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Encyclopedia > Organism
Life on Earth
Fossil range: Late Hadean - Recent
These Escherichia coli cells provide an example of a prokaryotic microorganism
These Escherichia coli cells provide an example of a prokaryotic microorganism
Scientific classification
(unranked) Life on Earth (Gaeabionta)
Domains and Kingdoms
An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus
An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus

In biology, an organism (from Greek οργανισμός - organismos, from Ancient Greek όργανον - organon "organ, instrument, tool") is an individual living system (such as animal, plant, fungus or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of reacting to stimuli, reproduction, growth and maintenance as a stable whole (after FAO[1]). An organism may be unicellular or made up, like humans, of many billions of cells divided into specialized tissues and organs. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The name Hadean refers to the geologic period before 3800 million years ago (mya). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x861, 165 KB)Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... A nanobe Nanobes are tiny filamental structures first found in some rocks and sediments. ... In the physical sciences, non-life is an umbrella term set to distinguish or characterize those inanimate chemical precursors found in the primeval soup of the early years of planetary evolution from which life, theoretically, evolved or came into existence. ... Non-cellular life is life that exists without cells. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... In phylogenetics, a taxon is polyphyletic (Greek for of many races) if the trait its members have in common evolved separately in different places in the phylogenetic tree. ... In the physical sciences, non-life is an umbrella term set to distinguish or characterize those inanimate chemical precursors found in the primeval soup of the early years of planetary evolution from which life, theoretically, evolved or came into existence. ... Cellular life is life with cells. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... Domains Domain Archaea Domain Eukaryota Neomura is the hypothetical ancestor of the two domains of Archaea and Eukaryota. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Supergroups Apusozoa Cabozoa    Rhizaria    Excavata Corticata    Archaeplastida    Chromalveolata A Bikont is a eukaryotic cell with two flagella, developed by a unique pathway. ... Orders Apusomonadida Ancyromonadida Hemimastigida The Apusozoa comprise several genera of flagellate protozoa. ... Phyla Cercozoa Foraminifera Radiolaria The Rhizaria are a major line of protists. ... This article is about the protist group called excavates. ... The Archaeplastida are a major line of eukaryotes, comprising the land plants, green and red algae, and a small group called the glaucophytes. ... Red algae Classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae The red algae are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Possible classes Glaucocystis Cyanophora Gloeochaete The glaucophytes (Glaucophyta Skuja), also referred to as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a tiny group of freshwater algae. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes. ... Orders Class Pavlovophyceae    Pavlovales Class Prymnesiophyceae    Prymnesiales    Phaeocystales    Isochrysidales    Coccolithales The haptophytes, classed either as the Prymnesiophyta or Haptophyta, are a group of algae. ... Typical genera Campylomonas Chilomonas Chroomonas Cryptomonas Falcomonas Geminigera Goniomonas Guillardia Hemiselmis Plagioselmis Proteomonas Storeatula Rhodomonas Teleaulax The cryptomonads are a small group of flagellates, most of which have chloroplasts. ... The alveolates are a major line of protists. ... Supergroups Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Unikont is a eukaryotic cell with a single flagellum, at least ancestrally. ... Subgroups Mycetozoa(slime moulds) Archamoebae    Pelobiontida    Entamoebida Gymnamoebia Various others The Amoebozoa are a major group of amoeboid protozoa, including the majority that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow. ... Subgroups Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Fungi Choanozoa Choanoflagellates Corallochytrids Mesomycetozoea Nucleariids The opisthokonts (Greek: (opisthō-) = rear, posterior + (kontos) = pole i. ... Classes Choanoflagellatea Corallochytrids Mesomycetozoea Nucleariids Choanozoa (Greek: (choanos) = funnel + (zōon) = animal) is the name of a phylum of protists that belongs to the line of opisthokonts. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented... Image File history File linksMetadata Ericoid_mycorrhizal_fungus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ericoid_mycorrhizal_fungus. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... This article is about the television documentary series For the article on Earths life see Organism. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... This article is about life in general. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... A biological tissue is a group of biological cells that perform a similar function. ... An organ is the following: In anatomy, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ...


