FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Organisation" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Organisation
Alternative meaning: Organisation (band).

An organisation (Commonwealth English) or organization (American English, and Oxford English) is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. This topic is a broad one. Organisation was an experimental Krautrock band, that was the predecessor of Kraftwerk. ... Commonwealth English is intended as a collective term for the perceived standard English language used in the Commonwealth of Nations1, applying in theory to Australian English, British English, Caribbean English, Canadian English, Hiberno-English (Irish English)2, Hong Kong English3, Indian English (includes Pakistani English), formal Malaysia English, New Zealand... American English (AmE) is the form of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ...


Organisations are studied by researchers from several disciplines: sociology, economics, political science, psychology, engineering, etc. The area is commonly referred to as organisation theory, organisational behaviour or organisation analysis. it however consists of a number of different theories and perspectives, some of which are compatible and others that are competing. Among those that are or have been most influential are: Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... U.S. Economic Calendar Economics at the Open Directory Project Economics textbooks on Wikibooks The Economists Economics A-Z Institutions and organizations Bureau of Labor Statistics - from the American Labor Department Center for Economic and Policy Research (USA) National Bureau of Economic Research (USA) - Economics material from the organization... Political science is a social science discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos/-ology = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of mind and behavior. ... Engineering applies scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... Organisational behaviour is the study of what people think, feel and do in and around organisations. ...

  • Weberian organisation theory (referring to Max Weber's chapter on Bureaucracy in his book 'Economy and Society'
  • Marxist organisation analysis
  • Scientific Management (mainly following Frederick W Taylor)
  • Human Relations Studies (going back to the Hawthorne studies, Maslow and Hertzberg)
  • Administrative theories (with work by e.g. Henri Fayol and Chester Barnard)
  • Contingency theory
  • New institutionalism and new institutional economics
  • Network analysis
  • Economic Sociology
  • Organisation ecology (or demography of organisations)
  • Transaction cost economics
  • Agency theory (sometimes called principal - agent theory)
  • Studies of organisation culture
  • Postmodern organisation studies
  • Labour Process Theory
  • Critical Management Studies
  • Unicist Natural Organisation

The most prestigious scientific journals focused on the study of organisations include organisation, Organisation Studies, Admministrative Science Quarterly and Academy of Management Review.


"Organisation" can also be used to define how the different parts of computer hardware are linked in order to execute the many computational activities most efficiently.


Organisations that are legal entities: government, international organisation, non-governmental organisation, armed forces, corporation, partnership, charity, not-for-profit corporation, cooperative, university. For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... A corporation is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name AS (anonymous society) or something similar, depending on language (see below). ... In the common law, a partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which they have all invested. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck Charity is a term in Christian theology (one of the three theological virtues), meaning loving kindness towards others; it is held to be the ultimate perfection of the human spirit, because it is said to both... A Not-for-profit corporation is a corporation created by statute, government or judicial authority that does not issue stock. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


The study of organisations includes a focus on optimising [organisational structure]. According to management science, most human organisations fall roughly into four types: Management science, or MS, is the discipline of using mathematics, and other analytical methods, to help make better business decisions. ... Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu(extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Homo (genus). ...

Organisation studies also includes research efforts to inform the effective management of organisations, and addresses organisational culture, organisational learning and managing change as major factors affecting organisational effectiveness, beyond the basics of organisational structure. Geometric shape created by connecting a polygonal base to an apex An n-sided pyramid is a polyhedron formed by connecting an n-sided polygonal base and a point, called the apex, by n triangular faces (n≥3). ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros, sacred, and arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... ... Management (from Old French ménagement the art of conducting, directing, from Latin manu agere to lead by the hand) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). ... Organizational culture comprises the attitudes, values, beliefs, norms and customs of an organization. ... Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts. ... In organizational development (OD), specialists assist their clients in recognizing that the only constant is change and in acknowledging the critical role of managing change. ...

