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Encyclopedia > Organization

An organization (or organisation — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word ὄργανον (organon) meaning tool. The term is used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways. Look up organisation, organization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Spelling differences redirects here. ...


In the social sciences, organizations are studied by researchers from several disciplines, the most common of which are sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, and organizational communication. The broad area is commonly referred to as organizational studies, organizational behavior or organization analysis. Therefore, a number of different theories and perspectives exist, some of which are compatible, and others that are competing. Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Organizational Studies (also known as Industrial Organizations, Organizational Behavior and I/O) is a distinct field of academic study which takes as its subject organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ...

  • Organization – process-related: an entity is being (re-)organized (organization as task or action).
  • Organization – functional: organization as a function of how entities like businesses or state authorities are used (organization as a permanent structure).
  • Organization – institutional: an entity is an organization (organization as an actual purposeful structure within a social context)

Contents

This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ...

Organization in sociology

In sociology "organization" is understood as planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings to construct or compile a common tangible or intangible product. This action is usually framed by formal membership and form (institutional rules). Sociology distinguishes the term organization into planned formal and unplanned informal (i.e. spontaneously formed) organizations. Sociology analyses organizations in the first line from an institutional perspective. In this sense, organization is a permanent arrangement of elements. These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated division of labor. Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ...


An organization is defined by the elements that are part of it (who belongs to the organization and who does not?), its communication (which elements communicate and how do they communicate?), its autonomy (Max Weber termed autonomy in this context: Autokephalie)(which changes are executed autonomously by the organization or its elements?) and its rules of action compared to outside events (what causes an organization to act as a collective actor?). For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...


By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organization is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements. The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the degrees of freedom of the elements. Advantages of organizations are enhancement (more of the same), addition (combination of different features), and extension. Disadvantages can be inertness (through co-ordination) and loss of interaction. The phrase degrees of freedom is used in three different branches of science: in physics and physical chemistry, in mechanical and aerospace engineering, and in statistics. ... For other uses, see Interaction (disambiguation). ...


Organization in management and organizational studies

Management is interested in organization mainly from an instrumental point of view. For a company organization is a means to an end to achieve its goals. Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ...


Organization theories

Among the theories that are or have been most influential are:

For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Scientific management, also called Taylorism or the Classical Perspective, is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labour productivity. ... Frederick Winslow Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 to March 21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. ... In the history of the field of organizational development, the Human Relations Movement is the name given to the period following the Hawthorne Studies, where the OD movement found its focus on topics such as social relations, motivation, and employee satisfaction. ... The Hawthorne effect refers to a phenomenon of observing workers behavior or their performance and changing it temporarily. ... Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. ... Henri Fayol (born 1841 in Istanbul; died 1925 in Paris) was a French management theorist. ... Chester Irving Barnard (1886–1961) was a telecommunications executive and author of Functions of the Executive, an influential 20th century management book, in which Barnard presented a theory of organization and the functions of executives in organizations. ... The contingency theory is a leadership theory developed by Fred Fiedler. ... New institutionalism is a social theory that focuses on developing a sociological view of institutions, the way they interact and the effects of institutions on society. ... New institutional economics (NIE) may be characterized as a new perspective in economics. ... Network analysis is the analysis of networks through network theory (or more generally graph theory). ... Economic sociology may be defined as the sociological analysis of economic phenomena. ... Organizational Ecology (also Organizational Demography and the Population Ecology of Organizations) is a theoretical and practical approach in the social sciences that is especially used in organizational studies. ... In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost incurred in making an economic exchange. ... In economics, the principal-agent problem treats the difficulties that arise under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric information when a principal hires an agent. ... Critical management studies (CMS) is a loose but rapidly growing grouping of politically left wing and theoretically innovative approaches to management, business and organisation. ... Complexity Theory has been used extensively in the field of strategic management and organizational studies, sometimes called Complexity strategy or Complex Adaptive Organization on the internet or in popular press. ... In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost incurred in making an economic exchange. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Actor-network theory, often abbreviated as ANT, is a distinctive approach to social theory and research which originated in the field of science studies. ...