Based on cell type, organisms may be divided into the prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups. The prokaryotes are generally considered to represent two separate domains, called the Bacteria and Archaea, which are not closer to one another than to the eukaryotes. The gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is widely considered a major missing link in evolutionary history. Eukaryotic organisms, with a membrane-bounded cell nucleus, also contain organelles, namely mitochondria and (in plants) plastids, generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. A similar symbiogenesis hypothesis has been proposed involving the origins of the cell nucleus, it is described as viral eukaryogenesis. Fungi, animals and plants are examples of species that are eukaryotes.
More recently a clade, Neomura, has been proposed, by Thomas Cavalier-Smith, which groups together the Archaea and Eukarya. Cavalier-Smith also proposed that the Neomura evolved from Bacteria, more precisely from Actinobacteria[citation needed]. Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... The evolutionary history of life and the origin of life are fields of ongoing geological and biological research. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... The endosymbiotic theory concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ... Symbiogenesis refers to the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... u fuck in ua ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Domains Domain Archaea Domain Eukaryota Neomura is the hypothetical ancestor of the two domains of Archaea and Eukaryota. ... Thomas Cavalier-Smith is a professor of evolutionary biology at the University of Oxford, and is winner of the International Prize for Biology 2004 and one of the most notable researchers concerning the relationships, development, and classification of living things. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ...


The phrase complex organism describes any organism with more than one cell. Wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...

Contents

Semantics

The word "organism" may broadly be defined as an assembly of molecules that function as a more or less stable whole and has the properties of life. However, many sources, lexical and scientific, add conditions that are problematic to defining the word.


The Oxford English Dictionary defines an organism as "[an] individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form"[2] This definition problematically excludes non-animal and plant multi-cellular life forms such as some fungi and protista. Less controversially, perhaps, it excludes viruses and theoretically-possible man-made non-organic life forms. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Lifeform is the physical entity which encompasses a life. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Alternative biochemistry is the speculative biochemistry of alien life forms that differ radically from those on Earth. ...


Chambers Online Reference provides a much broader definition: "any living structure, such as a plant, animal, fungus or bacterium, capable of growth and reproduction"[3]. The definition "any life form capable of independent reproduction, organic or otherwise" would encompass all cellular life, as well as the possibility of synthetic life capable of independent reproduction, but would exclude viruses, which are dependent on the biochemical machinery of a host cell for reproduction. Some may use a definition that would also include viruses.[citation needed] The ninth edition of the Chambers Dictionary of the English language was published in 2003 by Chambers Harrap. ... This article is about life in general. ... Biological matter or biological material refers to the unique, highly organized substances of which cellular life is composed of, for instance membranes, proteins, and nucleic acids. ...


In multicellular life the word "organism" usually describes the whole hierarchical assemblage of systems (for example circulatory, digestive, or reproductive) themselves collections of organs; these are, in turn, collections of tissues, which are themselves made of cells. In some multicellular organisms, including plants, and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, individual cells may remain capable of independent reproduction and of differentiating into a new multicellular organism. Such cells are said to be totipotent. For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Totipotency is the ability of a single cell, usually a stem cell, to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembrionic tissues. ...

A polypores mushroom has parasitic relationship with this Birch Tree
A polypores mushroom has parasitic relationship with this Birch Tree
Herpes simplex virus
Herpes simplex virus

ImageMetadata File history File links Fungi_in_Borneo. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Fungi_in_Borneo. ... Polypores are a group of tough, leathery poroid mushrooms similar to boletes, but typically lacking a distinct stalk. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... Species many species see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... Image File history File links Herpes_simpex_virus. ... Image File history File links Herpes_simpex_virus. ...

Viruses

Viruses are not typically considered to be organisms because they are incapable of "independent" reproduction or metabolism. This controversy is problematic, though, since some parasites and endosymbionts are also incapable of independent life. Although viruses have enzymes and molecules characteristic of living organisms, they are incapable of reproducing outside a host cell and most of their metabolic processes require a host and its 'genetic machinery.' This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the...


