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Encyclopedia > Organization of American States
Organization of American States
Organisation des États Américains
Organização dos Estados Americanos
Organización de los Estados Americanos
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish
Membership 35 countries
Leaders
 -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza
Flag of Chile Chile (since 26 May 2005)
Establishment
 -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948
in effect 1 December 1951 
Website
http://www.oas.org/

The Organization of American States (OAS, or, as it is known in the three other official languages, OEA) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States. Its members are the thirty-five independent states of the Americas. Download high resolution version (656x651, 77 KB)Image downloaded from the Organization of American States Photo Gallery, which states: All Photos for free distribution Photographs of official events are available through OAS website and can be used, free of charge, as long as the source is acknowledged. ... ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... According to the Charter of the Organization of American States: The Secretary General shall direct the General Secretariat, be the legal representative thereof, and [...] be responsible to the General Assembly for the proper fulfillment of the obligations and functions of the General Secretariat. ... José Miguel Insulza Secretary General-Elect of the Organization of American States José Miguel Insulza Salinas (born June 2, 1943) is a Chilean socialist politician and Chiles former Interior Minister. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Charter of the Organization of the American States (otherwise known the Charter of the OAS) is a Pan-American treaty that sets out the creation of the Organization of American States. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Contents

History

The notion of closer hemispheric union in the American continent was first put forward by Simón Bolívar who, at the 1826 Congress of Panama, proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. This meeting was at your attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America, and Mexico, but the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" was ultimately only ratified by Gran Colombia. Bolívar's dream soon floundered with civil war in Gran Colombia, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than continental outlooks in the newly independent American republics. This article is about the South American independence leader. ... The Congress of Panama (often referred to as the Amphictyonic Congress in remembrance of the Amphictyonic League of Ancient Greece) was a congress organized by Simón Bolívar in 1826 so that Latin American countries could become closer and develop a unified policy towards Spain. ... Gran Colombia Capital Bogotá Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic History  - Established December 17, 1819  - Disestablished November 19, 1831 Gran Colombia (Spanish for Greater Colombia) is a name used today for the Republic of Colombia of the period 1819-1831. ... Capital Guatemala City; in 1834 moved to San Salvador Created 1823 Dissolved 1840 Demonym Centroamerican The United Provinces of Central America (UPCA) was a country that existed in Central America from July 1823 to approximately 1840. ...


The pursuit of regional solidarity and cooperation again came to the forefront in 1889–90, at the First International Conference of American States. Gathered together in Washington, D.C., 18 nations resolved to found the International Union of American Republics, served by a permanent secretariat called the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics (renamed the "International Commercial Bureau" at the Second International Conference in 1901–02). These two bodies, in existence as of 14 April 1890, represent the point of inception to which today's OAS and its General Secretariat trace their origins. First Washington, D.C., USA 1889-1890 Second Mexico City, Mexico, 1901-1902 Third Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1906 Fourth Buenos Aires, Argentina 1910 Fifth Santiago, Chile 1923 Sixth Havana, Cuba 1928 Seventh Buenos Aires, Argentina 1933 Eighth Lima, Peru 1938 Ninth Bogotá, Colombia 1948 Tenth Caracas, Venezuela 1954 Categories... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


At the Fourth International Conference of American States (Buenos Aires, 1910), the name of the organization was changed to the "Union of American Republics" and the Bureau became the "Pan American Union". First Washington, D.C., USA 1889-1890 Second Mexico City, Mexico, 1901-1902 Third Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1906 Fourth Buenos Aires, Argentina 1910 Fifth Santiago, Chile 1923 Sixth Havana, Cuba 1928 Seventh Buenos Aires, Argentina 1933 Eighth Lima, Peru 1938 Ninth Bogotá, Colombia 1948 Tenth Caracas, Venezuela 1954 Categories... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...

Pan American Union headquarters building in Washington, D.C., 1943

The experience of World War II convinced hemispheric governments that unilateral action could not ensure the territorial integrity of the American nations in the event of extra-continental aggression. To meet the challenges of global conflict in the postwar world and to contain conflicts within the hemisphere, they adopted a system of collective security, the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ... The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty or by the Spanish-language acronym TIAR) was an agreement made in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many American countries that states among its articles that an attack against one would be considered an attack against... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