Organizational structures

The study of organizations includes a focus on optimizing organizational structure. According to management science, most human organizations fall roughly into four types: // Pre-bureaucratic (entrepreneurial) structures lack standardization of tasks. ... // Pre-bureaucratic (entrepreneurial) structures lack standardization of tasks. ... Management science, or MS, is the discipline of using mathematics, and other analytical methods, to help make better business decisions. ... This article is about modern humans. ...

For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Pyramids or hierarchies

A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads leaders. This arrangement is often associated with bureaucracy. Hierarchies were satirized in The Peter Principle (1969), a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence". A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Leader redirects here. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... For the BBC sitcom, see The Peter Principle (TV series). ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


An extremely rigid, in terms of responsibilities, type of organization is exemplified by Führerprinzip. Adolf Hitler made believe he was the incarnation of the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ...


Committees or juries

These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group, perhaps by voting. The difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are usually assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries legal juries render decisions of guilt, liability and quantify damages; juries are also used in athletic contests, book awards and similar activities. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus amongst local notables. For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice, then adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote (however correctness is defined). The problem is that if the average member is worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better: Staffing is crucial. A Condorcet method is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ...


Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions. The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... 1876 edition Roberts Rules of Order is the informal short title of a book containing rules of order intended to be adopted for use by a deliberative assembly. ...


Staff organization or cross-functional team

A staff helps an expert get all his work done. To this end, a "chief of staff" decides whether an assignment is routine or not. If it's routine, he assigns it to a staff member, who is a sort of junior expert. The chief of staff schedules the routine problems, and checks that they are completed. This article is about work. ... Look up expert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


If a problem is not routine, the chief of staff notices. He passes it to the expert, who solves the problem, and educates the staff – converting the problem into a routine problem.


In a "cross functional team", like an executive committee, the boss has to be a non-expert, because so many kinds of expertise are required.


Organization: Cyclical structure

A theory by put forth by renowned scholar Stephen John has asserted that throughout the cyclical nature of one’s life organizational patterns are key to success. Through various social and political constraints within society one must realize that organizational skills are paramount to success. Stephen John suggests that emphasis needs to be put on areas such as individual/ group processes, functionality, and overall structures of institutions in order to maintain a proper organization. Furthermore, the individuals overall organizational skills are pre-determined by the processes undertaken.


Matrix organization

See also: matrix management

This organizational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organization is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field. The other direction is "executive" and tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organized by regions, customer types, or some other schema. matrix management Matrix management is a type of organizational management in which people with similar skills are pooled for work assignments. ...


Ecologies

This organization has intense competition. Bad parts of the organization starve. Good ones get more work. Everybody is paid for what they actually do, and runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Companies who utilize this organization type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology. It is also the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not in general compete with one another in any way, but are very autonomous. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organization in this external article from The Guardian. A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biological, and healthcare company. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...


"Chaordic" organizations

The chaordic model of organizing human endeavors emerged in the 1990s, based on a blending of chaos and order (hence "chaordic"), comes out of the work of Dee Hock and the creation of the VISA financial network. Blending democracy, complex system, consensus decision making, co-operation and competition, the chaordic approach attempts to encourage organizations to evolve from the increasingly nonviable hierarchical, command-and-control models. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For other uses, see Chaos (disambiguation). ... Dee Hock is the founder and former CEO of the VISA credit card association. ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ... Consensus decision-making is a decision process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. ... Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ...


Similarly, emergent organizations, and the principle of self-organization. See also group entity for an anarchist perspective on human organizations. The term emergent organizations (alternatively emergent organisations) first appeared in the late 1990s and was the topic of the Seventh Annual Washington Evolutionary Systems Conference at University of Ghent, Belgium in May, 1999. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... In anarchist discourse, a group-entity is usually distinguished from an individual hominid, or animal groups from a single living being of any sexual species. ... Anarchist redirects here. ...


Organizations that are legal entities: government, international organization, non-governmental organization, armed forces, corporation, partnership, charity, not-for-profit corporation, cooperative, university. For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... NGO redirects here. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nonprofit. ... For other uses, see Coop. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


Hybrid organizations

A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. As a result the hybrid organization becomes a mixture of both a part of government and a private corporation. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...