Superorganism

Main article: Superorganism

A superorganism is an organism consisting of many organisms. This is usually meant to be a social unit of eusocial animals, where division of labour is highly specialized and where individuals are not able to survive by themselves for extended periods of time. Ants are the most well known example of such a superorganism. Thermoregulation, a feature usually exhibited by individual organisms, does not occur in individuals or small groups of honeybees of the species Apis mellifera. When these bees pack together in clusters of between 5000 and 40000, the colony can thermoregulate.[4] James Lovelock, with his "Gaia Theory" has paralleled the work of Vladimir Vernadsky, who suggested the whole of the biosphere in some respects can be considered as a superorganism. A group of organisms, such as an insect colony, that functions as a social unit. ... The former Weights and Measures office in Middlesex, England. ... Meat Eater ant colony swarming Fire ants Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialization found in some animals. ... Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Binomial name Apis mellifera The species called Western honeybees (Apis mellifera) are honeybees comprised of several subspecies or races. ... Dr. James Ephraim Lovelock, CH, CBE, FRS (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, author, researcher, environmentalist, and futurologist who lives in Cornwall, in the south west of Great Britain. ... A Gaia theory is a class of scientific models of the biosphere in which life fosters and maintains suitable conditions for itself by affecting Earths environment. ... Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Володимир Іванович Вернадський/Владимир Иванович Вернадский) (March 12 [O.S. February 28] 1863 - January 6, 1945) was a Ukrainian-Russian mineralogist and geochemist whose ideas of noosphere were an important contribution to the Russian cosmism. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...

A sea sponge is a very simple type of multicellular organism
A sea sponge is a very simple type of multicellular organism

The concept of superorganism is under dispute, as many biologists maintain that in order for a social unit to be considered an organism by itself, the individuals should be in permanent physical connection to each other, and its evolution should be governed by selection to the whole society instead of individuals. While it's generally accepted that the society of eusocial animals is a unit of natural selection to at least some extent, most evolutionists claim that the individuals are still the primary units of selection. Download high resolution version (835x1214, 364 KB)An orange Elephant Ear sponge (Agelas clathrodes) at the Florida Keys National Maritime Sanctuary. ... Download high resolution version (835x1214, 364 KB)An orange Elephant Ear sponge (Agelas clathrodes) at the Florida Keys National Maritime Sanctuary. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ...


The question remains "What is to be considered the individual?". Darwinians like Richard Dawkins suggest that the individual selected is the "Selfish Gene". Others believe it is the whole genome of an organism. E.O. Wilson has shown that with ant-colonies and other social insects it is the breeding entity of the colony that is selected, and not its individual members. This could apply to the bacterial members of a stromatolite, which, because of genetic sharing, in some way comprise a single gene pool. Gaian theorists like Lynn Margulis would argue this applies equally to the symbiogenesis of the bacterial underpinnings of the whole of the Earth. Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Selfish Gene is a controversial book by Richard Dawkins published in 1976. ... E.O. Wilson with Dynastes hercules E. O. Wilson, or Edward Osborne Wilson, (born June 10, 1929) is an entomologist and biologist known for his work on ecology, evolution, and sociobiology. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Lynn Margulis Dr. Lynn Margulis (born March 15, 1938) is a biologist and University Professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. ... Symbiogenesis refers to the merging of two separate organisms to form a single new organism. ...


It would appear, from computer simulations like Daisyworld that biological selection occurs at multiple levels simultaneously. This article is about the general term. ... Daisyworld, a computer simulation, is a hypothetical world orbiting a sun whose temperature is slowly increasing in the simulation. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


It is also argued that humans are actually a superorganism that includes microorganisms such as bacteria. It is estimated that "the human intestinal microbiota is composed of 1013 to 1014 microorganisms whose collective genome ("microbiome") contains at least 100 times as many genes as our own[...] Our microbiome has significantly enriched metabolism of glycans, amino acids, and xenobiotics; methanogenesis; and 2-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway–mediated biosynthesis of vitamins and isoprenoids. Thus, humans are superorganisms whose metabolism represents an amalgamation of microbial and human attributes." [5]. An NIH-coordinated and -funded effort is currently in progress to characterize the human microbiome. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A xenobiotic is a chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. ... Methanogenesis is the formation of methane by microbes. ... The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are a class of naturally occurring chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Organizational terminology

All organisms are classified by the science of alpha taxonomy into either taxa or clades. Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ...