The Ninth International Conference of American States was held in Bogotá between March and May 1948 and led by U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall, a meeting which led to a pledge by members to fight communism in America. This was the event that saw the birth of the OAS as it stands today, with the signature by 21 American countries of the Charter of the Organization of American States on 30 April 1948 (in effect since December 1951). The meeting also adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the world's first general human rights instrument. First Washington, D.C., USA 1889-1890 Second Mexico City, Mexico, 1901-1902 Third Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1906 Fourth Buenos Aires, Argentina 1910 Fifth Santiago, Chile 1923 Sixth Havana, Cuba 1928 Seventh Buenos Aires, Argentina 1933 Eighth Lima, Peru 1938 Ninth Bogotá, Colombia 1948 Tenth Caracas, Venezuela 1954 Categories... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... The Charter of the Organization of the American States (otherwise known the Charter of the OAS) is a Pan-American treaty that sets out the creation of the Organization of American States. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man Place signed Bogotá, Colombia Date signed April 1948 Date entered into force April 1948 Conditions for entry into force Parties The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man was the worlds first international human rights instrument of a...


The transition from the Pan American Union to OAS was smooth. The Director General of the former, Alberto Lleras Camargo, became the Organization's first Secretary General. The current Secretary General is former Chilean foreign minister José Miguel Insulza. According to the Charter of the Organization of American States: The Secretary General shall direct the General Secretariat, be the legal representative thereof, and [...] be responsible to the General Assembly for the proper fulfillment of the obligations and functions of the General Secretariat. ... José Miguel Insulza Secretary General-Elect of the Organization of American States José Miguel Insulza Salinas (born June 2, 1943) is a Chilean socialist politician and Chiles former Interior Minister. ...


Significant milestones in the history of the OAS since the signing of the Charter have included the following:

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or, in Spanish, CIDH) is one of the two bodies that comprise the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights. ... For a Peruvian political party, see Alliance for Progress (Peru). ... American Convention on Human Rights Opened for signature 1969 at San José, Costa Rica Entered into force 18 July 1978 Conditions for entry into force 11 ratifications Parties 24 The American Convention on Human Rights (also known as the Pact of San José) is an International human rights instrument. ... The General Assembly is the supreme decision-making body of the Organization of American States (OAS). ... The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica. ... The Permanent Council is one the two main political bodies of the Organization of American States, the other being the General Assembly. ... Coup redirects here. ... The Summit of the Americas is the name for one of a sequence of summits bringing together the countries of the Americas for discussion of a variety of issues. ... Miami redirects here. ... This article or section needs to be updated. ... The Inter-American Democratic Charter was adopted on 11 September 2001 by a special session of the General Assembly of the Organization of American States, held in Lima, Peru. ...

Goals and purpose

Pan American Union (building)
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
OAS headquarters building in Washington, D.C.
Location: 17th St. between C St. and Constitution Ave., NW.
Washington, D.C.
Architect: Paul P. Cret
Added to NRHP: June 4, 1969
NRHP Reference#: 69000298

In the words of Article 1 of the Charter, the goal of the member nations in creating the OAS was "to achieve an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration, and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, and their independence." Article 2 then defines eight essential purposes: For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... ... ... Paul Philippe Cret (October 24, 1876, Lyon, France – September 8, 1945, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a French-American architect and industrial designer. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...

  • To strengthen the peace and security of the continent.
  • To promote and consolidate representative democracy, with due respect for the principle of nonintervention.
  • To prevent possible causes of difficulties and to ensure the pacific settlement of disputes that may arise among the member states.
  • To provide for common action on the part of those states in the event of aggression.
  • To seek the solution of political, judicial, and economic problems that may arise among them
  • To promote, by cooperative action, their economic, social, and cultural development.
  • To eradicate extreme poverty, which constitutes an obstacle to the full democratic development of the peoples of the hemisphere.
  • To achieve an effective limitation of conventional weapons that will make it possible to devote the largest amount of resources to the economic and social development of the member states.

Over the course of the 1990s, with the end of the Cold War, the return to democracy in Latin America, and the thrust toward globalization, the OAS made major efforts to reinvent itself to fit the new context. Its stated priorities now include the following: For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ...