See also

The anti-war affinity group Collateral Damage. All seven were convicted on December 4, 2002 of 2nd Degree Criminal Trespass for occupying the office of Senator Allard in protest of the war in Iraq An affinity group is a small group of activists (usually from 3-20) who work together... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Business organizations is an area of law that covers the broad array of rules governing the formation and operation of different kinds of entities by which individuals can organize to do business. ... A charitable trust is a trust established for charitable purposes. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Collective can also refer to the collective pitch flight control in helicopters A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. ... For other uses, see Coop. ... A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... A mutual organization (or society) is a cooperative organization (which is often, but not always, a company or business) based on the principle of mutuality. ... NGO redirects here. ... Organizational culture, or corporate culture, comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. ... Organization design involves the creation of roles, processes, and formal reporting relationships in an organization. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The field of organization development (OD) has had several definitions. ... Organizational Studies (also known as Industrial Organizations, Organizational Behavior and I/O) is a distinct field of academic study which takes as its subject organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... A Pacifist organisation promotes the pacifist principles of standing against war and aggression. ... In organizational development (OD), the concept of requisite organization was developed by Elliott Jaques, PhD, MD. Requisite organization is a unified whole system model for effective managerial leadership. ... A Service club is a type of voluntary organization where members meet regularly for social outings and to perform charitable works either by direct hands-on efforts or by raising money for other organisations. ... Size (the number of people involved) is an important characteristic of the groups, organizations, and communities in which social behavior occurs. ... Strategic management is the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its objectives[1]. It is the process of specifying the organizations objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources to implement the policies... Strategic planning is an organizations process SCREW YOU, RILEY of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. ... A supraorganization is an organization whose members are organizations rather than individuals. ... A terrorist organisation is an organisation that engages in terrorist tactics, they are also (perhaps more neutrally) referred to as militant organisations. ... A Virtual Organization is an organization existing as a corporate, not-for-profit, educational, or otherwise productive entity that does not have a central geographical location and exists solely through telecommunication tools. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called an unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ...

Related lists

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... This is a list of trade unions and union federations by country. ... International General Civitan Jaycees (Junior Chamber of Commerce) Kiwanis Lions Clubs International Optimist International Red Cross Rotary International Ruritan Samaritans Woodsmen of the World Masonry Freemasonry Scottish Rite York Rite Shriners Masonic Youth Organizations Fraternal Forestry Ancient Order of Foresters Ancient Order of United Workmen Independent Order of Foresters Australia...

References

  • Richard Scott. Organizations. ISBN 0-13-266354-6
  • Richard Scott. Organizations and Institutions
  • Charles Handy.Understanding Organizations
  • Laurence J. Peter and Raymond Hull. The Peter Principle Pan Books 1970 ISBN 0-330-02519-8
  • Ronald Coase (1937). "The Nature of the Firm" Economica, 4(16), pp. 386-405.
  • Julie Morgenstern (1998). Organizing from the Inside Out. Owl Books ISBN 0-8050-5649-1
  • Henry Mintzberg (l98l). "Organization Design: Fashion or Fit" Harvard Business Review (January February),
  • Thomas Marshak (1987). "organization theory," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 3, pp. 757-60.

Ronald Harry Coase (b. ... Ronald Harry Coase (b. ...

External links

  • Research on Organizations: Bibliography Database and Maps
  • TheTransitioner.org: a site dedicated to collective intelligence and structure of organizations

  Results from FactBites:
 
organization: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com (2908 words)
Organizations have grown tremendously in size in the twentieth century and are found in all parts of the private and public sectors.
The first of the pregenital organizations leave it in the sadistic-anal organization, in which it is not the component genital tendencies that come to the fore but rather the sadistic and anal tendencies.
In opposition to these infantile sexual organizations, genital organization is characterized by the fact that it is definitively constituted after puberty and all the component instincts are subordinated to the primacy of the genital organs and the goal of procreation.
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