Taxa are ranked groups of organisms which run from the general (domain) to the specific (species). A broad scheme of ranks in hierarchical order is: In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

To give an example, Homo sapiens is the Latin binomial equating to modern humans. All members of the species sapiens are, at least in theory, genetically able to interbreed. Several species may belong to a genus, but the members of different species within a genus are unable to interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Homo, however, only has one surviving species (sapiens); Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, &c. having become extinct thousands of years ago. Several genera belong to the same family and so on up the hierarchy. Eventually, the relevant kingdom (Animalia, in the case of humans) is placed into one of the three domains depending upon certain genetic and structural characteristics. In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... In biological taxonomy, a phylum (Greek plural: phyla) is a taxon in the rank below kingdom and above class. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Phyla Subkingdom Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subkingdom Agnotozoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Subkingdom Metazoa Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented...


All living organisms known to science are given classification by this system such that the species within a particular family are more closely related and genetically similar than the species within a particular phylum.

A crab is an example of an organism.
A crab is an example of an organism.

Download high resolution version (1454x1091, 200 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1454x1091, 200 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ...

Chemistry

Organisms are complex chemical systems, organized in ways that promote reproduction and some measure of sustainability or survival. The molecular phenomena of chemistry are fundamental in understanding organisms, but it is a philosophical error (reductionism) to reduce organismal biology to mere chemistry. It is generally the phenomena of entire organisms that determine their fitness to an environment and therefore the survivability of their DNA based genes.


Organisms clearly owe their origin, metabolism, and many other internal functions to chemical phenomena, especially the chemistry of large organic molecules. Organisms are complex systems of chemical compounds which, through interaction with each other and the environment, play a wide variety of roles. Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Organisms are semi-closed chemical systems. Although they are individual units of life (as the definition requires) they are not closed to the environment around them. To operate they constantly take in and release energy. Autotrophs produce usable energy (in the form of organic compounds) using light from the sun or inorganic compounds while heterotrophs take in organic compounds from the environment. Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ...


The primary chemical element in these compounds is carbon. The physical properties of this element such as its great affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and its small size makes it capable of forming multiple bonds, make it ideal as the basis of organic life. It is able to form small compounds containing three atoms (such as carbon dioxide) as well as large chains of many thousands of atoms which are able to store data (nucleic acids), hold cells together and transmit information (protein). The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Macromolecules

The compounds which make up organisms may be divided into macromolecules and other, smaller molecules. The four groups of macromolecule are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Nucleic acids (specifically deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA) store genetic data as a sequence of nucleotides. The particular sequence of the four different types of nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) dictate the many characteristics which constitute the organism. The sequence is divided up into codons, each of which is a particular sequence of three nucleotides and corresponds to a particular amino acid. Thus a sequence of DNA codes for a particular protein which, due to the chemical properties of the amino acids of which it is made, folds in a particular manner and so performs a particular function. Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Some common lipids. ... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... RNA codons. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Protein before and after folding. ...


The following functions of protein have been recognized:

  1. Enzymes, which catalyze all of the reactions of metabolism;
  2. Structural proteins, such as tubulin, or collagen;
  3. Regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors or cyclins that regulate the cell cycle;
  4. Signaling molecules or their receptors such as some hormones and their receptors;
  5. Defensive proteins, which can include everything from antibodies of the immune system, to toxins (e.g., dendrotoxins of snakes), to proteins that include unusual amino acids like canavanine.

Lipids make up the membrane of cells which constitutes a barrier, containing everything within the cell and preventing compounds from freely passing into, and out of, the cell. In some multi-cellular organisms they serve to store energy and mediate communication between cells. Carbohydrates also store and transport energy in some organisms, but are more easily broken down than lipids. Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Tubulin is the protein which makes up microtubules. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... In the context of genetics, a transcription factor is a regulatory protein that initiates the transcription of certain genes upon binding with DNA. The binding of a transcription factor to a specific DNA sequence can result in either an increased rate of transcription of the gene, known as activated transcription... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Dendrotoxins are a class of neurotoxins produced by mamba snakes that block potassium channels thereby enhancing the release of acetylcholine. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... A diagonal molecular slab from the DPPC lipid bilayer simulation1; color scheme: PO4 - green, N(CH3)3 - violet, water - blue, terminal CH3 - yellow, O - red, glycol C - brown, chain C - grey. ...