Contents


Pyramids or hierarchies

A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads leaders. This arrangement is often associated with bureaucracy. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principle (1969), a book that introduced the term hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence". A hierarchy (in Greek hieros, sacred, and arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people. ... In common usage, leadership generally refers to: the position or office of an authority figure, such as a President [1] a group of influential people, such as a union leadership [2] guidance or direction, as in the phrase the emperor is not providing much leadership capacity or ability to lead... Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science. ... Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which exposes the follies of its subject (for example, individuals, organizations, or states) to ridicule, often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ... The Peter Principle is a theory originated by Dr. Laurence J. Peter. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ...


An extremely rigid, in terms of responsibilities, type of organisation is exemplified by F├╝hrerprinzip. Adolf Hitler strongly emphasised the Führerprinzip The Führerprinzip   listen?, the German name for the leader principle, refers to a system with a hierarchy of leaders that resembles a military structure. ...


Committees or juries

These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group, perhaps by voting. The difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are usually assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries legal juries render decisions of guilt, liability and quantify damages; juries are also used in athletic contests, book awards and similar activities. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the middle ages juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus amongst local notables. This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice, then adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote (however correctness is defined). The problem is that if the average member is worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better! Staffing is crucial. Any election method conforming to the Condorcet criterion is known as a Condorcet method. ...


Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions. An aerial view of Parliament of India at New Delhi. ... Roberts Rules of Order is a book containing rules of order, intended to be adopted by a deliberative assembly as its parliamentary authority. ...


Staff organisation or cross-functional team

A staff helps an expert get all his work done. To this end, a "chief of staff" decides whether an assignment is routine or not. If it's routine, he assigns it to a staff member, who is a sort of junior expert. The chief of staff schedules the routine problems, and checks that they are completed. You may be looking for information on: Look up staff on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An expert is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of knowledge, technique, or skill whose judgment is accorded authority and status by the public or their peers. ... The term Chief of Staff can refer to: The White House Chief of Staff, the highest-ranking member of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ...


If a problem is not routine, the chief of staff notices. He passes it to the expert, who solves the problem, and educates the staff -- converting the problem into a routine problem.


In a "cross functional team," like an executive committee, the boss has to be a non-expert, because so many kinds of expertise are required.


Matrix organisation

This organisational type assigns each worker to two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field. The other direction is "executive" and tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by regions, customer types, or some other schema.


See matrix management. Matrix Management is a type of management used by some large organizations. ...


Ecologies

This organisation has intense competition. Bad parts of the organisation starve. Good ones get more work. Everybody is paid for what they actually do, and runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... Profit is a positive return made on an investment by an individual or by business operations. ...


Companies who utilise this organisation type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology. It is also the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not in general compete with one another in any way, but are very autonomous. (Ecology is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for the natural environment. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a naturally occurring assemblage of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms—also referred to as a biotic community or biocoenosis) living together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a loose unit. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ...


The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organisation in this external article from The Guardian. A pharmaceutical company (or drug company) is a company licensed to discover, develop, market and distribute drugs. ... GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) plc is a pharmaceutical, biologicals, and healthcare company. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


"Chaordic" organisations

The chaordic model of organising human endeavours emerged in the [1990]s, based on a blending of chaos and order (hence "chaordic"), comes out of the work of Dee Hock and the creation of the VISA financial network. Blending democracy, complex system, consensus decision making, co-operation and competition, the chaordic approach attempts to encourage organisations to evolve from the increasingly nonviable hierarchical, command-and-control models. Chaos derives from the Greek Χαος and typically refers to unpredictability. ... Order is the opposite of anarchy and chaos. ... Many natural phenomena may be called Complex systems, and Complexity science is highly interdisciplinary. ... Consensus decision-making is a decision process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also to resolve or mitigate the objections of the minority to achieve the most agreeable decision. ... Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ...