  • Strengthening democracy: Between 1962 and 2002, the Organization sent multinational observation missions to oversee free and fair elections in the member states on more than 100 occasions. The OAS also works to strengthen national and local government and electoral agencies, to promote democratic practices and values, and to help countries detect and defuse official corruption.
  • Working for peace: Special OAS missions have supported peace processes in Nicaragua, Suriname, Haiti, and Guatemala. The Organization has played a leading part in the removal of landmines deployed in the Americas and it has led negotiations to resolve the continent's remaining border disputes (Guatemala/Belize; Peru/Ecuador). Work is also underway on the construction of a common inter-American counter-terrorism front.
  • Defending human rights: The agencies of the inter-American human rights system provide a venue for the denunciation and resolution of human rights violations in individual cases. They also monitor and report on the general human rights situation in the member states.
  • Fostering free trade: The OAS is one of the three agencies currently engaged in drafting a treaty that will establish a hemispheric free trade area from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego.
  • Fighting the drugs trade: The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission was established in 1986 to coordinate efforts and crossborder cooperation in this area.
  • Promoting sustainable development: The goal of the OAS's Inter-American Council for Integral Development is to promote economic development and combating poverty. OAS technical cooperation programs address such areas as river basin management, the conservation of biodiversity, planning for global climate change, and natural disaster mitigation.

Article 19 of the OAS Charter prohibits any State from interferring with the internal or external affairs of a member state. Article 21 prohibits any State from the military occupation — even temporarily — of a Member State's territory. The Charter subscribes to international law but goes further, saying that Charter rights depend not on power but follow from the existence of the state. The United States is signatory to the OAS Charter, meaning that the U.S. (like other Members) is legally bound by Article 19, 21, and other Charter provisions. {See Membership]. This article or section needs to be updated. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...


General Assembly

  • Thirty-seventh regular session - Panama, Republic of Panama, June 2007.
  • Thirty-sixth regular session - Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - June 2006.
  • Thirty-fifth regular session - Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States of America - June 2005.
  • Thirty-fourth regular session - Quito, Ecuador - June 2004.
  • Thirty-third regular session - Santiago, Chile - June 2003.
  • Thirty-second regular session - Bridgetown, Barbados - June 2002.
  • Thirty-first regular session - San Jose, Costa Rica - June 2001.
  • Thirtieth regular session - Windsor, Canada - June 2000.
  • Twenty-ninth regular session - Guatemala City, Guatemala - June 1999.
  • Twenty-eight regular session - Caracas, Venezuela - June 1998.
  • Twenty-seventh regular session - Lima, Peru - June 1997.
  • Twenty-sixth regular session - Panama, Republic of Panama - June 1996.
  • Twenty-fifth regular session - Montrouis, Haiti - June 1995.
  • Twenty-fourth regular session - Belém do Pará - June 1994.
  • Twenty-third regular session - Managua, Nicaragua - June 1993.
  • Twenty-second regular session - Nassau, The Bahamas - May 1992.
  • Twenty-first regular session - Santiago, Chile - June 1991.
  • Twentieth regular session - Asunción, Paraguay - June 1990.
  • Nineteenth regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - November 1989.
  • Eighteenth regular session - San Salvador, El Salvador - November 1988.
  • Seventeenth regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - November 1987.
  • Sixteenth regular session - Guatemala City, Guatemala - November 1986.
  • Fifteenth regular session - Cartagena de Indias, Colombia - December 1985.
  • Fourteenth regular session - Brasilia, Brazil, November 1984.
  • Thirteenth regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - November 1983.
  • Twelfth regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - November 1982.
  • Eleventh regular session - Castries, Saint Lucia - December 1981.
  • Tenth regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - November 1980.
  • Ninth regular session - La Paz, Bolivia - October 1979.
  • Eighth regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - June 21/July 1st, 1978.
  • Seventh regular session - St. George's, Grenada - June 1977.
  • Sixth regular session - Santiago, Chile - June 1976.
  • Fifth regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - May 1975.
  • Fourth regular session - Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America - April 19/May 1st, 1974.
  • Third regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - April 1973.
  • Second regular session - Washington, D.C., United States of America - April 1972.
  • First regular session - San José, Costa Rica - April 1971.

Membership and adhesions

All 35 independent (excludes French Guiana) nations of the Americas are members of the OAS. Upon foundation on 5 May 1948 there were 21 members: is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Map indicating OAS membership. Founding members are dark green, follow-up members are bright green, and the single suspended member (Cuba) is colored lime.
Map indicating OAS membership. Founding members are dark green, follow-up members are bright green, and the single suspended member (Cuba) is colored lime.

The later expansion of the OAS was mostly among the newly independent nations of the Caribbean. Members with later admission dates (sorted chronologically): Image File history File links Download high resolution version (430x628, 11 KB) Summary Organization of American States (OAS), member status (2005) Licensing Related image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (430x628, 11 KB) Summary Organization of American States (OAS), member status (2005) Licensing Related image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... Lime is a combination of the colors yellow and green, so named because it is the color of limes. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Dominican_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guatemala. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uruguay. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Grenada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Suriname. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Dominica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Lucia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Bahamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_Nevis. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ...