Structure

All organisms consist of monomeric units called cells; some contain a single cell (unicellular) and others contain many units (multicellular). Multicellular organisms are able to specialize cells to perform specific functions, a group of such cells is tissue the four basic types of which are epithelium, nervous tissue, muscle tissue and connective tissue. Several types of tissue work together in the form of an organ to produce a particular function (such as the pumping of the blood by the heart, or as a barrier to the environment as the skin). This pattern continues to a higher level with several organs functioning as an organ system to allow for reproduction, digestion, &c. Many multicelled organisms comprise of several organ systems which coordinate to allow for life. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... Nervous tissue is the fourth major class of vertebrate tissue. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... In biology, an organ is a group of tissues which perform some function. ... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ...


The cell

The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Schleiden and Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; all cells come from preexisting cells; all vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. A prokaryote, a simple cell Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in all living things. ... Die Entwickelung der Meduse (The Development of the Medusas), in Schleidens Das Meer Matthias Jakob Schleiden (April 5, 1804 - June 23, 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory. ... Theodore Schwann Theodor Schwann (December 7, 1810 in Neuss, Prussia - January 11, 1882, in Cologne) was a German physiologist, histologist and cytologist. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


There are two types of cells, eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are usually singletons, while eukaryotic cells are usually found in multi-cellular organisms. Prokaryotic cells lack a nuclear membrane so DNA is unbound within the cell, eukaryotic cells have nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope refers to the double membrane of the nucleus that encloses genetic material in eukaryotic cells. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic, have a membrane, which envelopes the cell, separates its interior from its environment, regulates what moves in and out, and maintains the electric potential of the cell. Inside the membrane, a salty cytoplasm takes up most of the cell volume. All cells possess DNA, the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymes, the cell's primary machinery. There are also other kinds of biomolecules in cells. Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biological cells that are electrically at rest, the cytosol possesses a uniform electric potential or voltage compared to the extracellular solution. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


All cells share several abilities[6]:

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binary fission Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This fluid lipid bilayer cross section is made up entirely of phosphatidylcholine. ...

Life span

One of the basic parameters of organism is its life span. Some organisms live as short as one day, while some plants can live thousands of years. Aging is important when determining life span of most organisms, bacterium, a virus or even a prion. Life span is one of the most important parameters of any living organism. ... In biology, senescence is the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism. ... For the bird, see Prion (bird). ...


Evolution

See also: Common descent and Origin of life
A hypothetical phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Originally proposed by Carl Woese.
A hypothetical phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Originally proposed by Carl Woese.

In biology, the theory of universal common descent proposes that all organisms on Earth are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool. A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ... For the definition, see Life. ... Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... Image File history File links Phylogenetic_tree. ... Fig. ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ...


Evidence for common descent may be found in traits shared between all living organisms. In Darwin's day, the evidence of shared traits was based solely on visible observation of morphologic similarities, such as the fact that all birds have wings, even those which do not fly. Today, there is strong evidence from genetics that all organisms have a common ancestor. For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as the building blocks for proteins. The universality of these traits strongly suggests common ancestry. Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


The "Last Universal Ancestor" is the name given to the hypothetical single cellular organism or single cell that gave rise to all life on Earth 3.9 to 4.1 billion years ago; however, this hypothesis has since been refuted on many grounds. For example, it was once thought that the genetic code was universal (see: universal genetic code), but differences in the genetic code and differences in how each organism translates nucleic acid sequences into proteins, provide support that there never was any "last universal common ancestor." Back in the early 1970s, evolutionary biologists thought that a given piece of DNA specified the same protein subunit in every living thing, and that the genetic code was thus universal. Since this is something unlikely to happen by chance, it was interpreted as evidence that every organism had inherited its genetic code from a single common ancestor, aka., the "Last Universal Ancestor." In 1979, however, exceptions to the code were found in mitochondria, the tiny energy factories inside cells. Biologists subsequently found exceptions in bacteria and in the nuclei of algae and single-celled animals. It is now clear that the genetic code is not the same in all living things, and that it does not provide powerful evidence that all living things evolved on a single tree of life.[7] Further support that there is no "Last Universal Ancestor" has been provided over the years by Lateral gene transfer in both prokaryote and eukaryote single cell organisms. This is why phylogenetic trees cannot be rooted, why almost all phylogenetic trees have different branching structures, particularly near the base of the tree, and why many organisms have been found with codons and sections of their DNA sequence that are unrelated to any other species. A hypothesis (= assumption in ancient Greek) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... The term Universal Genetic Code, or Universal Code, is an old-fashioned name for the standard genetic code. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a double protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... To inherit something is to get it from ones ancestors. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... A phylogenetic tree is a tree showing the evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor. ... RNA codons. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine...