Similarly, see Emergent organisations, and the principle of self-organisation. See also group entity for an anarchist perspective on human organisations. The term emergent organizations (alternatively emergent organisations) first appeared in the late 1990s and was the topic of the Seventh Annual Washington Evolutionary Systems Conference at University of Ghent, Belgium in May, 1999. ... Self-organization refers to a process in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases automatically without being guided or managed by an outside source. ... In anarchist discourse, a group-entity is usually distinguished from an individual hominid, or animal groups from a single living being of any sexual species. ... Anarchism derives from the Greek αναρχία (without archons (rulers)). Thus anarchism, in its most general meaning, is the belief that rulership is unnecessary and should be abolished. ...


See also

An affinity group is a small group of activists (usually from 5-20) who work together on direct action. ... Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science. ... A charitable trust (or charity) is a trust organized to serve private or public charitable purposes. ... A collective is a group of people who share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. ... ... A fraternal organization is an organization that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ... While the terms fraternity and sorority may be used to describe any number of social and charitable organizations, including the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, International, and the Shriners, in the United States and Canada fraternities and sororities are most commonly known as social organizations of higher education students (though... An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... Meetings are sometimes held around conference tables. ... A mutual organization (or society) is a cooperative organization (which is often, but not always, a company or business) based on the principle of mutuality. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not part of a government and was not founded by states. ... The open source movement is an offshoot of the free software movement that advocates open-source software as an alternative label for free software, primarily on pragmatic rather than philosophical grounds. ... ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... A Pacifist organisation promotes the pacifist principles of standing against war and aggression. ... A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Service club is a type of voluntary organization where members meet regularly for social outings and to perform charitable works either by direct hands-on efforts or by raising money for other organisations. ... A Service club is a type of voluntary organization where members meet regularly for social outings and to perform charitable works either by direct hands-on efforts or by raising money for other organisations. ... ... In business a virtual organization is a firm that outsources the majority of its functions; see virtual corporation. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ...

Related lists

This is a list of environmental organizations, organizations that preserve or monitor the environment in different ways. ... This is a list of trade unions and union federations by country. ... International General Civitan Jaycees (Junior Chamber of Commerce) Kiwanis Lions Clubs International Optimist International Red Cross Rotary International Ruritan Samaritans Woodsmen of the World Masonry Freemasonry Scottish Rite York Rite Shriners Masonic Youth Organizations Fraternal Forestry Ancient Order of Foresters Ancient Order of United Workmen Independent Order of Foresters Australia... This page is a list of lists of organizations and a list of otherwise unclassified organizations. ...

References

  • Organisations by Richard Scott: ISBN 0132663546
  • Organisations and Institutions by Richard Scott
  • Understanding organisations by Charles Handy.
  • The Peter Principle, Dr. Laurence J. Peter and Raymond Hull, Pan Books 1970 ISBN 0-330-02519-8
  • The Nature of the Firm by Ronald Coase.

Ronald Coase (born December 29, 1910) is a British economist. ... Ronald Coase (born December 29, 1910) is a British economist. ...

External links

  • Website of Global Dharma Center, a not-for-profit organisation offering (free) training modules, research papers, workshop exercises etc on Culture Development and Individual/Organisation Transformation

  Results from FactBites:
 
INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE - ORGANISATION (229 words)
The Olympic Movement includes the International Olympic Committee (IOC), Organising Committees of the Olympic Games (OCOGs), the National Olympic Committees (NOCs), the International Federations (IFs), the national associations, clubs and, of course, the athletes.
Find out more about the role of sponsors in the organisation of the Olympic Movement.
The National Olympic Committees (NOCs) propagate the fundamental principles of Olympism at a national level within the framework of sports activity.
Internal Organisation (1220 words)
Organisation is a discipline of action, but for Auroville we aspire to go beyond arbitrary and artificial organisation.
An organisation is needed for the work to be done - but the organisation itself must remain flexible and plastic in order to progress continually and to modify itself according to the need.
Meetings on internal organisational structures, on the way meetings should be held, and on the way working groups should be appointed and hold office, and their powers, have been always occurring in Auroville and still occur with great regularity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m