters. They passionately call it "the last home of the faithful". The general diffusion of Turkish populations over Anatolia, before Osman's time, must unquestionably have greatly promoted the solidity as well as the extent of the dominion which he and his successor there established. But the far-sighted policy, with which they tempered their ambition, also caused permanent descendants, and their remote descendants still experience its advantageous operation.


The friendly relations which Orhan formed with the Andronicus III Palaeologus, and maintained (though not without interruption) with that prince and some of his successors, caused a long twenty year period of general repose to the Ottoman power. Andronicus III Palaeologus (c. ...


But as the civil wars distracted the last ages and wasted the last resources of the Greek Empire, the auxiliary arms of the Turkish princes were frequently called over and employed in Europe. In 1346, The Emperor Cantacuzene recognised Orhan as the most powerful sovereign of the Turks. He aspired to attach the Ottoman forces permanently to his interests, and hoped to achieve this by giving his daughter in marriage to their rule, despite differences of creed, and the disparity of age between the young princess and the Turk (who was at that time a sixty-year-old widower).


The splendour of the wedding between Orhan and Theodora is elaborately described by Byzantine writers. But in the following year, during which the Ottoman bride groom visited his imperial father-in-law at Scutari, the suburb of Constantinople on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus, scenes of less pleasing character to the Greeks ensued. Orhan's presence protected the Greek Emperor and his subjects during the display of festive splendour which Scutari exhibited at the meeting of the sovereigns. But when Orhan had returned to his Bithynian, some Ottoman bands crossed the Helespont, and pillaged several towns in Thrace. After a series of encounters, they were all killed or taken by the superior forces sent against them. Constantinople[1] was the name of the modern-day city of Ä°stanbul, Turkey over the centuries that it served as the second capital of the unified Roman Empire, and after its division into East and West, of the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire (from the city...


Advances of Suleyman

Main article: Suleyman Pasha (son of Orhan)

Soon the hostilities between the troops of Orhan and those of his father-in-law led to a war between the two great maritime republics of Venice and Genoa along with almost every coast of the Mediterranean and its connected seas, and led to the settlement of the Ottomans in Europe. Suleyman Pasha was the eldest son of Orhan I. Assault on Byzantia Suleyman Pasha struck a bold blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire on behalf of his race, which gave the Turks a permanent establishment on the European side of the Hellespont. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) , the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Location within Italy Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese (dialect of Ligurian) Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Génova, Galician Xénova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ...


The Genoese possessed Galatea, the European suburb of Constantinople, and the Bosphorus was one of scenes on which the most obstinate contests were held between their fleets and those of their rivals. Orhan hated the Venetians, whose fleets had insulted his seaward provinces, and who had met his diplomatic overtures with contempt, as if coming from an insignificant barbarous chieftain. The Venetians were allies of Cantacuzene, but Orhan sent an auxiliary force across the straits to Galata, which there co-operated with the Genoese. Orhan also aided the Emperor's other son-in-law, John Palmagus in the civil war between him and the Byzantine Emperor. Galatea may refer to: Galatea (mythology), a nymph in Greek mythology 74 Galatea, an asteroid Galatea a village in the North Island of New Zealand Galatea (Justice League Unlimited), an evil clone of the cartoon version of Supergirl Galatea (Raphael) or The Triumph of Galatea, a Renaissance fresco Raphael Galatea...


In the midst of the distress and confusion with which the Byzantine Empire was now oppressed, Orhan's eldest son, Suleyman Pasha, captured the Castle of Tzympe (Cinbi) in a bold move (1356), which gave the Turks a permanent foothold on the European side of the Hellespont. Orhan followed his son's act with the first Ottoman conquests in Europe. Suleyman Pasha was the eldest son of Orhan I. Assault on Byzantia Suleyman Pasha struck a bold blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire on behalf of his race, which gave the Turks a permanent establishment on the European side of the Hellespont. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of Raška Stefan Dušan is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a...


This military victory over the Byzantines was strngthened by the opportunities provided in the perpetual dissensions that raged between Cantacuze and his son-in-law Palaeologus –- each of whom was continually soliciting Orhan's aid against the other, and obtaining that aid according to what seemed best for the interests of the Turkish sovereign, who was the real enemy of them both.


Last years

Orhan only lived three years after the capture of Tzympe and Gallipoli and died in the year 1359 at the age of seventy-five, after a reign of thirty-three years. During his reign, some of the most important civil and military institutions of his nation were founded, and the Crescent was not only advanced over many of the fairest provinces of Asia, but was also planted on the European continent, where its enemies have since sought to dislodge it for five centuries.


Reference

  • Incorporates text from "History of Ottoman Turks" (1878)


 
Sultans of the Ottoman Empire

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Orhan I - Encyclopedia Article (158 words)
Orhan I was the bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359.
Orhan conquered most of eastern Anatolia and took part of the political gambling in the Byzantine Empire by marrying the daughter of a Byzantine prince who was a rival to the king.
When the prince - with Orhan's support - overthrew the king, Orhan acquired the Dardanelles and the peninsula of Gallipoli as a gift and established the first Turkish territory in Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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