Information about the early development of life includes input from the fields of geology and planetary science. These sciences provide information about the history of the Earth and the changes produced by life. However, a great deal of information about the early Earth has been destroyed by geological processes over the course of time.
Planetary science, also known as planetology or planetary astronomy, is the science of planets, or planetary systems, and the solar system. ...


History of life

Main article: Timeline of evolution

The chemical evolution from self-catalytic chemical reactions to life (see Origin of life) is not a part of biological evolution, but it is unclear at which point such increasingly complex sets of reactions became what we would consider, today, to be living organisms. Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... Chemical evolution has two meanings and uses. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... This article is about life in general. ... For the definition, see Life. ...

Precambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. In 2002, William Schopf of UCLA published a controversial paper in the journal Nature arguing that formations such as this possess 3.5 billion year old fossilized algae microbes. If true, they would be the earliest known life on earth.
Precambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. In 2002, William Schopf of UCLA published a controversial paper in the journal Nature arguing that formations such as this possess 3.5 billion year old fossilized algae microbes. If true, they would be the earliest known life on earth.

Not much is known about the earliest developments in life. However, all existing organisms share certain traits, including cellular structure and genetic code. Most scientists interpret this to mean all existing organisms share a common ancestor, which had already developed the most fundamental cellular processes, but there is no scientific consensus on the relationship of the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota) or the origin of life. Attempts to shed light on the earliest history of life generally focus on the behavior of macromolecules, particularly RNA, and the behavior of complex systems. |Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park File links The following pages link to this file: Evolution Origin of life Panspermia Stromatolite ... |Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park File links The following pages link to this file: Evolution Origin of life Panspermia Stromatolite ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... For the non-adjoining national park by the same name in British Columbia, see Glacier National Park (Canada). ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (pronounced ) are a group of prokaryotic and single-celled microorganisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... For the definition, see Life. ... Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... There are many definitions of complexity, therefore many natural, artificial and abstract objects or networks can be considered to be complex systems, and their study (complexity science) is highly interdisciplinary. ...


The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis (around 3 billion years ago) and the subsequent emergence of an oxygen-rich, non-reducing atmosphere can be traced through the formation of banded iron deposits, and later red beds of iron oxides. This was a necessary prerequisite for the development of aerobic cellular respiration, believed to have emerged around 2 billion years ago. Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... 2. ... Red beds are strata of sedimentary rock that are red due to the presence of iron oxides. ... This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ...


In the last billion years, simple multicellular plants and animals began to appear in the oceans. Soon after the emergence of the first animals, the Cambrian explosion (a period of unrivaled and remarkable, but brief, organismal diversity documented in the fossils found at the Burgess Shale) saw the creation of all the major body plans, or phyla, of modern animals. This event is now believed to have been triggered by the development of the Hox genes. About 500 million years ago, plants and fungi colonized the land, and were soon followed by arthropods and other animals, leading to the development of land ecosystems with which we are familiar. The Cambrian explosion is the geologically kukko sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ... Hallucigenia sparsa, one of the organisms unique to the Burgess Shale. ... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ...


The evolutionary process may be exceedingly slow. Fossil evidence indicates that the diversity and complexity of modern life has developed over much of the history of the earth. Geological evidence indicates that the Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. Studies on guppies by David Reznick at the University of California, Riverside, however, have shown that the rate of evolution through natural selection can proceed 10 thousand to 10 million times faster than what is indicated in the fossil record.[8]. Such comparative studies however are invariably biased by disparities in the time scales over which evolutionary change is measured in the laboratory, field experiments, and the fossil record. Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Earth as seen from Apollo 17 Modern geologists consider the age of the Earth to be around 4. ...