Status of Cuba

Further information: Cuban relations with the Organization of American States

The current government of Cuba is excluded from participation in the Organization under a decision adopted by the Eighth Meeting of Consultation in Punta del Este, Uruguay, on 31 January 1962. The vote was passed by 14 in favor, with one against (Cuba) and six abstentions (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Mexico). The operative part of the resolution reads as follows: The current government of Cuba is excluded from participation in the Organization of American States under a decision adopted by the Eighth Meeting of Consultation in Punta del Este, Uruguay, on 21 January 1962. ... Department Maldonado Department Altitude 0m Coordinates 34º 58S 54º 57W Founded 1907 Population 8,252 (2004) Demonym Puntaesteño Phone Code +042 Postal Code 20100 Skyline of Punta del Este looking from Punta Ballena Image:Sunrise punta ballena 2006 january. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  1. That adherence by any member of the Organization of American States to Marxism-Leninism is incompatible with the inter-American system and the alignment of such a government with the communist bloc breaks the unity and solidarity of the hemisphere.
  2. That the present Government of Cuba, which has officially identified itself as a Marxist-Leninist government, is incompatible with the principles and objectives of the inter-American system.
  3. That this incompatibility excludes the present Government of Cuba from participation in the inter-American system. [1]

This means that the Cuban nation is still technically a member state, but that the current government is denied the right of representation and attendance at meetings and of participation in activities. The OAS's position is that although Cuba's participation is suspended, its obligations under the Charter, the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, etc. still hold: for instance, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights continues to publish reports on Cuba's human rights situation and to hear individual cases involving Cuban nationals. However, this stance is occasionally questioned by other individual member states. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man Place signed Bogotá, Colombia Date signed April 1948 Date entered into force April 1948 Conditions for entry into force Parties The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man was the worlds first international human rights instrument of a... The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or, in Spanish, CIDH) is one of the two bodies that comprise the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights. ...


Cuba's position was stated in an official note sent to the Organization "merely as a courtesy" by Minister of Foreign Affairs Dr. Raúl Roa on 4 November 1964: "Cuba was arbitrarily excluded... The Organization of American States has no juridical, factual, or moral jurisdiction, nor competence, over a state which it has illegally deprived of its rights." [2] Raúl Roa García (b. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


The reincorporation of Cuba as an active member regularly arises as a topic within the inter-American system (e.g., it was intimated by the outgoing ambassador of Mexico in 1998) [3] but most observers do not see it as a serious possibility while the present government remains in power. On 6 May 2005, President Fidel Castro reiterated that the island nation would not "be part of a disgraceful institution that has only humiliated the honor of Latin American nations". [4] It is unclear what will happen after Fidel Castro's retirement and the ascent of his brother Raúl to power. is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of Cuba is the Head of State of Cuba. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... This article is about the Cuban politician. ...


Official languages of the OAS

The Organization's official languages are Spanish, English, Portuguese, and French. The Charter, the basic instrument governing OAS, makes no reference to the use of official languages. These references are to be found in the Rules of Procedure governing the various OAS bodies. Article 51 of the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly,[1] the supreme body of the OAS, which meets once a year, states that English, French, Portuguese and Spanish are the four official languages. Article 28 stipulates that a Style Committee shall be set up with representatives of the four official languages to review the General Assembly resolutions and declarations. Article 53 states that proposals shall be presented in the four official languages. The Rules of Procedure and Statutes of other bodies, such as the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI), the Permanent Executive Committee of the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CEPCIDI), the Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM), the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) and the Inter-American Juridical Committee (CJI), technical bodies of the OAS, also mention the four official languages in which their meetings are to be conducted. Policy is therefore dictated through these instruments that require use of the four official languages at meetings.[2] An official language is a language that is given a unique status in the constitutions of countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or, in Spanish, CIDH) is one of the two bodies that comprise the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights. ...


Although a number of other languages have official status in one or more member states of OAS (Dutch in Suriname, Haitian Creole in Haiti, Quechua and Aymara in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia, Guarani in Paraguay), they are not official languages of the Organization. Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ... Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Guaraní (local name: avañeẽ ) is an Amerindian language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily. ...