Horizontal gene transfer, and the history of life

The ancestry of living organisms has traditionally been reconstructed from morphology, but is increasingly supplemented with phylogenetics - the reconstruction of phylogenies by the comparison of genetic (DNA) sequence.


"Sequence comparisons suggest recent horizontal transfer of many genes among diverse species including across the boundaries of phylogenetic 'domains'. Thus determining the phylogenetic history of a species can not be done conclusively by determining evolutionary trees for single genes." [9] Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ...


Biologist Gogarten suggests "the original metaphor of a tree no longer fits the data from recent genome research", therefore "biologists [should] use the metaphor of a mosaic to describe the different histories combined in individual genomes and use [the] metaphor of a net to visualize the rich exchange and cooperative effects of HGT among microbes." [10]


References

  1. ^ http://www.fao.org/biotech/find-formalpha-n.asp
  2. ^ "organism". Oxford English Dictionary (online). (2004). 
  3. ^ "organism". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary (online). (1999). 
  4. ^ Southwick, Edward E. (1983). "The honey bee cluster as a homeothermic superorganism" (PDF). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 75A (4): 741–745. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(83)90434-6. Retrieved on 2006-07-20. 
  5. ^ Gill S. R., et al. Science, 312, 1355-1359 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1124234
  6. ^ The Universal Features of Cells on Earth in Chapter 1 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by Bruce Alberts (2002) published by Garland Science.
  7. ^ Edwards, Mark (2001). "PBS Charged with "False Claim" on "Universal Genetic Code.". Science, TV Review, & Education Writers. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 
  8. ^ Evaluation of the Rate of Evolution in Natural Populations of Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) "[1]"
  9. ^ Oklahoma State - Horizontal Gene Transfer
  10. ^ esalenctr.org

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • BBCNews: 27 September, 2000, When slime is not so thick Citat: "...It means that some of the lowliest creatures in the plant and animal kingdoms, such as slime and amoeba, may not be as primitive as once thought...."
  • BBCNews, 18 December, 2002, 'Space bugs' grown in lab Citat: "...Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri...Engyodontium album...The strains cultured by Dr Wainwright seemed to be resistant to the effects of UV - one quality required for survival in space...."
  • BBCNews, 19 June, 2003, Ancient organism challenges cell evolution Citat: "..."It appears that this organelle has been conserved in evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, since it is present in both,"..."
  • Interactive Syllabus for General Biology - BI 04, Saint Anselm College, Summer 2003
  • Jacob Feldman: Stramenopila
  • NCBI Taxonomy entry: root (rich)
  • Saint Anselm College: Survey of representatives of the major Kingdoms Citat: "...Number of kingdoms has not been resolved...Bacteria present a problem with their diversity...Protista present a problem with their diversity...",
  • Species 2000 Indexing the world's known species. Species 2000 has the objective of enumerating all known species of plants, animals, fungi and microbes on Earth as the baseline dataset for studies of global biodiversity. It will also provide a simple access point enabling users to link from here to other data systems for all groups of organisms, using direct species-links.
  • The largest organism in the world may be a fungus carpeting nearly 10 square kilometers of an Oregon forest, and may be as old as 10500 years.
  • The Tree of Life.
  • Frequent questions from kids about life and their answers
The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... An example of a system: The nervous system. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... Elementary particles An elementary particle is a particle with no measurable internal structure, that is, it is not a composite of other particles. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dr. Blob's Organism - Info (373 words)
Blob's Organism is a lightning-fast shooter game where players blast feisty one-celled organisms as they try to escape from a petri dish.
Blob's Organism was inspired by John Conway's LIFE.
Blob's Organism uses SDL and SDL_mixer dynamically linked libraries, which are released under free LGPL license: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.html.
US FDA/CFSAN - Bad Bug Book - Giardia lamblia (1163 words)
Giardia lamblia is frequently diagnosed by visualizing the organism, either the trophozoite (active reproducing form) or the cyst (the resting stage that is resistant to adverse environmental conditions) in stained preparations or unstained wet mounts with the aid of a microscope.
Organisms may be concentrated by sedimentation or flotation; however, these procedures reduce the number of recognizable organisms in the sample.
This organism is implicated in 25% of the cases of gastrointestinal disease and may be present asymptomatically.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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