References

  1. ^ General Assembly of the OAS, Amendments to the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly, June 5, 2000
  2. ^ Marguerite Groves (Coordinator, Division of Language Services, OAS), Information on the use of language at the OAS: multilingualism, Inter-American Languages Management Seminar, Conseil supérieur de la langue française (Quebec), Quebec City, August 20 to 22, 2002

The Conseil supérieur de la langue française is an organization in a number of French-speaking countries that advises the government on issues relating to the usage of the French language. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...

See also

The Organization of Ibero-American States is an international organisation, comprising Latin America, Spain and Portugal. ... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... The Rio Group is an international organization of Latin American states. ... Found along Virginia Avenue, N.W., in Washington, D.C. Over the past sixty years, statues have been erected on Virginia Avenue, N.W., between 18th and 25th Streets, by various Latin American countries honoring their liberators. ...

External links

[--168. ... For other uses, see Saint Lucia (disambiguation). ... Motto Pax et justitia(Latin) Peace and justice Anthem St Vincent Land So Beautiful Capital (and largest city) Kingstown Official languages English Demonym Vincentian Government (constitutional monarchy)  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Frederick Ballantyne  -  Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves Independence  -  27 October 1979  Area  -  Total 389 km² (201st) 150... Motto Country Above Self Anthem O Land of Beauty! Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Basseterre Official languages English Government  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Cuthbert Sebastian  -  Prime Minister Dr. Denzil Douglas Independence  -  19 September 1983  Area  -  Total 261 km² (207th) 101 sq mi... Download high resolution version (656x651, 77 KB)Image downloaded from the Organization of American States Photo Gallery, which states: All Photos for free distribution Photographs of official events are available through OAS website and can be used, free of charge, as long as the source is acknowledged. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... World empire redirects here. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Anti-nationalism is the idea that nationalism is undesirable or even dangerous in one form or another, and sometimes, though less often, the idea that all nationalism is dangerous and unfavourable in all cases. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Mundialization is the name of one of the movements aiming at democratic globalization. ... In computer security, PaX is a patch for the Linux kernel that implements least privilege protections for memory pages. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... IMF redirects here. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... WTO redirects here. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Pro Tempore Secretariat Brasília Official languages 4 Spanish Portuguese English Dutch Member states 12 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  President Rodrigo Borja  -  Tempore Secretary Jorge Taunay Filho Formation  -  Cuzco Declaration 8 December 2004  Area  -  Total 17,715,335 km² (1st2)  sq... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent and unicameral organism, integrated from the national Parliaments of Latin America, elected democratically by means of universal suffrage in countries that ratified the corresponding Treaty of Institutionalization signed on the 16 November 1987 in Lima, Peru, and those whose States adhered... The Central American Parliament, also know by the abbreviation Parlacen (from the Spanish Parlamento Centroamericano) is a political institution devoted to the integration of the Central American countries. ... The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The African Court of Justice will at some point in the future be merged with the African Court on Human and Peoples Rights and be the African Unions legal organ. ... The Central American Court of Justice was an international court established by five Central American states by a treaty signed December 20, 1907 at Washington, D.C. Categories: Law stubs ... The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is a regional Caribbean-based institution in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organisation Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... World empire redirects here. ... A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations Peoples Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually would allow for direct election of UN delegates by citizens of member states. ... Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... In 2004, a committee of the Australian Senate called for the formation of a Pacific Union to comprise the member-states of the Pacific Islands Forum, but with a common charter, institutions and currency. ... Federal Union is a British group launched in November 1938, to advocate a Federal Union of Europe as a post-war aim. ... The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with member and associated organizations around the globe. ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... World Union is a non-profit, non-political organisation founded on the 26th November 1958 in Pondicherry, inspired by Sri Aurobindos vision of carrying forward a movement for Human Unity, World Peace and Progress on a Spiritual Foundation. ...

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Organization of American States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1685 words)
The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas.
At the Fourth International Conference of American States (Buenos Aires, 1910), the name of the organization was changed to the "Union of American Republics" and the Bureau became the "Pan American Union".
This was the event that saw the birth of the OAS as it stands today, with the signature by 21 American countries of the Charter of the Organization of American States on 30 April 1948 (in effect since December 1951).
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library (7394 words)
The death penalty shall not be reestablished in states that have abolished it.
Any State Party availing itself of the right of suspension shall immediately inform the other States Parties, through the Secretary General of the Organization of American States, of the provisions the application of which it has suspended, the reasons that gave rise to the suspension, and the date set for the termination of such suspension.
A vote of a two-thirds majority of the member states of the Organization shall be required for a decision in the case of members of the Commission and, in the case of judges of the Court, a two-thirds majority vote of the States Parties to the Convention shall also be required.
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